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scandalum faciant.' Et æquitate brethren or sisters.? Yea, even the quadam utuntur ipsi Canones Canons show some kind of justice erga hos, qui ante justam æta- towards such as before their ripe tem voverunt, quomodo fere hac- years did vow chastity, as hitherto tenus fieri consuevit.

the use hath for the most part been.

in

ART. III.-De Missa,"

Art. III.- Of the Mass.' Falso accusantur Ecclesiae no Our churches are wrongfully acstre, quod Missam aboleant ; re-cused to have abolished the Mass. tinetur enim Missa apud nos, et For the Mass is retained still among Summa reverentia celebratur. Ser us, and celebrated with great revvantur et usitatæ ceremonic fere erence; yea, and almost all the omnes, præterquam quod Latinis ceremonies that are in use, saving cantionibus [neben lateinischem that with the things sung in Latin Gesang) admiscentur alicubi Ger- we mingle certain things sung manicæ, quie additæ sunt ad do- German at various parts of the sercendum populum. Nam ad hoc vice, which are added for the peounum opus est ceremoniis, ut do- ple's instruction. For therefore ceant imperitos.

alone we have need of ceremonies,

that they may teach the unlearned. Et non modo Paulus præcipit This is not only commanded by (1 Cor. xiv. 9) uti lingua intellecta St. Paul, to use a tongue that the peopopulo in ecclesia, sed etiam ita ple understand (1 Cor. xiv. 9), but constitutum est humano jure. As- man's law hath also appointed it. suevit populus, ut una utantur We accustom the people to receive Sacramento, si qui sunt idonei, the Sacrament together, if so be id quoque auget reverentiam ac any be found fit thereunto; and religionem publicarum ceremoni- that is a thing that doth increase arum. Nulli enim admittuntur, the reverence and due estimation nisi antea explorati. Admonen- of the public ceremonies. For none tur etiam homines de dignitate are admitted, except they be first et usu Sacramenti, quantam con- proved. Besides, we put men in

· The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula-missa or dismissa est ecclesia—by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began; hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium.

solationem afferat pavidis con- mind of the worthiness and use of scientiis, ut discant Deo credere, the Sacrament, how great comfort et omnia bona a Deo expectare it bringeth to timid consciences ; et petere.

that they may learn to believe God, and to look for and crave all good

things at his hands. Hic cultus delectat Deum, talis This worship doth please God; usus Sacramenti alit pietatem such a use of the Sacrament doth erga Deum. Itaque non viden- nourish piety towards God. Theretur apud adversarios Missce ma-fore it seemeth not that Masses be jore religione fieri, quam apud more religiously celebrated among No8.

our adversaries than with us. Constat autem hanc quoque But it is evident that of long publicam et longe maximam time this hath been the public and querelam omnium bonorum vi- most grievous complaint of all good rorum diu fuisse, quod Missc men, that Masses are basely proturpiter prophanarentur, collatæ faned, being used for gain. And ad quæstum. Neque enim obscu- it is not unknown how far this rum est, quam late pateat hic abuse hath spread itself in all abusus in omnibus templis, a churches; of what manner of men qualibus celebrentur. Missæ, tan- Masses are used, only for a reward, tum propter mercedem aut sti- or for

wages;
and how

many

do pendium, quam multi contra use them against the prohibition of interdictum Canonum celebrent. the Canons. But Paul doth grievPaulus autem graviter minatur ously threaten those who treat the his, qui indigne tractant Eucha- Lord's Supper unworthily, saying, ristiam, cum ait (1 Cor. xi. 27): 'He that eateth this bread or drink'Qui ederit panem hunc, aut bi-eth this cup of the Lord unworthiberit calicem Domini indigne, ly, shall be guilty of the body and reus erit corporis et sanguinis blood of the Lord' (1 Cor. xi. 27). Domini.? Itaque cum apud nos Therefore, when the priests among admonerentur Sacerdotes de hoc us were admonished of this sin, pripeccato, desierunt apud nos pri- vate Masses were laid aside among vatre Missc, cum fere nullæ pri- us, seeing that for the most part vato Missue nisi quæstus causa there were no private Masses but fierent. Neque ignoraverunt hos only for lucre's sake. Neither were

abusus episcopi, qui si corre- the bishops ignorant of these abuses, aissent eos in tempore, minus and if they had amended them in nunc esset dissensionum. Antea time, there had now been less of dissua dissimulatione multa vitia sensions. Heretofore, by their dispassi sunt in Ecclesiam serpere. sembling, they suffered much corNunc sero incipiunt queri de ruption to creep into the Church; calamitatibus Ecclesiæ, cum hic now they begin, thongh it be late, tumultus non aliunde sumpse- to complain of the calamities of the rit occasionem, quam ex

quam ex illis Church; seeing that this tumult was abusibus, qui tam manifesti raised up by no other mean than erant, ut tolerari amplius non by those abuses, which were so evipossent. Magnæ dissensiones de dent that they could no longer be Missa, de Sacramento extiterunt. tolerated. There were many disFortasse dat pænas orbis tam sensions, concerning the Mass, condiuturnæ prophanationis Missa- cerning the Sacrament. And perrum, quam in Ecclesiis tot se-haps the world is punished for so culis toleraverunt isti, qui emen- long a profaning of Masses, which dare et poterant et debebant. they, who both could and ought to Nam in Decalogo scriptum est have amended it, have so many (Exod. xx. 7): 'Qui Dei nomine years tolerated in the churches. abutitur, non erit impunitus. For in the Ten Commandments it At ab initio mundi nulla res is written, 'He that taketh in vain divina ita videtur unquam the name of the Lord shall not be ad quæstum collata fuisse, ut held guiltless' (Exod. xx. 7). And Missa.

from the begiuning of the world there neither was nor is any

divine thing which seems so to have been

employed for gain as the Mass. Accessit opinio, quæ auxit pri There was added an opinion, vatas Missas in infinitum, vide- which increased private Masses inlicet quod Christus sua passione finitely: to wit, that Christ by his satisfecerit pro peccato originis, passion did satisfy for original sin, et instituerit Missam, in qua and appointed the Mass, wherein fieret oblatio pro quotidianis de- an oblation should be made for lictis, mortalibus et venialibus. daily sins, both mortal and venial. Hinc manavit publica opinio, Herenpon a common opinion was

quod Missa sit opus delens pec-received, that the Mass is a work cuta vivorum et mortuorum ex that taketh away the sins of the opere operato. Hic cæptum est quick and the dead, and that for disputari, utrum una Missa, the doing of the work. Here men dicta pro pluribus, tantundem began to dispute whether one Mass valeat, quantum singulæ pro sin- said for many were of as great force gulis. Hæc disputatio peperit as particular Masses said for paristam infinitam multitudinem ticular men. This disputation hath Missarum. De his opinionibus brought forth that infinite multinostri admonuerunt, quod dis- tude of Masses. Our preachers sentiant a Scripturis Sanctis, et have admonished concerning these ledant gloriam passionis Christi. opinions that they do depart froin Nam passio Christi fuit obla- the holy Scriptures, and diminish tio et satisfactio, non solum pro the glory of the passion of Christ. culpa originis, sed etiam pro For the passion of Christ was an omnibus reliquis peccatis, ut ad oblation and satisfaction, not only Hebræos (x. 10) scriptum est : for original sin, but also for all oth

Sanctificati sumus per oblatio- er sins; as it is written in the Episnem Jesu Christi semel. Item tle to the Hebrews (x. 10): “We (Heb. x. 14): Una oblatione con- are sanctified by the oblation of sumavit in perpetuum sanctifi- Jesus Christ once made;' also, “ By catos.' Item, Scriptura docet, one oblation he hath perfected fornos coram Deo justificari per ever them that are sanctitied'(Heb.

fidem in Christum, cum credi- x. 14). The Scripture also teachmus, nobis remitti peccata pro-eth that we are justified before God pter Christum. Jam si Missa through faith in Christ, when we bedelet peccata vivorum et mortu- lieve that our sins are forgiven for orum ex opere operato, contin- Christ's sake. Now, if the Mass do git justificatio ex opere Missa- take away the sins of the quick and rum, non ex fide, quod Scriptu- the dead, even for the work's sake ra non patitur. Sed Christus that is done, then justification comjubet (Luke xxii. 19) "facere in eth by the work of Masses, and not sui memoriam,' quare Missa by faith; which the Scripture can instituta est, ut fides in iis, not endure. But Christ commandqui utuntur Sacramento, recor. eth us to do it in remembrance of detur, quæ beneficia accipiat per himself' (Luke xxii. 19), therefore

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Christum, et erigat et consoletur the Mass has been instituted that pavidam conscientiam. Nam id faith in them which use the Sacraest meminisse Christi, beneficialment may remember what benefits meminisse, ac sentire, quod vere it receiveth by Christ, and that it exhibeantur nobis. Nec satis est may raise and comfort the fearful historiam recordari, quia hanc conscience. For this is to remember etiam Judæi et impii recordari Christ, to wit, to remember his benpossunt. Est igitur ad hoc fa-, efits, and to feel and perceive that cienda Missa, ut ibi porrigatur they be indeed imparted unto us. Sacramentum his, quibus opus Nor is it sufficient to call to mind est consolatione, sicut Ambrosius the history; because that the Jews ait: 'Quia semper pecco, semper also and the wicked can do. Theredebeo accipere medicinam.? fore the Mass must be used to this end,

that there the Sacrament may be reached unto them that have need of comfort; as Ambrose saith, Because I do always sin, therefore I ought

always to receive the medicine.' Cum autem Missa sit talis con And seeing that the Mass is such municatio Sacramenti, servatur a communion of the Sacrament, apud nos una communis Missa we do observe one common Mass singulis feriis atque aliis etiam every holy day, and on other days, diebus, si qui Sacramento velint if any will use the Sacrament, at uti, ubi porrigitur Sacramentum which times it is offered to them his, qui petunt. Neque hic mos that desire it. Neither is this cusin Ecclesia novus est, nam vete- tom newly brought into the Church. res ante Gregorium non faciunt For the ancients, before Gregory's mentionem privato Missæ ; de time, make no mention of any pricomuni Missa plurimum loquun- vate Mass; of the common Mass tur. Chrysostomus ait : "Sacer- they speak much. Chrysostom saith dotem quotidie stare ad altare, that the priest doth daily stand at et alios ad communionem accer- the altar, and call some unto the sere, alios arcere.' Et ex Cano- Communion, and put back others.' nibus veteribus apparet, unum And by the ancient Canons it is aliquem celebrasse Missam, a quo evident that some one did celebrate reliqui presbyteri et diaconi the Mass, of whom the other elders

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