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beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week,1 which in Scripture is called the Lord's day,' and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath.'
VIII. This Sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe an holy rest all the day from their own works, words, and thoughts, about their worldly employments and recreations ;* but also are taken np the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.'
L A lawful oath is a part of religious worship,'wherein, upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth or promiseth; and to judge him according to the trnth or falsehood of what he sweareth.'
II. The name of God only is that
quidem ab orbe condito ad resurrcctionem usque Christi dies ultimus erat in septimana; deinde autem a Christi resurrectione in septimancc diem primum transferebatur;' qui quidem in Scriptura Dies Dominions 1 nuncupatur, estquc perpetuo ad finem mundi tanquam Sabbatum Christianum celebrandus.'
VIII. Tunc autem hoc Sabbatum Deo sancte celebratur, quum post corda rite prazparata, et compositas suas res mundanas, homines non solum a suis ipsorum operibus, dictis, cogitatis; (qua; circa illas exerceri solent) a rccreationibus etiam ludicris quietem sanctam toto observant dieverum etiam in exercitiis divini cultus publicis privatisquc, ac in qfficiis necessitatis et miscricordia; toto illo tempore occupantur.^
I. Juramentum licitum est pars cultus religiosi,' qua (occasione justa oblata) qui jurat, Deum, de eo quod asserit out promittit, solenni modo tcstatur; eundemque appellat se secundum illius quod jurat veritatem aut falsitatem judicaturum."
II. Per solum Dei nomcn jurare by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence;1 therefore to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred.' Yet as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the Word of God, under the New Testament, as well as under the Old,3 so a lawful oath, being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters ought to be taken.'
III. Whosoever taketh an oath ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth.' Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able aud resolved to perform.' Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority.7
IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of
debent homines, quod quidem cum omni timore sancto ac revercntia at inibi usurpandum.1 Proindeque per nomen illud gloriosum ac tremendum jurare kviter, out temere, vel ctiam omnino jurare per rem aliam quamviscunque, sceleratum est et quam maxime perhorrescendum.' Vcruntamen skid in rebus majoris ponderis et momenti secundum verbutn Dei licititm est jusjurandum non minus quidem sub Novo quam sub Yeterc Testamento:' ita sane jusjurandum Ikitum, authoritate legitime, si exigatur, non est in rebus ejusmodi declinandum.*
III. Quicunque juramcntum pr<tstat eum pondus aetionis tarn solennis rite secum perpendere oportei, atque juratum de nullo asseverare quod verum esse non hdbeat sibipersuasissimum.* Neque licet cuivis ad agendum quicquam obstringerc semet jurcjurando, nisi quod revera bonum justumque est, quod itte ejusmodi esse credit, quodgue ipse prvcstore potest statuitque.' Veruntainen de re bona justaque jusjurandum, legitima authoritate si exigatur, peccat Hie qui detrectaV
IV. Juramcntum prastandum est sensu verborum vulgari quidem ac the words, without equivocation or mental reservation.1 It can not oblige to sin; but in any thing not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, although to a man's own hurt:1 nor is it to be violated, although made to heretics or infidels.'
V. A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the like religious care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness.*
VI. It is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone:1 and that it may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for the' obtaining of what we want; whereby we more Btrictly bind ourselves to necessary duties, or to other things, so far and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto.7
VII. No man may vow to do any thing forbidden in the Word of God, or what would hinder any duty therein commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance whereof he hath no prom
manifesto, sine cequivocatione aut reservatione mentali quaviscunque.1 Ad peccandum quenquam obligare nequit, verum in re qualibet cui abest peccatum, qui semel Mud prwstitit, adimplere tenetur, vel etiam cum damnosuo;* neque sane licet, quamvis hcereticis datum aut infidelibus, violare.'
V. Votum, naturm consimilis est cum juramento promissorio, parique debet turn religione nuncupari turn fide persolvi*
VI. Non est ulli creaturm, sed Deo soli nuncupandum," et quo gratum Mi esse possit acceptumque, est quidem lubenter, e fide, officiique nostri conscientia suscipiendum, vel gratitudinis nostroz ob accepta beneficia testandw causa, vel boni alicujus, quo indigemus, consequendi; per hoc autem nosmet ad officia necessaria arctius obligamus; vel etiam ad res alias quatenus quidem et quamdiu istis subserviunV
VII. Nemini qukquam vovere licet se acturum, quodraut verbo Dei prohibetur; aut officium aliquod inibi prwceptum impediret, quodve non est in voventis potestate, et cui prasstando vires UK Deus non est polliise or ability from God.1 In which respect,' popish monastical vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.'
I. God, the Supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under him, over the people, for his own glory and the public good, and to this end hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defense and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil-doers.4
IL It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate when called thereunto; * in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth," so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and necessary occasion.'*8
citus.1 Unde Pontificiorum ilia de perpetuo ccelibatu, de paupertate, deque obedientia regulari vota Monastica, tantum abest ut perfectionis gradus sint sublimiores, ut superstitionis plane sint ac peccati laquei, quibus nulli unquam Christiano semetipsum licet implkare'
De Magistrate Civili.
I. Supremus totius Mundi Bex ac Dominus Dens, Magistratus Civiles ordinavit qui vices ejus gerant supra populum ad suam ipsius gloriam, ac bonum publicum; in quern fincm eosdem armavit potestate gladii, propter bonorum quidcm animationem ac tutamen, anitnadversionem autem in maleficos*
II. Christianis, quotics ad id v$cantur, Magistratus miinus el suscipere licet et exequi;' in quo quidem gerendo, ut pietatem praxipue, justitiam, ac pacem secundum salubres cujusque Reipublicw leges tueri dcbent,' ita quo ilium finem consequantur, licitum est its vd hodie sub Novo Testamento in causis justis ac necessariis beUum gerere.1
III. The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the Word and Sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven:1 yet he hath authority, and it is his duty to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the Church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed.' For the better effecting whereof he hath power to call synods, to be present at them, and to provide that whatsoever is transacted iu them be according to the mind of God.'
III. Magistratui Civili verbi et sacramentorum administrationem, aut eluvium regni ccelorum potestatem assiimere sibi non est licitum:1 nihilo tamen minus et jure potest ille, eique incumbit providere ut Ecclesice unitas ac tranquillitas conservetur, ut Veritas Dei pur a et integra custodiatur, ut supprimantur blasplwmuv omnes, hazresesque, ut in cultu ac disciplina omnes corruptelce ac abusus aut prcecaveantur aut reformentur, omnia denique instituta divina, ut rite statuminentur, administretitur, observentur.' Qua; omnia quo melius prozstare possit, potestatem habet turn Synodos convocandi, turn ut ipsis intersit, prospiciatque, ut qukquid in Us transigatur sit menti divina; consentaneum.'
The above section is changed in the American revision, and adapted to the separation of Church and State, as follows:
[III. Civil magistrates may not assume to themselves the administration of the Word and Sacraments (2 Chron. xxvi. 18); or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven (Matt. xvi. 19; 1 Cor. iv. 1,2); or, in the least, interfere in matters of faith (John xviii. 36; Mai. ii. 7; Acts v. 29). Yet as nursing fathers, it is the duty of. civil magistrates to protect the Church of our common Lord, without giving the preference to any denomination of Christians above the rest, in such a manner that all ecclesiastical persons whatever