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Theophylaet, Fãs wăip Tão gérewr åpapravórtwv ávrós ár énoncoin; for how should be be punished for the Sin of his parents, Jay Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, Isidore Pelufiota and Theophylact, ibis being, saith Theophylact, & dixcov, nor juft. And this they prove from Deus. xxiv. 16. Ezek. Chap.xviii.and xxxiii. The Marcionires and Cerdoniansendeavored to prove that the God of the Old Testament, though he were jutt, could not be good, because he threatened to punish the Sins of ibe Farbers upon the Children to the third and fourth Generation. Ie) Origined Answers, Origo That it was as little confiftent with Justice as with Goodness, that ons Man finning, another should be punished. (f) St. Jerom owns, Thartbere is Master of Scandal in the Second Commandment, it being unjust to punish one for the Sin of another; but that which follows, faith he, solves the Difficulty, it being anly the Generation of those thar bare God, as ibeix ll Farbers did, and who were Copariners wirb obem in their Iniquity, who are thus threatened. (8) Theodoret saith it would be, ducacis

, a wicka ed thing 10 adhere 10 the Letter, God himself baving pronounced thas the Son should not die for the Iniquity of the Father; bur everyone sbould die for his own Sins. And ( 1 ) Cyril of Alexandria faith, This Punifb. ment would much exceed, dorais leopor, the Law of Justice. And hence they both agree in this sense of the commandment, Ihat shough .God lang deferred the Parents Punifbament, yet would be do it in the third and fourth Generation.

And on these words, The Forhers have easen sour Grapes, and the Childrens Teeth are set on edge, St. Jerom taking notice of the objection of the Marcionites and Cerdonians against God's goodness and justice, iz that he, winking at the Sins of the Fathers, punished them in obeir Chile dren, he answers that the sense of these words is this; That as it is ri. diculous, and inconsequent to say the Fathers bave eaten sour Grapes, therefore the Childrens leerh are - set on edge; So is it unjuf and perrverse to say, the Father finning; the Children pould be punished.

Lastly, Whereas the Heretics objected, That it was cruel for the earing of a little Meat to impliet such Punishment, not only upon Adarn

le) Solent nos Hæretici fugillare, quod non fit boni Dei fermo, qui pro peccatis alterius alium plecti dicat,fed fecundumipforum rationem qui dum legis mandatum, licet non bonum, juftum tamen dicunt, nc ipfi quidem polinc offendere quomodo secundum fenfum suum justitiæ suæ convenire videtur, fi alius, alio peccante, puniatur, Hom. &. in Exod. f. 44. lit, f. edit youe in eyagtérovta; irige.zonábscbes fregar, Chryf. ibid. έδε, δίκαιόν έσι αμαρτίας των πατέρων παισι μκδεν αδικεσιρόπι. sideolab, Theophylact, ibid. Similia habet Cyriilus in locum.

(f) Injustum videtur ut alius peccet, & alius puniatur, !ed illud quod fequitur his qui me oderunt, scandalum folvit, non enim ideo puniuntur quia deliquerunt Patres eorum-sed quia patrum extiterunt amulatores, & oderunt Deum Hæredita- ce rio malo, & impietate ad ramos quoq; de radicc

crefcente, Hieron, in Ezek. f. 194. lit. i. Efque loci iftius is fenfus quomodo fi quis velit dicere

Patres uvam acerbain cumederunt, & dentes filiorum obftupueroni, ridiculum effet, & nullam habens confequentiam, fic iniquum eft, & perverse peccare Patres, & filios nepouelqclue ciari, ibid lit. i.

(g) Οτι γαρ τώ γυμνώ προσέχεις το γράμμιατι δεσσεβες ο Θεός διδάσκει τα. Poytia , quo detão, in Exod. qu. 40.

rhy Com. in Joh. 91,

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end Eve, (i) Βτοίς ήμαρτηκόσι μόνον, αλλά και τους εξ εκέινων βελασηκώσε, but an obose also who proceeded from tbeir Loins: The Fathers(who gencrally held that the punishment of that sin was only mortality, and the want of that which Adam having lost, could not derive on his pusterity) declare that God subjected them to this mortality, not out of anger, but out of wisdom and clemency, to beget in them an batred of fin, and that fin might not be eternal in them. Against the doctrine of the Valentinis en and Bahlidian Heretics that some . Men were púoer Prūdos, evil by Nature, or that matrimony was evil, because it produceth teed polluted, áx yamtñs, from the birth, we have produced the testimonies of (k) Irenæus,Clemensof Alexandria,and others : To which add, That the doc

trine which taught that men were finners from the birth, is expı efsly con13. demned by L) Crysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, and Theopbylašt_in

their commentaries of the ninth chapter of St. John's Gospel, where they teach, (ift.) That the question of the disciples, Whether be that was born blind had

finned, was, épú TEOUS evcutas xal la penyém, a foolib ques. rion grounded upon Error it being therefore not to be faid that magten ETOS Éx geverñs gde isi túdros, he had finned because he was blind from bis Birih. (adly ) Because as it was abfurd to imagine that the child who had done no evil should be punished for the fin of his parents, 10 was it to imagine that he could be either a finner before he was born, or from his birth. În tine, that the doctrine of thefe Manichees was an. ciently confuted upon the fame principles by which the doctrine of these men is equally contuted, hath been abundantly made good in our fourth discourse, Chapt. the 4th and the Stb. p. 266

Nor seems it easy to discern any advantageous difference betwixt the doctrine of these Decretalifts, and those condemned Heretios; or how

it would be worse with those who lie under their absolute decree of repe Par robation, it it indeed were with them, according to the doctrine of thofe Heretics.

For, Ift. Are they not as certainly wicked by the fall of Adam, and as cer. tainly damned after God's decree, De non dando auxilium neceffarium

(i) Οι τοίνυν οργής ή τιμωρία αλλ οικονομία σοφίας μεγίσης, τα γας μισή την αμαρτίαν των ανθρώπων το γένος ως αιτίαν θανάτε γεγενημένην μεία των πα. ράβαση της εντολής επιφέρει το θανάτε την ψήφων και πανσόφος.

Theodoret. in Gen. qu. 37. (k) Ejecit cum de Paradiso, & a ligno vitæ longe tranftulit, non invidens ei lige num vitæ, quemadmudum quidam dicunt, sed miferans ejus, ut non perfeveraret fem per trapsgressor neq, immoriale esset quod esset circa eum peccatum, & malum interminabile, & insanabile prohibuit auiem ejus transgressionem, interponens mortem, & ceffare faciens peccatum. Iren. 1. 3. c. 37. 'o Sede tyánn vegyedias πάρεχε το ανθρωπω το μή διαμέίναι αυτόν εις τον αιώνα εν αμαρτία όντα, Theophyl. ad Autol, I. 2. p. 103. Tèv Jávaror, o Geòs agès avaięson tñe αμαρτίας υπέρ ημών έυρατο. ίνα μή έν αθανάτους ημίν ανατείλασα, αθάνατος και. Method. apud Epiph Hær. 64. $69."Ivek posing a dávator i Tè xaxót. Naz. Orat. 38. p. 169. Bafil. Hom. Quod Deus non fit Author Mali. To, 1. p. 368.

(1) Ουδε γαρ εν αμαρτάνοντας έτέρε κολάζ εσθαι έτερον έπει, και τετο δω σομεν κακεινο δώσομεν, ότι τρό γενέσεως ημαρτεν, ώσσερ εν eπων ότι άτε έτος ημαρτεν και τέλο λέγει ότι ένα εκ γενετής αμαξίειν, ετως, ειπων έτεοι γονεις αυτού, τετο εισιν ότι ένα διά γονέας κολασθήναι.-Chryfo, ibid,

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ad vitandum peccatum, of not affording 10 them the Help necessary 10 a. void thai jin 10 wbicb be hath threatened Dumnarion, as they would be by being left under the power of the heathen Arimanius, or of the antigod of Manes, which by the Fathers are pronounced blasphemous doctrines?

2dly. Are they not as certainly wicked, and de maffa perdita, by bea ing born of Adam, and being left remedilefly in that state of perdition, as they would be according to the doctrine of the Stoicks, and Origenists, the Marcionites and Valentinians, by being compounded of that flesh or matter which did necesitate them to an? Or is there any great difference betwixt being púoti paūnos, naturally evil, which was the doctrine condemned by the Farhers in those Hererics, and being Qúces Tixva bezpõis, by Nature Children of eternal Wrack, as being born of human nature lapsed, which is their sense of the Apoftle's words?

SECTION III.-It also may deferve to be considered that the most fift and eager patrons of thele doctrines, laid the foundation of them not in holy Scripture, which is our only rule of faith, or in the doctrine of Chrif, our only teacher and our guide in matiers of faith, but rather in those impure itreams of the Scholaftical Divines, who had but little knowledge of the text, and less on the sense of Scripture; or in the doc. trine of St. Auftin who writ much and fast, and oft against bis former, and his better felf.

Of this (not to mention Dr. Twiss and Rutherford) the good Bishop (m) Davenant is a remarkable instance; for when he comes to lay down the imputation of original fin, we hear of Jittle or nothing from the holy Scriptures, but his whole scheme is borrowed from the Schools.

Thus when he tells us of God's imaginary compact with Adam, That if he prevaricated be should procure not only to himself but to all bis Pos. terity, ibe Death both of the Body and the Soul, as he attempts not to prove this from Scripture, fo doth he in it manifestly contradict the express words of God, In the Day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt die the Dearb; for that phrase, Thou shalı Die obe Deatb, frequently occurs in the law of Moses, and always fignifies death temporal, as the / n ) places below cited few. Moreover God gives this reason of that threat, for Duft thou art, and unto Duft salt ihou return, which cannot in the leált relate unto the soul. I conclude then with (0) Origen, That that fentence, σώματος καταδίκην εμφαίνει και ο ψυχής, imports the Condennasion not of the Soul but of the Body only,


2dly. When he adds, that Adam finning, gessit personam generis humani ex Dei decreto, sustained the Person of all Mankind by the Decree of God; as he cites this from the Schoolmen, so the plain import of it is, That all mankind were made finners, not by any action of their own, but purely by God's decree.

3dly. When he adds from the fame Schoolmen, that the Pofterity of Adam are guilty of his first Sin, Ex Arbitrario Dei Decreto, by the Ara bitrary Decree of God, but not of his other Sins, nor were they interested in bis Repentance, because God's Decree extended not to those Sirs, or

(m) Animadv. upon Hoard. from p. 244 to 248, and from p. 294 to 298. (n) Geo. xvi. 2. Ex. ii, 12, 15, 16, 17, 20. Lev, ii, 9, 10, 11, 13, 1.5. 1 Sam, xwv, 24. o) Dial, contra Marcion. p 56.


that Repentance : He in effect affirms that his Pofterity, who had no more hand in his first, than in his following fias, were by God's arbitra. ry decree made guilty of that sin alone, from which they would otherwife have been as free as from his other ins; and who then was the author of that sin, since Adam was only personally the author of his own Gp, and it was God's decree only which made him the author of our fin, or rather us the author of his fin!ll

. And, 4thly. From the fame Schoolmen he adds, That an Infant may be propa erly guilty of Sin, and so obnoxious 10 Damnation, because Voluntas Ad. ami, quodammodo eft voluntas parvuli ex Dei Decreto, The will of Ad. am is in some sort abe Will of ibe Infanı by virtue of God's decree : and so the poor innocent is sent to hell by the arbitrary decree of God alone which made Adam's will his will, when otherwise Adam might have finn. ed on to the day of his death, and the poor child might have died as he was born an Innocent. That the Schoolmen are his only warrant for all these fond and horrible imaginations, you may see in the places cited. The 5th of the Romans, v: 12, 19. being so far from proving any of these notions, that they are evidently contuted by it, as you may see in the notes there ; nor was any such inference from those words owned by any of the Farbers uill St. Auftin's time, as you may learn from the commentaries of Origen, St. Chrysostom, and Theodoret upon the place.

As for their other patrons, St. Austin, Prosper and Fulgentius, it must be grated they were good Latin Scholars, but yet they wanted skill both in the Hebrew and the Greek tongues, and so it was not to be expected that we

should learn the true sense of the Scripture from them. Some there are who tell us that thele Decrees and dispensations of God in reference to men's eternal state are Mysteries į and truly as they are managed and asserted by them, I fear they may be fo in the worst fenfe. And if they understand the word as it seemeth to be still used by St. Paul, for a doctrine not yet revealed, see the Note on i Cor. ii. 7. they grant that which I chiefly have endeavored in these discourses to make good, viz. that their doctrine is not taught in holy Scripture. Others perhaps may say that some things here alerted are Pelagian.

ay fayti ism, and others Semipelagianism, it being usual for men hard pretsed to fall to railing; but the first chapter of the Third Discourse will be suffi. cient to convince them they cannot justly fasten either of these names upon me, though Semipelagianism never was condemned by the church of God, and they who in St. Austin's time inaintained it, were by him owned as good Catholics and Christian Brethren, as you may see in Voffius, Hisori Pelag. 1. 6. Th. 18. p. 621.

SECTION IV.-Lastly, If any man suy I contradict the doctrine of the Church of England touching these points, he will condemn almost the whole body of that Church, it being certain that after the restoration, almost all the Bisoops, and the great body of the Clergy, who were eminent for learning, were ofmy opinion concerning these Five Points, and still, I believe, are so. He therefore out of reverence both to the living and the dead, ought rather to affirm only that I expound some of her Articles otherwise than he would do,or thinks they ought to be expound. ed. It inath been usually said that the Church of England contrived her Articles in such a latitude as to leave place for men of contrary judge


ments to subscribe them; and if it be considered that in her Catechism the declares that the learns from her Creed, to believe in God the Son who bath redeemed me and all Mankind: That in her prayer at the confecration of the facrament she declares, That Jesus Cbrift by bis own oblation of bimself upon the Cross, barb made a full, perfeit and suficient Sacrifice, Oblation and Sarisfattion for the fins of the whole world. And in her third Collect on Goodfriday the prays, that all Fews, Turks, Infidel's and Hereticks may be saved among the number of True Israelites; and that the other doctrines here pleaded for, do fol. low from that of universal redemption, as hath been shewed in the close of that discourse, there will be sufficient reason to be of this opinion ; but of this more in the Bipop of Sarum's excellent discourse upon that artiale, p. 168, 169.

In fine, the church of England by (D) Canon doth enjoin all preachers especially 20 take care that they never teach any rbing to their people, as religiously to be believed and beld, which is not agreeable 20 the doca i rine of the Old and New Testament, and thar which the Catholic Fas thers, and the Ancieni Bishops garhered from that very Do&trine. That this rule hath been care fully observed by us, and is as constantly tranfgressed by them who do maintain the contrary doctrines to be Articles of Chriftian faith, I hope, hath fully been demonstrated in these papersy which are submitted to the judgment of the learned reader,

By his Friend, and Servant in the Gospel,


to) Impritnis vero videbunt nequid unquam doceant pro concione quod a pop. ulo rcligiole teneri & credi velint; bili quod consentaneum fit doctrinæ Veteris aut Novi Testamenti, quodque ex illa ipla doctrina Catholici Patres & veteres Episcopi collegerint. Sparrot's Colle&tion, p. 238.

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