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aut certe peragere : sed tantum | begin or to perform any thing in in operibus vitae præsentis tam matters pertaining to God, but only bonis, quam etiam malis. Bonis in works belonging to this present dico, que de bono naturce oriun- life, whether they be good or evil, tur, i. e., velle laborare in agro, By good works, I mean those which velle manducare et bibere, velle are of the goodness of nature; as habere amicum, velle habere in- to will to labor in the field, to dedumenta, velle fabricare domum, sire meat or drink, to desire to have uxorem velle ducere, pecora nu- a friend, to desire apparel, to desire trire, artem discere diversarum to build a house, to marry a wife, rerum bonarum, vel quicquid bo- to nourish cattle, to learn the art num ad præsentem pertinet vi- of divers good things, to desire any tam. Quo omnia non sine di- good thing pertaining to this presvino gubernaculo subsistunt, imo ent life; all which are not without ex ipso et per ipsum sunt et esse God's government, yea, they are, ceperunt. Malis vero dico, ut and had their beginning from God est, velle idolum colere, velle ho- and by God. Among evil things, micidium, etc.

I account such as these: to will to worship an image; to will man

slaughter, and such like.' Damnant Pelagianos et alios, They condemn the Pelagians and qui docent, quod sine Spiritu others, who teach that by the powSancto, solis naturæ viribus pos- ers of nature alone, without the simus Deum super omnia dili- Spirit of God, we are able to love gere; item præcepta Dei facere, God above all things; also to perquoad substantiam actuum. Quan- form the commandments of God, quam enim externa opera aliquo as touching the substance of our modo efficere natura possit, po- actions. For although nature be test enim continere manus a fur- able in some sort to do the exterto, a cede : tamen interiores mo- nal works (for it is able to withtus non potest efficere, ut timo- hold the hands from theft and murrem Dei, fiduciam erga Deum, der), yet it can not work the incastitatem, patientiam, etc.? ward motions, such as the fear of

God, trust in God, chastity, patience, and such like.

i The wording of this article is considerably changed in the edition of 1540.

ART. XIX.-De Causa Peccati.

ART. XIX. - Of the Cause of Sin. De causa peccati docent, quod Touching the cause of sin, they tametsi Deus creat et conservat teach that, although God doth crenaturam, tamen causa peccati est ate and preserve nature, yet the voluntas malorum; videlicet di- cause of sin is the will of the wickaboli et impiorum, quæ non adju- ed; to wit, of the devil and ungodvante Deo avertit se a Deo, sicut ly men; which will, God inot aiding, Christus ait (John viii. 44): Cum turneth itself from God, as Christ loquitur mendacium, ex se ipso saith: "When he speaketh a 'lie, he loquitur.

speaketh of his own' (John viii. 44).

1

Art. XX.-De Bonis Operibus.'

ART. XX. Of Good Works. Falso accusantur nostri, quod Ours are falsely accused of forbona opera prohibeant. Nam bidding good works. For their scripta eorum, quae extant de de- writings extant upon the Ten Comcem præceptis, et alia simili ar- mandments, and others of the like gumento testantur, quod utiliter argunent, do bear witness that they docuerint de omnibus vito gener have to good purpose taught conribus et officiis, quos genera vitæ, cerning every kind of life, and its quæ opera in qualibet vocatione duties; what kinds of life, and what Deo placeant. De quibus rebus works in every calling, do please olim parum docebant Conciona- God. Of which things preachers tores, tantum puerilia et non ne in former times taught little or cessaria opera urgebant, ut certas nothing: only they urged certain ferias, certa jejunia, fraternitates, childish and needless works; as, peregrinationes, cultus Sancto- keeping of holidays, set fasts, frarum, rosaria, monachatum et si- ternities, pilgrimages, worshiping milia. Hæc adversarii nostri of saints, the use of rosaries, monkadmoniti nunc dediscunt, nec pe- ery, and such like things. Whereof rinde prædicant' hæc inutilia our adversaries having had warnopera, ut olim. Preterea incipi- ing, they do now unlearn them, and unt fidei mentionem facere, de do not preach concerning these unqua olim mirum erat silentium. profitable works, as they were wont. Docent nos non tantum operibus Besides, they begin now to make justificari, sed conjungunt fidem mention of faith, concerning which ? This article is enlarged to more than double its original size in the altered edition of 1540.

et opera, et dicunt, nos fide et ope- there was formerly a deep silence. ribus justificari. Quce doctrina They teach that we are not justitolerabilior est priore, et plus fied by works alone; but they conafferre potest consolationis, quan join faith and works, and say we vetus ipsorum doctrina. are justified by faith and works.

Which doctrine is more tolerable than the former one, and can afford more consolation than their old doc

trine. Cum igitur doctrina de fide, Whereas, therefore, the doctrine quam oportet in Ecclesia præ- of faith, which should be the chief cipuam esse, tam diu jacuerit one in the Church, hath been so ignota, quemadmodum fateri om- long unknown, as all men must needs nes necesse est, de fidei justitia grant, that there was the deepest altissimum silentium fuisse in silence about the righteousness of concionibus, tantum doctrinam faith in their sermons, and that the operum versatam esse in eccle- doctrine of works was usual in the siis, nostri de fide sic admonue- churches; for this cause our divines runt ecclesias :

did thus adınonish the churches : Principio, quod opera nostra First, that our works can not recnon possint reconciliare Deum, oncile God, or deserve remission of aut mereri remissionem peccato- sins, grace, and justification at his rum et gratiam et justificatio- hands, but that these we obtain by nem, sed hanc tantum fide conse- faith only, when we believe that we quimur, credentes, quod propter are received into favor for Christ's Christum recipiamur in gra- sake, who alone is appointed the Metiam, qui solus positus est Medi- diator and Propitiatory, by whom ator et Propitiatorium (1 Tim. ii. the Father is reconciled. He, there5), per quem reconcilietur Pater. fore, that trusteth by his works to Itaque qui confidit, operibus se merit grace, doth despise the merit mereri gratiam, is aspernatur and grace of Christ, and seeketh by Christi meritum et gratiam, et his own power, without Christ, to querit sine Christo humanis vi- come unto the Father; whereas ribus viam ad Deum, cum Chri- Christ hath said expressly of himstus de se dixerit (John xiv. 6): self, 'I am the way, the truth, and Ego sum via, veritas et vita. the life' (John xiv. 6).

Hæc doctrina de fide ubique This doctrine of faith is handled in Paulo tractatur (Eph. ii. 8): by Paul almost every where: ‘By Gratia salvi facti estis per fidem, grace ye are saved through faith, et hoc non ex vobis, Dei donum and that not of yourselves: it is the est, non ex operibus, etc. Et ne gift of God, not of works' (Eph. quis cavilletur, a nobis novam ii. 8, 9). And lest any here should Pauli interpretationem excogi- cavil, that we bring in a new-found tari, tota hæc causa habet testi- interpretation, this whole cause is monia Patrum. Nam Augusti- sustained by testimonies of the Fanus multis voluminibus defendit thers. Augustine doth in many volgratiam et justitiam fidei contra umes defend grace, and the rightmerita operum. Et similia do- eousness of faith, against the merit cet Ambrosius de vocatione gen- of works. The like doth Ambrose tium, et alibi. Sic enim inquit teach in his book, De Vocatione de vocatione gentium : Vilesce- Gentium, and elsewhere; for thus ret redemptio sanguinis Christi, he saith of the calling of the Gennec misericordiæ Dei humano- tiles : ‘The redemption made by the rum operum prærogativa suc- blood of Christ would be of small cumberet, si justificatio, quo fit account, and the prerogative of per gratiam, meritis præcedenti- man's works would not give place bus deberetur, ut non munus lar- to the mercy of God, if the justifigientis, sed merces esset operan- cation which is by grace were due tis.

to merits going before; so as it should not be the liberality of the giver, but the wages or hire of the

laborer.' Quanquam autem hæc doctrina This doctrine, though it be concontemnitur ab imperitis, tamen temned of the unskillful, yet godly experiuntur piæ ac pavidæ con- and fearful consciences find by exscientiæ, plurimum eam consola- perience that it bringeth very great tionis afferre, quia conscientiæ comfort: because that consciences non possunt reddi tranquillo per can not be quieted by any works, ulla opera, sed tantum fide, cum but by faith alone, when they becerto statuunt, quod propter Chri- lieve assuredly that they have a God stum habeant placatum Deum; who is propitiated' for Christ's sake; quemadmodum Paulus docet as St. Paul teacheth,‘Being justified

non

(Rom. v. 1): Justificati per fideń, by faith, we have peace with God' pacem habemus apud Deum. To- (Rom. v. 1). This doctrine doth ta hæc doctrina ad illud certa- wholly belong to the conflict of a men perterrefactæ conscientiæ re- troubled conscience; and can not

ferenda est, nec sine illo certa- be understood, but where the conmine intelligi potest. Quare male science bath felt that conflict. judicant de ea re homines impe- Wherefore, all such as have had riti et prophani, qui Christia- no experience thereof, and all that nam justitiam nihil esse somni- are profane men, who dream that ant, nisi civilem et philosophi- Christian righteousness is naught cam justitiam.

else but a civil and philosophical righteousness, are poor judges of

this matter. Olim vexabantur conscientic Formerly men’s consciences were doctrina operum,

audie- vexed with the doctrine of works; bant ex Evangelio consolationem. they did not hear any comfort out Quosdam conscientia expulit in of the Gospel. Wherenpon condesertum, in monasteria, spe- science drove some into the desert, rantes ibi se gratiam merituros into monasteries, hoping there to esse per vitam monasticam. Alii merit grace by a monastical life. alia excogitaverunt opera ad pro- Others devised other works, wheremerendam gratiam et satisfaci- by to merit grace, and to satisfy for endum pro peccatis. Ideo ma- sin. There was very great need, gnopere fuit opus, hanc doctri- therefore, to teach and renew this nam de fide in Christum tradere doctrine of faith in Christ; to the et renovare, ne deesset consolatio end that fearful consciences might pavidis conscientiis, sed scirent not want comfort, but might know fide in Christum apprehendi that grace, and forgiveness of sins, gratiam et remissionem peccato- and justification, are received by rum et justificationem.

faith in Christ. Admonentur etiam homines, Another thing, which we teach quod hic nomen fidei non signi- men, is that in this place the name ficet tantum historiæ notitiam, of Faith doth not only signify a qualis est in impiis et diabolo, knowledge of the history, which sed significet fidem, quæ credit may be in the wicked, and in the non tantum historiam, sed etiam devil, but that it signifieth a faith

VOL. III.-0

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