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evanescit in electus, aut finaliter guished, falleth not away; it vanaut totaliter.

isheth not away in the elect, either

finally or totally. 6. Homo vere fidelis, id est, fide 6. A man truly faithful, that is, justificante præditus, .certus est such a one who is endued with a plerophoria fidei, de remissione justifying faith, is certain, with the peccatorum suorum, et salute full assurance of faith, of the resempiterna sua per Christum. mission of his sins and of his ever

lasting salvation by Christ. 7. Gratia salutaris non tribui 7. Saving grace is not given, is tur, non communicatur, non con- not granted, is not communicated ceditur universis hominibus, qua to all men, by which they may be servari possint, si voluerint. saved if they will.

8. Nemo potest venire ad Chri 8. No man can come unto Christ stum, nisi datum ei fuerit, et nisi unless it shall be given unto him, Pater eum traxerit. Et omnes and unless the Father shall draw homines non trahuntur a Patre, him; and all men are not drawn ut veniant ad Filium.

by the Father, that they may come

to the Son. 9. Non est positum in arbitrio

9. It is not in the will or power aut potestate uniuscuiusque ho- of every one to be saved. minis servari.


It is interesting to compare with these Lambeth Articles the brief and clear statement of Calvin's doctrine of predestination, which was discovered by the Strasburg editors in an autograph of Calvin, without date, in the Library of Geneva (Cod. 145, fol. 100), and published in Opera, Vol. IX. p. 713, as follows:


Ante creatum primum hominem statuerat Deus æterno consilio quid de toto genere humano fieri vellet.

'Hoc arcano Dei consilio factum est ut Adam ab integro naturæ suæ statu deficeret ac sua defectione traheret omnes suos posteros in reatum æternæ mortis.

Ab hoc eodem decreto pendet discrimen inter electos et reprobos ; quia alios sibi adoptavit in salutem, alios æterno exitio destinavit.

* Tametsi justæ Dei vindictæ vasa sunt reprobi, rursum electi vasa misericordiæ, causa tamen discriminis non alia in Deo quærenda est quam mera ejus voluntas, quæ summa est justitiæ regula.

* Tametsi electi fide percipiunt adoptionis gratiam, non tamen pendet electio a fide, sed tempore et ordine prior est.

14. The canse moving God to predestinate unto life is not the foreseeing of faith, or perseverance, or good works, or of any thing which is in the person predestinated, but only the good pleasure of God himself. For all things being ordained for the manifestation of his glory, and his glory being to appear both in the works of his mercy and of his justice, it seemed good to his heavenly wisdom to choose out a certain number towards whom he would extend his undeserved mercy, leaving the rest to be spectacles of his justice.

15. Such as are predestinated unto life, be called according unto God's purpose his spirit working in due season), and through grace they obey the calling, they be justified freely; they be made sons of God by adoption; they be made like the image of his only-begotten Son Jesus Christ; they walk religiously in good works; and at length, by God's mercy, they attain to everlasting felicity. Bnt such as are not predestinated to salvation shall finally be condemned for their sins.?

16. The godlike consideration of predestination and our election in Christ is full of sweet, pleasant, and unspeakable comfort to godly persons, and such as feel in themselves the working of the spirit of Christ, mortifying the works of the flesh and their earthly members, and drawing up their minds to high and heavenly things: as well because it doth greatly confirm and establish their faith of eternal salvation, to be enjoyed through Christ, as because it doth fervently kindle their love towards God; and, on the contrary side, for curious and carnal persons lacking the spirit of Christ to have continually before their eyes

the sentence of God's predestination is very dangerous. 17. We must receive God's promises in such wise as they be generally set forth unto us in holy Scripture; and in our doings that will of God is to be followed which we have expressly declared unto us in the Word of God.

OF THE CREATION AND GOVERNMENT, OF ALL THINGS. 18. In the beginning of time, when no creature had any being, God, by his word alone, in the space of six days, created all things, and afterwards, by his providence, doth continue, propagate, and order them according to his own will.

Lambeth Articles, ii.

; Ibid. iv.


[The Irish Articles—probably composed by the learned Archbishop James Ussher (then Professor of Divinity in Dublin), and adopted by the Archbishops, Bishops, and Convocation of the Irish Episcopal Church, and approved by the Viceroy in 1616, four years before the Synod of Dort-although practically soperseded by the Thirty-nine Articles, are important as a testimony of the prevailing Calvinism of the leading divines in that Church, which had previously been expressed also in the nine Lambeth Articles. They are still more important as the connecting link between the Thirty-nine Articles and the Westminster Confession, and as the chief source of the latter. The agreement of the two formularies in the order of subjects, the headings of chapters, and in many single phrases, as well as in spirit and sentiment, is very striking. See the comparison in Dr. Alex. F. Mitchell's Minutes of the Westminster As. sembly of Divines, Edinb. 1874, Introd. pp. xlvi. sqq. On the history and authority of the Irish Articles see Hardwick’s History of the Articles of Religion, 2d ed. pp. 181 sqq.

The text is taken from the original edition of 1616, as appended to Dr. Elrington's Life of Archbishop Ussher (in Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Dublin, 1847, Vol. I. Appendix IV.), and reprinted in Hard. wick's History, Append. Sixth, pp. 351 sqq. He added a few references to the Lambeth Articles. The spelling is here modernized.)

ARTICLES OF RELIGION, Agreed upon by the Archbishops and Bishops, and the rest of the

Clergy of Ireland, in the Convocation holden at Dublin in the Year of our Lord God 1615, for the Avoiding of Diversities of Opinions, and the Establishing of Consent touching True Religion.


1. The ground of our religion and the rule of faith and all saving truth is the Word of God, contained in the holy Scripture.

2. By the name of holy Scripture we understand all the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, viz.:

Of the Old Testament. The Five Books of Moses.

Job. Joshua.

Psalms. Judges.

Proverbs. Ruth.

Ecclesiastes. . The First and Second of Samuel.

The Song of Solomon. The First and Second of Kings.

Isaiah. The First and Second of Chronicles. Jeremiah, his Prophecy and Lamentation. Ezra.

Ezekiel. Nehemiah,

Daniel. Esther.

The Twelve lesser Prophets.

The Gospels according to

Of the New Testament.

The Acts of the Apostles.

his Spirit are not pleasing unto God, forasmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the School Authors say) deserve grace of congruity: yea, rather, for that they are not done in such sort as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not but they are sinful.

27. All sins are not equal, but some far more heinous than others; yet the very least is of its own nature mortal, and, without God's mercy, maketh the offender liable unto everlasting damnation.

28. God is not the author of sin: howbeit, he doth not only permit, but also by his providence govern and order the same, guiding it in such soft by his infinite wisdom as it turneth to the manifestation of his own glory and to the good of his elect.

OF CHRIST, THE MEDIATOR OF THE SECOND COVENANT. 29. The Son, which is the Word of the Father, begotten from everlasting of the Father, the true and eternal God-of one substance with the Father-took man's nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin, of her substance, so that two whole and perfect natures—that is to say, the Godhead and manhood--were inseparably joined in one person, making one Christ very God and very man.

30. Christ, in the truth of our nature, was made like unto us in all things—sin only excepted-from which he was clearly void, both in his life and in his nature. He came as a lamb without spot to take away the sins of the world, by the sacrifice of himself once made, and sin (as St. John saith) was not in him. He fulfilled the law for us perfectly: For our sakes he endured most grievous torments immediately in his sonl, and most painful sufferings in his body. He was crucified, and died to reconcile his Father unto us, and to be a sacrifice not only for original guilt, but also for all our actual transgressions. He was buried, and descended into hell, and the third day rose from the dead, and took again his body, with flesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of man's nature: wherewith he ascended into Heaven, and there sitteth at the right hand of his Father, until he return to judge all men at the last day.


31. They are to be condemned that presume to say that every man

shall be saved by the law or sect which he professeth, so that he be diligent to frame his life according to that law and the light of nature. For holy Scripture doth set out unto us only the name of Jesus Christ whereby men must be saved.

32. None can come unto Christ unless it be given unto him, and unless the Father draw him. And all men are not so drawn by the Father that they may come unto the Son. Neither is there such a sufficient measure of grace vouchsafed unto every man whereby he is enabled to come unto everlasting life.'

33. All God's elect are in their time inseparably united unto Christ by the effectual and vital influence of the Holy Ghost, derived from him as from the head unto every true member of his mystical body. And being thus made one with Christ, they are truly regenerated, and made partakers of hinn and all his benefits.

OF JUSTIFICATION AND FAITH. 34. We are accounted righteous before God only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, applied by faith, and not for our own works or merits. And this righteousness, which we so receive of God's mercy and Christ's merits, embraced by faith, is taken, accepted, and allowed of God, for our perfect and full justification:

35. Although this justification be free unto us, yet it cometh not 80 freely unto us that there is no ransom paid therefore at all. God showed his great mercy in delivering is from our former captivity without requiring of any ransom to be paid or amends to be made on our parts; which thing by us had been impossible to be done. And whereas all the world was not able of theinselves to pay any part towards their ransom, it pleased our heavenly Father of his infinite mercy, without any desert of ours, to provide for us the most precious merits of his own Son, whereby our ransom might be fully paid, the law fulfilled, and his justice fully satisfied. So that Christ is now the righteousness of all them that truly believe in him. He, for them, paid their ransom by his death. He, for them, fulfilled the law in his life; that now, in him, and by him, every true Christian man may be called a fulfiller of the law: forasmuch as that which our infirmity

· Lambeth Articles, vii., viii., ix.

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