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Apostolicis (xvi. 14), diligenter the hearts of men, in order that, attendant, et ita convertantur, as Lydia did (Acts xvi. 14), they sola gratia et virtute Spiritus may diligently attend, and thus may Sancti, cujus unius et solius opus be converted by the sole grace and est hominis conversio. Si enim power of the Holy Spirit, whose Spiritus Sancti gratia absit (Rom. work, and whose work alone, the ix. 16), nostrum velle et currere conversion of man is. For if the (1 Cor. iii. 7), nostrum plantare, grace of the Holy Spirit is absent, seminare et rigare, prorsus fru- our willing and running, our plantstranea sunt ; si videlicet ille ing, sowing, and watering, are wholincrementum non largiatur, sicut ly in vain (Rom. ix. 16; 1 Cor. iii. 7); Christus inquit (John xv. 5): if, that is, he do not give the inSine me nihil potestis facere.' crease, as Christ says (John xv. 5): Et his quidem paucis verbis · Without me ye can do nothing.' Christus libero arbitrio omnes And, indeed, in these few words vires derogat, omniaque gratia Christ denies to free-will all power divinæ adscribit (1 Cor. i. 29; 2 whatever, and ascribes all to divine Cor. xii. 5; Jer. ix. 23): 'Ne quis grace, that no one may have wherecoram Deo habeat, de quo glorie- of he may glory before God' (1 Cor. tur.'

i. 29; 2 Cor. xii. 5; Jer. ix. 23).


NEGATIVE. Rejectio contrariæ et falsæ doctrina. Rejection of contrary and false doctrine. Repudiamus igitur et damna- We repudiate, therefore, and conmus omnes, quos recitabimus, er- demn all the errors which we will rores, cum verbi divini regula now recount, as not agreeing with non congruentes.

the rule of the divine word: I. Primo delirum Philosopho- I. First, the insane dogma of the rum Stoicorum dogma, quemad- Stoic philosophers, as also the madmodum et Manichæorum furo-ness of the Manichæans, who taught rem, qui docuerunt, omnia, quæ that all things which come to pass eveniant, necessario fieri, et ali- take place by necessity, and can not ter fieri prorsus non posse, et possibly be otherwise; and that man hominem omnia coactum facere, does all things by constraint, even etiam ea, quae in rebus externis those things which he transacts in agat, eumque ad designanda mala outward matters, and that he is

opera et scelera (qualia sunt libi-compelled to the coinmitting of evil dines vage, rapina, cædes, furta, works and crimes, such as unlawful et similia) cogi.

lusts, acts, rapine, murders, thefts,

and the like. II. Repudiamus etiam crassum II. We repudiate, also, that gross illum Pelagianorum errorem, qui error of the Pelagians, who have asserere non dubitarunt, quod ho- not hesitated to assert that man by mo propriis viribus, sine gratia his own powers, without the grace Spiritus Sancti, sese ad Deum of the Holy Spirit, las ability to convertere, Evangelio credere, legi convert himself to God, to believe divinæ ex animo parere, et hac the gospel, to obey the divine law ratione peccatorum remissionem from his heart, and in this way to ac vitam æternam ipse promereri merit of himself the remission of valeat.

sins and eternal life. III. Præter hos errores rejici

III. Besides these errors, we remus et Semipelagianorum fal- ject also the false dogma of the sum dogma, qui docent, hominem Semi-Pelagians, who teach that man propriis viribus inchoare posse by his own powers can commence suam conversionem : absolvere au- his conversion, but can not fully tem sine Spiritus Sancti gratia accomplish it without the grace non posse.

of the Holy Spirit. IV. Item, cum docetur, licet IV. Also the teaching that, alhomo non renatus, ratione liberi though unregenerate man, in rearbitrii, ante sui regenerationem spect of free-will, is indeed, anteinfirmior quidem sit, quam ut cedently to his regeneration, too inconversionis suæ initium facere, firm to make a beginning of his own atque propriis viribus sese ad conversion, and by his own powers Deum convertere, et legi Dei toto to convert himself to God, and obey corde parere valeat : tamen, si the law of God with all his heart; Spiritus Sanctus prædicatione yet if the Holy Spirit, by the preachverbi initium fecerit, suamque ing of the word, shall have made a gratiam in verbo homini obtu- beginning, and offered his grace in lerit, tum hominis voluntatem, the word to man, that then man, by propriis et naturalibus suis vi- his own proper and natural powers, ribus quodammodo aliquid, licet can, as it were, give some assistance id modiculum, infirmum et lan- and co-operation, though it be but


guidum admodum sit, conversio- slight, infirm, and languid, towarfer nem adjuvare, atque cooperari, et his conversion, and can apply ar in seipsam ad gratiam applicare, prepare himself unto grace, appr, is præparare, eam apprehendere, am- hend it, embrace it, and believe tły, plecti, et Evangelio credere posse. gospel.

V. Item, hominem, post rege- V. Also that man, after regentis, nerationem, legem Dei perfecte ation, can perfectly observe av observare atque implere posse, fulfill the law of God, and that this eamque impletionem esse nostram fulfilling is our righteousness becoram Deo justitiam, qua vitam fore God, whereby we merit eteræternam promereamur.

nal life. VI. Rejicimus etiam damna- VI. We also reject and condemn musque Enthusiastarum' erro- the error of the Enthusiasts,' who rem, qui fingunt, Deum imme- feign that God immediately, apart diate, absque verbi Dei auditu, from the hearing of the Word of et sine Sacramentorum usu, ho- God, and without the use of the mines ad se trahere, illuminare, sacraments, draws men to himself, justificare et salvare.

enlightens them, justifies and saves

them. VII. Item, Deum in conver- VII. Also, that God in the resione et regeneratione hominis generation of man utterly abolishes substantiam et essentiam veteris the substance and essence of the Adami, et præcipue animam ra- old Adam, and especially the rationtionalem penitus abolere, novam- al soul, and creates from nothing in que animæ essentiam ex nihilo, that conversion and regeneration a in illa conversione et regenera- new essence of the soul. tione creare.

VIII. Item, cum hi sermones VIII. Also, when such statements citra declarationem usurpantur, as these are used without explanaquod videlicet hominis voluntas, tion, that the will of man, before ante conversionem, in ipsa con- conversion, in conversion itself, and versione, et post conversionem, after conversion, is set against the Spiritui Sancto repugnet, et quod Holy Ghost, and that the Holy ozpiritus Sanctus iis detur, qui Ghost is given to those who of set di proposito et pertinaciter ipsi purpose and obstinately resist him. etosistunt. Nam Deus in con- For God in conversion of unwilling

l'Enthusiastæe' vocantur, qui neglecta præ- ! Enthusiasts are those who, neglecting the dicatione verbi divini cælestes revelationes preaching of the divine Word, yet expect ceSpiritus exspectant.

lestial revelations of the Spirit.

orsione ex nolentibus volentes men makes willing men, and dwells

ucit, et in volentibus habitat, ut in the willing, as Augustine is wont ili uyustinus loqui solet.

to speak. Quod vero ad dicta quædam, But as concerns certain dicta, tum Patrum, tum Neotericorum both of the Fathers and of certain quorundam Doctorum attinet : modern doctors, such as the followDeus trahit, sed volentem trahit : ing: God draws, but draws a willet hominis voluntas in conver- ing man, and man's will in consione non est otiosa, sed. agit version is not idle, but effects somealiquid: judicamus hæc formæ what-we judge that these are not sanorum verborum non esse ana- agreeable to the form of sound loga. Afferuntur enim hæc dicta words. For these dicta are adad confirmandam falsum opinio- vanced for the confirining of the nem de viribus humani arbitriä false opinion of the powers of the in hominis conversione, contra human will in the conversion of doctrinam, quæ soli gratiæ di- man, contrary to the doctrine which vinæ id opus attribuit. Ideoque attributes that work to divine grace ab ejusmodi sermonibus, quando alone. And therefore we judge de conversione hominis ad Deum that we ought to abstain from exagitur, abstinendum censeinus. pressions of such sort in treating

of the conversion of man to God. Contra autem recte docetur, But, on the other hand, it is rightquod Dominus in conversione, ly taught that the Lord in converper Spiritus Sancti tractionem sion, through the drawing (that is, (id est, motum et operationem) the movement and operation) of ex hominibus repugnantibus et the Holy Spirit, of resisting and nolentibus volentes homines fa- unwilling makes willing men, and ciat, et quod post conversionem that after conversion, in the daily in quotidianis poenitentiæ exer-exercises of penitence the will of citiis hominis renati voluntas man is not idle, but co-operates non sit otiosa, sed omnibus Spi- also with all the works of the Holy ritus Sancti operibus, quæ ille Spirit which he effects through per nos efficit, etiam cooperetur. us.

IX. Item, quod D. Lutherus IX. Also, whereas Dr. Luther scripsit, hominis voluntatem in has written that the will of man in conversione pure passive se ha conversion is purely passive, that is bere : id recte et dextre est acci- to be received rightly and fitly, piendum, videlicet, respectu di- to wit: in respect of divine grace vinæ gratiæ in accendendis novis in kindling new motions, that is, motibus, hoc est, de eo intelligi it ought to be understood of the oportet, quando Spiritus Dei per moment when the Spirit of God, verbum auditum, aut per usum through the hearing of the Word or Sacramentorum hominis volun- through the use of the sacraments, tatem aggreditur, et conversionem lays hold of the will of man, and atque regenerationem in homine works conversion and regeneraoperatur. Postquam enim Spi- tion in man. For after the Holy ritus Sanctus hoc ipsum jam Spirit has already wrought and operatus est atque effecit, homi- effected this very thing, and has nisque voluntatem sola sua di- changed and renewed the will of vina virtute et operatione im- man by his own divine virtue and mutavit atque renovavit : tunc working alone, then, indeed, this recera hominis nova illa volun- new will of man is the instrument tas instrumentum est et organon and organ of God the Holy Ghost, Dei Spiritus Sancti, ut ea non so that it not only lays hold of modo gratiam apprehendat, ve- grace, but also co-operates, in the riem etiam in operibus sequenti- works which follow, with the Holy bus Spiritui Sancto cooperetur. Spirit.

Relinquuntur igitur ante con- There are, therefore, left before versionem hominis due tantum the conversion of man two efficient efficientes causæ ad conversio- causes only (efficacious to convernem efficaces), nimirum Spiritus sion), that is to say, the Holy Spirit Sanctus, et verbum Dei, quod est and the Word of God, which is instrumentum Spiritus Sancti, the instrument of the Holy Spirit quo conversionem hominis efficit. whereby he effects the conversion Hoc verbum homo certe audire of man. This Word man is, withdebet, sed tamen ut illud ipsum out question, bound to hear; but,

Against Melanchthon, who in his later years taught that there are three causes of conversion closely combined, namely, the Holy Spirit (the creative cause), the Word of God (the instrumental cause), and the consenting will of man. See Vol. I. p. 262.

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