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Theophylaξt, πώς γαρ των γένιων αμαρτανόντων αυτός αν έκολάσθη; fon bow jould be be punished for the Sin of bis Parents, fay Chryfoftom, Cyril of Alexandria, Isidore Pelufiota and Theophylact, ibis being, saith Theophylact, å dizaior, nor juft. And this they prove from Deus. xxiv.16. Ezek. Chap.xviii.and xxxiii. The Marcionires and Cerdoniansendeavored to prove that the God of the Old Testament, though he were jutt, could not be good, because he threatened to punish the Sins of obe Farbers upon the Children to the third and fourth Generation. (0)

Origišiel Answers

, Briga n. That it' was as little confiftent with Justice as with Goodness, that ons Man knning, another foould be punished. (f) St. Jerom owns, That there is Master of Scandal in the Second Commandment, it being unjust to Punish one for the Sin of another; but that wbich follows, saith he, salves she Difficulty, it being anly the Generation of those thar bare God, assbeix Fathers did, and who were Copartners with sbem in their Leiquity, who are thus threatened. (8) Theodoret saith it would be, dvoaois

, a wicked thing to adhere 10 the Letter, God himself baving pronounced thas ihe Son should not die for the Iniquity of the Father; bur everyone fbould die for his own Sins. And ( 5 ) Cyril of Alexandria faith, This Punish. ment would much exceed, tàn võ doxaíx beojòr, the Law of Fuffice. And hence they both agree in this sense of the commandment, Ibat ihough God lang deferred the Parents Puniflament, yet would be do it in the tbird and fourth Generation.

And on these words, The Forbers have easen sour Grapes, and the Childrens Teeth are set on edge, St. Jerom taking notice of the objection of the Marcionites and Cerdonians against God's goodness and justice, ia that he, winking at the Sins of the Fathers, punissed them in obeir Chile dren, he answers that the sense of these words is this ; That as it is ri. diculous, and inconsequent to say the Fathers bave eaten sour Grapes, therefore the Childrens Teerh are-set on edge; So is it unjuf and per. verse to say, the Father finning, the Children foould be punished.

Lastly, Whereas the Heretics objected. That it was cruel forle earing of a little Meat to inflict such Punishment, not only upon Adarn

(e) Solent nos Hæretici fugillare, quod non fit boni Dei fermo, qui pro peccatisa alterius alium plecti dicat,fed fecundumipforum rationem qui durn legis mandatum licet non bonum, juftum tamen dicunt, nc ipli quidem podune offendere quomodo fecundum leofum suum justitiæ suæ convenire videtur, fi alius alio peccanie. puniatur, Hom. 8. in Εxod. f. 44. lit. f. έδε γαρ ένα αμαρτάνοντας έτέρα κολάζεσθαι έτερον, Chryf. ibid. έδε, δίκαιόν εστι αμαρτίας των πατέρων παισι μκδεν αδικεσιρόπι. sádeclar, Theophylact. ibid. Similia habet Cyrillus in locuin.

(f) Injuftum videtur ut alius peccet, & alius puniatur, ed illud quod fequitur his qui me oderunt, scandalum solvit, non enim ideo puniuntur quia deliquerunt Patres eorum-red quia patrum extiterunt amulatores, & oderunt Deum Hæreditasio malo, & impietate ad ramos quoq; de Tadice crefcente, Hieron, in Ezek. f. 194. fit. i. Eftque loci iftius is fenfus quomodo fi quis velit dicere

Patres uvam acerbam cumederunt, & dentes filiorum obftupueroni, ridiculum effet, & nullam habers consequentiam, sic iniquum eft, & perverse peccare Patres, & filios nepotelq; clue ciari, ibid lit. i.

(sΟτι γαρ τώ γυμνώ προσέχειν τα γράμματα δυσσεβες ο Θεός διδάσκει τα, XXXTÍK 79/40 Jetõr, in Exod. qu. 40.

rhy Com. in Joh. 9 1,%, 3.

επd Eve, (i) τοϊς ημαρτηκόσι μόνον, αλλά και τους εξ εκέινων βελασηκώσε, but an obose also who proceeded from tbeir Loins: The Fathers(who gencrally held that the punishment of that sin was only mortality, and the want of that which Adam having lost, could not derive on his posterity) declare that God subjected them to this mortality, not out of anger, but out of wisdom and clemency, to beget in them an batred of fin, and that fin might not be eternal in them. Against the doctrine of the Valentinian and Bahlidian Heretics that some . Men were puoer Oxūdos, evil by Nature, or that matrimony was evil, because it produceth feed polluted, áx yamtñs, from the birth, we have produced the testimonies of (k) Irenæus, Clemensof Alexandria,and others : To which add, 'That the doc. trine which

taught that men were finners from the birth, is expressly con43. demned by Crysoftom, Cyril of Alexandria, and Theopbylat_in

their commentaries or the ninth chapter of St. Fobn's Gospel, where they teach, (ift.) That the question of the disciples, Whether be that was born blind had finned, was, építEOKS Groupros xal la peauém, a foolib Quesa

rion grounded upon Error it being therefore not to be laid that magten ETOS ir yeretñs yag isi túdros, be had hinned because he was blind from bis Birth. (adly ) Because as it was abfurd to imagine that the child who had done no evil should be punished for the fin ot his parents, 10 was it to imagine that he could be either a finner before he was born, or from his birth. În tine, that the doctrine of thefe Manichees was an. ciently confuted upon the same principles by which the doctrine of these men is equally contuted, haih been abundantly made good in our fourth discourse, Chapt. the 48h and the gth. p.266

Nor seems it easy to discern any advantageous difference betwixt the doctrine of these Decretalifts, and those condemned Heretios; or how

it would be worle with thofe who lie under their absolute decree of repe Than robation, it it indeed were with them, according to the doctrine of thofe

Heretics. For,

ift. Are they not as certainly wicked by the fall of Adam, and as cer. tainly damned after God's decree, De non dando auxilium neceffarium

(i) Οι τοίνυν οργής ή τιμωρία αλλ οικονομία σοφίας μεγίσης, ίκα γας μισή την αμαρτίαν των ανθρώπων το γένος ως αιτία θανάτε γεγενημένην μεία των πας ράβασιν της εντολής επιφέρει το θωνάτε την ψήφο ο πατσόφος.

Theodoret. in Gen. qu. 37. (k) Ejecit cum de Paradiso, & a ligno vitæ longe tranftulit, non invidens ei lige num vitæ, quemadmudum quidam dicunt, fed miferans ejus, ut non perfeveraret femper trapsgressor neq, immorialc esset quod efTet circa eum peccatum, & malum interminabile, & insanabile, prohibuit auiem ejus transgreffionem, interponens mortem, & cessare faciens peccatum. Iren. 1. 3. c. 37. 'o Sede meydan ivegyedias πάρεχε τα ανθρωπω το μη διαμείναι αυτόν εις τον αιώνα εν αμαρτία όντα, Theophyl. ad Autol. I. 2. p. 103. Dávatov Joos agès araigsou snc αμαρτίας υπέρ ημών έυρατο. ίνα μη ν αθανάτους ημίν ανατείλασα, αθάνατος ή. Meihod. apud Epiph Hær. 64. 8 69. Mive thing adevator in sè xaxér. Naz. Orat. 38. p. 169. Bafil. Hom. Quod Deus non fit Author Mali. To, 1. p. 368.

(1) Ουδε γαρ ένα αμαρτάνοντας έτέρε κολάζ εσθαι έτερον έπι, οι τετο δω σομεν κακεινο δώσομεν, ότι πρό γενέσεως ημαρτεν, ώσσερ εν ειπων ότι έτε έτος ήμαρτεν και τελο λέγει ότι ένα εκ γενετής αμαξίειν, έτως, οιπων έτεοί γονους αυτού τετο ισιν ότι ένα διά γονέας κολασθήναι.-Chryfo. ibid,

ad vitandum peccatum, of not affording to them the Help necessary to a. void thai jin to wbich he hath threatened Dumnation, as they would be by being left under the power of the heathen Arimanius, or of the antigod of Manes, which by the Farhers are pronounced blasphemous doctrines?

2dly. Are they not as certainly wicked, and de massa perdita, by bea ing born of Adam, and being left remedilefly in that state of perdition, as they would be according to the doctrine of the Stoicks, and Origenists, the Marcionites and Valentinians, by being compounded of that flesh or matter which did necesitate them to lin? Or is there any great difference betwixt being púos paūnos, naturally evil, which was the doctrine condemned by the Fathers in those Hereries, and being aboa Tixva bezās, by Nature Children of eternal Wrack, as being born of human nature lapsed, which is their sense of the Apostle's words?

SECTION III.-It also may deterve to be considered that the most ftiff and eager patrons of thele doctrines, laid the foundation of thein not in holy Scripture, which is our only rule of faith, or in the doctrine of Chrif, our only teacher and our guide in matiers of faith, but rather in those impure itreams of the Scholastical Divines, who had but little knowledge of the text, and less on the sense of Scripture; or in the doc. trine of St. Austin who writ much and fast, and oft against his former, and his better felf.

Of this (not to mention Dr. Twiss and Rutherford) the good Bishop (m) Davenant is a remarkable inttance; for when he comes to lay down the imputation of original lin, we hear of Jittle or nothing from the holy Scriptures, but his whole scheme is borrowed from the Schools.

Thus when he tells us of God's imaginary compact with Adam, That if he prevaricated be should procure not only to himself but to all bis Pose terity, tbe Death both of the Body and the Soul, as he attempts not to prove this from Scripture, so doth he in it manifestly contradict the express words of God, In the Day that thou eatest thereof, thou fbalt die the Death; for that phrase, Thou malı Die the Death, frequently occurs in the law of Moses, and always signifies death temporal, as the / n ) places below cited sew. Moreover God gives this reason of that threat, for Duft thou art, and unto Duft fbalı ihou return, which cannot in the least relate unto the soul. I conclude then with (0) Origin, That that fentence, σώματος καταδίκην έμφαίνει και ο ψυχής, imports the Condennazion not of the Soul but of the Body only.

adly.' When he adds, that Adam finning, gessit personam generis humani ex Dei decreto, sustained the Person of all Mankind by the Decree of God; as he cites this from the Schoolmen, so the plain import of it is, That all mankind were made finners, not by any a&tion of their own,

but purely by God's decree.

3dly, When he adds from the fame Schoolmen, that the Pofterity of Adam are guilty of his firt Sin, Ex Arbitrario Dei Decreto, by the Arbitrary Decree of God, but not of his orber Sins, nor were they interested in bis Repentance, because God's Decree extended not to rboje Sius, or (m) Animadv. upon Hoard. from p. 244 to 248, and from p. 294 to 298. An) Geo, xvi. 2. Ex. ii, 12, 15, 16, 17, 20. Lev, ii, 9, 10, 11, 13, 1.5. 1 Sam,

-(0) Dial, cohtra Marcion. P 51.

XW, 24.

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that Repentance : He in effect affirms that his Posterity, who had no more hand in his first, than in his following lins, were by God's arbitra. ry decree made guilty of that fin alone, from which they would otherwife have been as free as from his other fins ; and who then was the author of that sin, since Adam was only personally the author of his own Go, and it was God's decree only which made him the author of our fin, or rather us the author of his fin!ll And,

4tbly. From the fame Schoolmen he adds, That an infant may be properly guilty of Sin, and so obnoxious 10 Damnation, because Voluntas Ad. ami, quodammodo est voluntas parvuli ex Dei Decreto, The will of Ad. am is in some sort ebe Will of ibe Infanı by virtue of God's decree ; and so the poor innocent is sent to hell by the arbitrary decree of God alone which made Adam's will his will, when otherwise Adam might have finned on to the day of his death, and the poor child might have died as he was born an Innocent. That the Schoolmen, are his only warrant for all these fond and horrible imaginations, you may see in the places cited. The 5th of the Romans, v. 12, 19. being so far from proving any of these notions, that they are evidently contuted by it, as you may see in the notes there ; nor was any such inference from those words owned by any of the Faibers vill St. Auftin's time, as you may learn from the commentaries of Origen, St. Chrysostom, and Theodoret upon the place.

As for their other patrons, St. Austin, Prosper and Fulgentius, it must be granted they were good Latin Scholars, but yet they wanted skill both in the Hebrew and the Greek tongucs, and fo it was not to be expected that we should learn the true sense of the Scripture from them.

Some there are who tell us that there Decrees and dispensations of God in reference to men's eternal state are Mysteries and truly as they are managed and asserted by them, I fear they may be so in the worst fenfe. And if they understand the word as it seemeth to be still used by St. Paul, for a doctrine not yet revealed, see the Note on i Cor. ii. 7. they grant that which I chiefly have endeavored in these discourses to make good, viz. that their doctrine is not taught in holy Scripture. Others perhaps may say that some things here allerted

are Pelagian. ism, and others Semipelagianism, it being usual for men hard pretsed to fall to railing ; but the first chapter of the Third Discourse will be suffi. cient to convince them they cannot justly fasten either of these names upon me, though Semipelagianism never was condemned by the church of God, and they who in St. Auftin's time inaintained it, were by him owned as good Catholics and Christian Brethren, as you may see in Voffius, Hisor. Pelag. 1. 6. Th. 18. p. 621.

SECTION IV.--Lally, If any man fay I contradict the doctrine of the Church of England touching these points, he will condemn almost the whole body of that Church, it being certain that after the restoration, almost all the Bishops, and the great body of the Clergy, who were em. inent for learning, were of my opinion concerning these Five Points, and still, I believe, are so. He therefore out of reverence both to the living and the dead, ought rather to affirm only that I expound some of her Articles otherwise than he would do,or thinks they ought to be expounded. It hath been usually said that the Church of England contrived her Articles in such a latitude as to leave place for men of contrary judge ments to subscribe them; and if it be considered that in her Catechism the declares that the learns from her Creed, to believe in God the Son who bath redeemed me and all Mankind: That in her prayer at the consecration of the facrament she declares, That Jesus Cbrift by bis own oblation of bimself upon the Cross, harh made a full, perfedt and suficient Sacrifice, Oblation and Sarisfattion for the fins of the whole world. And in her third Collett on Goodfriday the prays, that all Fews, Turks, Infidels and Hereticks may be saved among the number of true Israelites; and that the other doctrines here pleaded for, do fol. low from that of universal redemption, as hath been ihewed in the close of that discourle, there will be sufficient reason to be of this opinion ; but of this more in the Bishop of Sarum's excellent discourse upon that article, p. 168, 169.

In fine, the church of England by (p) Canon doth enjoin all preachers especially 20 take care that they never teach any thing ro their people, as religiously to be believed and beld, which is not agreeable 20 the doce trine of the Old and New Testament, and thar which the Catholic Fa. thers, and the Ancient Bishops gathered from that very Do&trine. That this rule hath been care tully observed by us, and is as constantly transgressed by them who do maintain the contrary doctrines to be Articles of Chriftian faith, I hope, hath fully been demonstrated in these papers, which are submitted to the judgment of the learned reader,

his Friend, and Servant in the Gospel,

DANIEL WHITBY:

1p) Impritnis vero videbunt nequid unquam doceant pro concione quod a popa ulo religiose teneri &credi velint ; nisi quod consentaneum fit doctrinæ Veteris aut Novi Testamenti, quodque ex illa ipsa doctrina Catholici Patres & Veteres Episcopi collegerint. Sparrow's Collection, p. 238.

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