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8cribunt. Porro veritas ex vul- which these wicked and malicious gi rumoribus aut maledictis ini- men describe. The truth, moreover, micorum colligi non potest. Fa- can not be gathered from common cile autem hoc judicari potest, ni- rumors and the reproaches of enehil magis prodesse ad dignitatem mies. But it is easy to judge this, ceremoniarum conservandam et that nothing is more profitable to alendam reverentiam ac pietatem preserve the dignity of ceremonies in populo, quam si ceremonice and to nurture reverence and piety rite fiant in ecclesiis.

among the people than that the ceremonies should be rightly performed in the churches.

ART. I. -De Utraque Specie.' Art. I. ---Of both Kinds [in the Lord's Supper). Laicis datur utraque species

Both kinds of the Sacrainent in Sacramenti in Cona Domini, the Lord's Supper are given to the quia hic mos habet mandatum laity, because that this custom hath Domini (Matt. xxvi. 27): Bibite the commandment of the Lord : ex hoc omnes. Ubi manifeste Drink ye all of this' (Matt. xxvi. præcepit Christus de poculo, ut 27); where Christ doth manifestly omnes bibant ; et ne quis possit command concerning the сир

that cavillari, quod hoc ad sacerdotes all should drink. And that no man tantum pertineat, Paulus ad Co- might cavil that this doth only perrinth. (1 Cor. xi. 26) exemplum tain to the priests, the example of recitat, in quo apparet, totam Paul to the Corinthians witnesseth Ecclesiam utraque specie usam that the whole Church did use both esse. Et diu mansit hic mos in kinds in common (1 Cor. xi. 28). Ecclesia, nec constat, quando aut And this custom remained a long quo autore mutatus sit; tametsi time in the Church; neither is it cerCardinalis Cusanus recitet, quan- tain when or by what authority it was do sit approbatus.? [Und die- changed; although the Cardinal de ser Brauch ist lange Zeit in der Cusa relates when it was approved. Kirchen blieben, wie man durch | [And this custom remained a long

* In the edition of 1540 Melanchthon changed the order of the articles, and put the Art. De Missa first.

• The German edition omits the reference to Cardinal Nicolas de Cusa (d. 1464), but adds the clause which follows.

non

die Historien und der Väter time in the churches, as may be Schriften beweisen kann). Cypri- proved from history and the writanus aliquot locis testatur, popu- ings of the Fathers.] Cyprian in lo sanguinem datum esse. Idem certain places doth witness that the testatur Hieronymus, qui ait, blood was given to the people; the sacerdotes Eucharistice mini- same thing doth Jeroine testify, saystrant, et sanguinem Christi po- ing, “ The priests do minister the Eupulis dividunt. Imo. Gelasius charist, and cominunicate the blood Papa mandat, ne dividatur Sa- of Christ to the people. Nay, Pope cramentum (Dist. II. de Con- Gelasius commandeth that the Sacsecratione. Cap. Comperimus). rament be not divided (Dist. II., De Tantum consuetudo ita Consecr. Cap. Comperimus). Only vetus aliud habet. Constat au- a custom, not thus ancient, doth tem, quod consuetudo, contra otherwise. But it is manifest that mandata Dei introducta, non sit a custom, brought in contrary to probanda, ut testantur Canones the commandments of God, is not (Dist. VIII. Cap. Veritate) cum to be approved, as the Canons do sequentibus. Hæc vero consue- witness (Dist.VIII., Cap. Veritate) tudo non solum contra Scriptu- with the words which follow. Now ram, sed etiam contra veteres this custom has been received, not Canones et exemplum Ecclesiæ only against the Scripture, but also recepta est. Quare si qui ma- against the ancient Canons and the luerunt ' utraque specie Sacra- example of the Church. Therefore menti uti, non fuerunt cogendi, if any would rather use both kinds ut aliter facerent cum offensione in the Sacrament, they are not to be conscientiæ. Et quia divisio Sa- compelled to do otherwise with the cramenti non convenit cum in- offense of their conscience. And stitutione Christi, solet apud nos because that the division of the omitti processio, quos hactenus Sacrament doth not agree with the fieri solita est.

institution of Christ, among us it is the custom to omit that procession which hitherto hath been in nise.

ART. II. De Conjugio Sacerdotum. Art. II.- Of the Marriage of Priests. Publica querela fuit de exem There was a common complaint plis Sacerdotum, qui non con- of the examples of such priests as

tinebant. Quam ob causam et were not continent. For which Pius Papa dixisse fertur, fu- cause Pope Pius is reported to have isse aliquas causas, cur ademp- said, that there were certain causes tum sit sacerdotibus conjugium, for which marriage was forbidden sed multo majores esse causas, to priests, but there were many cur reddi debeat; sic enim scri- weightier causes why it should be bit Platina. Cum igitur sa- permitted again;' for so Platina cerdotes apud nos publica illa writeth. Whereas, therefore, the scandala vitare vellent, duxe- priests among us seek to avoid these runt uxores, ac docuerunt, quod public offenses, they have married liceat ipsis contrahere matrimo- wives, and have taught that it is lawnium. Primum, quia Paulus ful for them to enter into marriage. dicit (1 Cor. vii. 2): Unusquis- First, because that Paul saith,' To que habeat uxorem suam propter avoid fornication, let every man

fornicationem. Item (9): Melius hare his wife;' again, 'It is better est nubere, quam uri. Secundo, to marry than to burn' (1 Cor. vii. Christus inquit (Matt. xix. 12): 2, 9). Secondly, Christ saith, ‘All Non omnes capiunt verbum hoc; men can not receive this word? ubi docet, non omnes homines ad (Matt. xix. 11); where he showeth cælibatum idoneos esse, quia Deus that all men are not fit for a single creavit hominem ad procreatio- life, because that God created mannem (Gen. i. 28). Nec est huma- kind male and female (Gen. i. 28). potestatis, sine singulari dono Nor is it in man's power, withont a et opere Dei creationem mutare. special gift and work of God, to Igitur qui non sunt idonei ad alter his creation. Therefore snch cælibatum, debent contrahere ma- as are not meet for a single life trimonium. Nam mandatum Dei ought to contract marriage. For et ordinationem Dei nulla lex no law of man, no vow, can take humana, nullum votum tollere away the commandment of God

potest. Ex his causis docent Sa- and his ordinance. By these reacerdotes, sibi licere uxores du- sons the priests do prove that they

Constat etiam, in Eccle- may lawfully take wives. And it sia veteri Sacerdotes fuisse ma- is well known that in the ancient ritos. Nam et Paulus ait (1 Tim. churches priests were married. For iii. 2), Episcopum eligendum esse, Paul saith, “That a bishop must be qui sit maritus. Et in Germa- chosen which is a husband' (1 Tim.

cere.

nia primum ante annos quad-| iii. 2). And in Germany, not until ringentos Sacerdotes vi coacti about four hundred years ago, were sunt ad cælibatum, qui quidem the priests by violence compelled adeo adversati sunt, ut Archie- to live a single life; who then were piscopus Moguntinus, publicatu- so wholly bent against the matter, rus edictum Rom. Pontificis de that the Archbishop of Mentz, beea re, pene ab iratis Sacerdoti- ing about to publish the Pope of bus per tumultum oppressus sit. Rome's decree to that effect, was Et res gesta est tam incivili- almost murdered in a tumult by ter, ut non solum in posterum the priests in their anger.

And conjugia prohiberentur, sed etiam the matter was handled so rudely, præsentia, contra omnia jura di- that not only were marriages forvina et humana, contra ip808 bidden for the time to come, but etiam Canones, factos non solum also such as were then contracted a Pontificibus, sed a laudatissi- were broken asunder, contrary to mis Synodis, distraherentur. Et all laws divine and human, concum senescente mundo paulatim trary to the Canons themselves, that natura humana fiat imbecillior, were before made not only by Popes, convenit prospicere, ne plura vi- but also by most famous Councils. tia serpant in Germaniam. Por- And seeing that, as the world dero Deus instituit conjugium, ut cayeth, man's nature by little and esset remedium humanæ infirmi- little waxeth weaker, it is well to tutis. Ipsi Canones veterem ri- look to it, that no more vices do gorem interdum posterioribus overspread Germany.

Furthertemporibus propter imbecillita- more, God ordained marriage to tem hominum laxandum esse di- be a remedy for man's infirmity. cunt, quod optandum est, ut fiat The Canons themselves do say that et in hoc negotio. Ac videntur the old rigor is now and then in ecclesiis aliquando defuturi pas- latter times to be released because tores, si diutius prohibeatur con- of the weakness of men. Which it jugium.

were to be wished might be done in this matter also. And if marriage be forbidden any longer, the church

es may at length want pastors. Cum autem estet mandatum Seeing, then, that there is a plain Dei, cum mos Ecclesia notus commandment of God; seeing the

sit, cum impurus coelibatus plu- use of the Church is well known; rima pariat scandala, adulte- seeing that impure single life bringria et alia scelera, digna ani- eth forth very many offenses, adulmadversione boni magistratus : teries, and other enormities worthy tamen mirum est, nulla in re to be punished by the godly magismajorem exerceri sævitiam, quam trate, it is a marvel that greater adversus conjugium Sacerdotum. cruelty should be showed in no Deus præcepit honore afficere con- other thing than against the marjugium. Leges in omnibus re- riage of priests. God hath combus publicis bene constitutis, manded to honor marriage; the etiam apud Ethnicos, maximis laws in all well-ordered commonhonoribus ornaverunt. At nunc wealths, even among the heathen, capitalibus pænis excruciantur, have adorned marriage with very et quidem Sacerdotes, contra Ca- great honors. But now men are crunonum voluntatem, nullam aliam elly put to death, yea, and priests ob causam, nisi propter conju- also, contrary to the mind of the gium. Paulus vocat doctrinam Canons, for no other cause but mardæmoniorum, quæ prohibet con- riage. Paul calleth that 'a doc. jugium (1 Tim. iv. 1, 3). Id fa- trine of devils' which forbiddeth cile nunc intelligi potest, cum marriage (1 Tim. iv. 1, 3); which talibus suppliciis prohibitio con- may now very well be seen, since jugii defenditur.

the forbidding of marriage is main

tained by such punishments. Sicut autem nulla lex hu But as no law of man can take mana potest mandatum Dei tol- away the law of God, no more can lere, ita nec votum potest tol- any vow whatsoever. Therefore lere mandatum Dei. Proinde Cyprian also giveth counsel, that etiam Cyprianus suadet, ut mu- those women should marry who do lieres nubant, quæ non servant not keep their vowed chastity, His promissam castitatem. Verba words are these, in the 1st Book, the ejus sunt hoc, Lib. I., Epistola ad Epistle: 'If they will not or are XI.: Si autem perseverare no- not able to endure, it is far better lunt, aut non possunt, melius they should marry than that they est, ut nubant, quam ut in shonld fall into the fire by their ignem deliciis suis cadant; certe importunate desires. In any wise nullum fratribus aut sororibus let them give no offense to their

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