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86

ADDRESS OF SILK SOCIETY.

(FEBRUARY

The aged who can be thus characterized, have a claim, ed in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the states south of not only on the benevolence, but the gratitude, of the them? The Society are satisfied, that by an extensive generation among whom they linger. They have per- culture of the mulberry tree, the manufacture of sew. haps done much to promote the welfare of those upon ing silk may be rendered an important source of profit wliom they now depend. We can never estimate how to our farmers, whose wives and daughters may thereby far society may have been benefitted by the influence of be enabled to "gather up fragments” of time which a virtuous and pious example, extended through a long might otherwise be lost. By the use of one or more of life. Surely claims which can be thus sustained, and the simple frames described and figured in the fifth chapwhich, while they make an appeal to benevolence, ap. ter of the Manual on Silk, published by Congress,* the pear to be founded in justice, will be recognized and business of feeding the silk-worms becomes a pleasing answered by a generous cominuniiy.

occupation; whereas, when they are raised on boards

and tables, it is exceedingly troublesome. Indigent Widows and Single Women's Society in ac As profit did not enter into the views of the Society, count with the Treasurer.

more than double the real value of the best cocoons 1829. DR.

was given for them; but notwithstanding this encourageTo cash paid the Purchasing Committee, and

ment, a few pounds only were offered for sale; and, with expended by them in support of the

a single exception, these were of a very inferior quality, family,

$2400 00 being old, and the greater part not more than one half To Printing Report,

11 00 the proper size, and slightly covered with silk. The To cash re-paid the Saving Fund,

200 00 | two last defects proceeded, without doubt, from the Balance in the Treasury, Jan 13, 1830,

112 56 worms not having been regularly supplied with food.

Some parcels were so bad, that the purchase of them Total,

$2,723 56 was declined. The inferiority of those actually reeled off,

gave great trouble to the industrious, persevering and CR.

excellent operativet employed by the Society, owing By balance of account for 1828,

$14 81 to the frequent breaking of the fibres, and the rapid exBy cash received in annual subscriptions, 701 00 baustion of the cocoons. Three times the quantity of By admissions and life subscriptions,

280 00 silk obtained from them, and in a third of the time, By donations,

258 65 might have been reeled, had they been of the first qualBy donations from the Barclay Charity, 100 00 ity. The skill of the artist, however, overcame the difBy ground rent,

12 66 ficulties that she had to encounter, and a few pounds of By board of persons in the Asylum,

302 50 excellent sewing silk were mode, part of which may be By dividends on stock,

667 66 seen at Mr. Ashmead's in Walnut street, east of Dock By nett amount of work done in the Asylum, 53 68 street. This silk has been tried by four of the work. Ву do. do. of sales,

14 85 men of Messrs. Charles C. Watson & Sons, who have By cash from charity box,

20 75 certified as to its being equal in quality to any imported, By Fines from Managers,

4 50 and by Mrs. Hogg, one of the most fashionable ladies' By Legacy from Mrs. Anne Bisland,

292 50 dress-makers in Philadelphia, who, in addition to an ex

pression of a similar opinion, says, that in one respect, Total,

$2,723 56 it even possesses an advantage over foreign silk, in nut

twisting, and forming knots, technically "kinking."

In reeling the silk from the cocoons, the Italian reel, imported by a member of the Society, was employed.

It worked ac mirably: the knowledge of its operation is PENNSYLVANIA SILK SOCIETY.

easily acquired and is recommended to all who wish to In September last, this Society announced that they engage in the business of reeling. It can be made by bad engaged a person fully competent to the reeling any furner for $12. of silk from cocoons, and making silk, offering, at the

"Mr. Swayne's apparatus consists of a wooden frame, same time to teach those arts, and to purchase cocoons. four feet two inches high, each side sixteen inches and The experiment was intended to redeem the pledge, a half wide, divided into eight partitions by small piemade last year by the Society to that effect, and in ihe

ces of wood, which form grooves, in which the slides hope that some of our citizens in Pennsylvania, New

or feeding frames run, and are thus easily thrust in or Jersey and Delaware, upon whose farms the native red, drawn out of the frame. The upper slide is of paper or the white mulberry trees grew, would avail them: 1 only, and designed to receive the worms as soon as selves of the opportunity of acquiring the desirable, and hatched; the two next, are of catgut, the threads about to them, important knowledge; and that others, favour-one-tenth of an inch distant froin one another. Tbese able to its diffusion, would enable some females to ob. are for the insects, when a little advanced in size; the tain it, wliose pecuniary means would not permit them four lower ones are of wicker work, the openings thrio to defray their expenses in the city, during even the which the dung is to fall being about a quarter of an short time required for its acquisition; the Society have inch square. Uuder each of those as well as catgut, are been disappointed; for although the notice was inserted slides made of paper, to prevent the dung of the worms in most of the city newspapers, with a request that the falling on those feeling below them. Mr. S. afterwards editors of country prints would copy it, no appl.cation found that netting may be substituted with advantage, was made on the subject from any quarter wittever.- in the room of wicker bottoms. The meshes of the nelThis neglect is regretted, because nothing but the ring mele about ialf av inch square. knowledge that m ght bave been acquireel, is wantirg, ""The ca'erpillars are to be kept on the second and to enable those who have inilberry trees, not oily to third tecdling slicies, until their ding and litter do not s'ipply their f. milies with the sewing silk required by readi

fill through, and then to be removed to the seedthem for their own use, but to mike enough to become ing -ies will wicker bortoms, and fed thereon till they an object worthy of attention in a pecuniary point of siowym ptoms of being about to spin. Each wicker view, without in the least interfering with their usual feeding slide will afforzi sufficien: room for five hundred domestic duties, It has ben frequently stated, that in

worms, when grown to their full size. three counties of Conneci cut, where the culture of silk has been largely atten led 10, for the last forty years, a * These were distributed among the members of great part of the circulating medium consists of sewing ! Congre-s of the session of 1827, 28---for general circulasilk, and that storekeepers freely barter their goods for tion; 8,000 copies were printed. it. What then, is to prevent the example being follow † Miss Mary Brush, of Bedford, West Chester Coun

ty, New York

ADDRESS OF THE

180.)

PROCEEDINGS OF COUNCILS.

87

“In order to give room for an increased stock of cat- tine Church, the citizens in that neighborhood, having erpillars, spare slides should be made to fit the three up-experienced the inconvenience, arising from the want per apartments with wicker bottoms of split rattans, of a public clock and bell, became desirous of taking which may be used for full grown worins.

advantage of the permission granted by the congregaThe slides of the feed ng frames of Messrs. Terhoeven, tion to them, of placing in said cupola, such a clock and of Philadelphia county, are four feet square, and are bell; and, in the expectation that a sufficiency of funds fixed to upright posts; they have two sets in one room, would be raised by public subscription, they authorized with passages between and around them. Tuis size en the pastor of said church, to contract for the old State ables a person to reach any part of them. Over the House clock at

$250 00 slides are frames, placed on cleets, and filled with split The expense of the repairs and fixing, will be 360 00 rattans, at proper distances, to permit the litter to fall And the cost of a bell of 1500 los. is

675 00 through BENJAMIN R. MORGAN, President.

Making a total expense of

$1285 00 JOSEPH HEMPHILL, Vive President. Whereas the whole amount of subscription is 800 dolMATHEW CAREY, Secretary.

lars; and, in consequence of the deficiency of 485 dolNathan BCNKEN, Treasurer.

lars, they have been induced to approach Councils, askF. Dusar,

ing for a remission of the price of the old clock; which, James Mease,

the committee on the State House Steeple, reported in Joseph Ripka, > Acting Committee.

1827, was only worth the price of old metal, and then J. McCauley,

offered it for 200 dollars. Philadelphia, January 1, 1830.

Your Committee, in consideration of the amount of private subscriptions, and of the convenience to our fel.

low citizens of this section, would recommend, that the PROCEEDINGS OF COUNCILS.

reasonable request should be granted, as promoting an Thursday Evening, Jan. 28th.

object of public utility. And such a course, being adop

ted by Councils, would have a precedent; for at the A communication was received from the City Com- time the house was erected at the intersection of Pine missioners stating that an application had been made to and Second streets, the citizens of the south-eastern seclease Sassafras street wharf on the Schuylkill for the tion opened a subscription for the purchase of a clock term of five years. Referred to the committee on Ches, and bell, towards which the Councils subscribed 600 nut, Mulberry and Sassafras street wharves.

dollars, (and are at an annual expense for keeping them The City Commissioners also stated, that application in order,) whilst the balance of 603 dollars was paid by had been made by the owners and occupiers of the pro- the citizens. perty on the south side of Pine street wharf on the Del. The Committee would wish it distinctly understood, aware, respecting the right and privileges that are sev- that this grant is not to be considered in favour, or for erally claiined by them and the city. Referred to the the special benefit of the congregation of St. Augustine committee on Pine street wharf.

church, but it is designed for the convenience of such The following communication was received from the of our fellow-citizens as reside in the north eastern part Mayor.

of our city; it is free from sectarian feelings; and, the Maron's Office, Jan. 28, 1830. cupola of the church is made use of, as being peculiarTo the Select and Common Councils.

ly adapted to the object.

The Committee would therefore respectfully present Gentlemen—The numerous acts of violence and out the following resolution. rare upon the persons and property of our peaceable

Be it Resolved, by the Select and Common Councils, citizens, and the boldness with which many of those That the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars for which acts are committed, at an early hour in the evening, are the old State House Clock was sold to the Rev. Michael sure indications that we are infested at this tiine by an Hurley, be and the same is hereby remitted; and, that unusual number of villairs, of the boldest and most da- the clock and the bell about to be placed in St. Augusring character. To put a stop to those outrages so far tine church, be and the said bell and clock are hereby as lies in my power, I have ordered the silent watchmen vested in the Pastor of said church of St. Augustine, to patrole the streets from the bour of seven in the eve- and his successors forever; in trust, for the use and benning. I have also directed the two High Constables to efit of the citizens of Philadelphia-Provided, that in patrole the streets during the evening with such of the the event of the removal or demolition of the said church City Constables as they can procure to assist them. It -and provided also that unless the said clock be kept must be obvious, however, that these means (and they in order and repair without any expense to this corpo. conceived to be all that are within the control of the May- ration this grant shall cease and be void; and that the or) are entirely inadequate in the present emergency property of the said clock and bell shall be vested in It is therefore respectfully suggested to Councils wheth the Mayor, Aldermen and Citizens of the city of Phil. er it would not be expedient to authorize the appoint- adelphia.” ment of an additional number of police officers for a limited time, to be placed under the direction of the Mayor: would prove a bad precedent; but it was adopted by a

Mr. Baker spoke against the resolution, fearing it and to provide a suitable compensation for their services. This or any other plan that may have suggested it. large majority. self to Councils, shall receive my hearty co-operation.

Mr. Price presented the following: Respectfully, WILLIAM MILNOR, Mayor.

To the Select and Common Councils. Messrs. Miller, Worrell, Thompson, Walmsley, Troth, The Committee on Markets have had under conside. and Keyser, were appointed a committee to confer with ration the Memorial of the Victuallers, for a repeal of so the Mayor on the subject, and take such measures as much of the Ordinance of December 2011, 1810, as remay be necessary.

quires the removal of posts and rails erected on the Mr. Boyd presented the following:

stalls, at the end of each Market, and are of opinion that

the inconvenience is not greater than every storekeeper To the Seleet and Common Councils.

is subjected to, in the opening and closing of his store; The committee, to whom was referred the memorial and, the advantage of this regulation is of much imporof the citizens, residing in the north-east section of the ) tance to the public. One of the causes of complaint is, city, for a remission of the price of the old State House the danger of injury from the hooks; and if such danClock, request leave to report:

ger can be apprehended from a careful removal of the That since the cupola has been erected on St. Augus. 1 posts and rails, much greater could be anticipated to the

88

CANAL DOCUMENTS,

(FEBRUARY

incautious, by permitting them to remain standing. Your The following communication from the City Solici. committee woud much prefer, that the same regulation tor, was referred to the committee on the subject. should extend to all the Market-houses.

To the Select and Common Councils of the City of Phil. The following resolution is sibmitted:

adelphia. Resolved, That the Committee on Markets be dis

Gentlemen-Having observed that an inquiry has charged from the further consideration of this subject. in the important and expensive improvements now in the different aliorneys and solicitors of the corpora

bee: directed by Councils, into the sums received by progress at High street wharf, the committee on Mar; tion from the year 1820 to 1829, both inclusive, my atkets submitted to the Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and tention has naturally been drawn to the subject. Surveyors, such a regulation of lligh street, east of Water street, as was considered very important to the con. erable length of time, I have collected such information

By an investigation, which has occupied me a considtemplated valuable alterations; but they decided against relative to the legal fees paid by the city during that peany change, and that the present regulatior, should be riod, as to show that the terms of the resolution, if conestablished. Against this decision an immediate appeal strued strictly, will exclude several thousand dollars was filed with the Recording Surveyor, and the com- from the consideration of the committee, a very large mittee would now request Councils to consider this sub- portion of which ought, under a fair construction of the ject, and therefore offer the following resolution:

Be it Resolved, that the Paving Committee, in con. ordinance creating the office I have the honor to hold, junction with the Committee on Markets, be requested to have gone to the regular officer of the corporation. io view the regulation of High street, east of Water st., 'low me to make such statements in writing to them, as

I would therefore respectfully request Councils to al. and report to Councils what alteration, if any, is neces- will fully disclose my own views of the duties of the ofsary therein.

fice and the emoluments attached to it, before any re. The resolutions were adopted. Mr. Massey presented a petition, praying that an al- port the committee may deem it proper to make, is act

upon. I am Gentlemen, ley, running from Water street to the wharf, between Morton's and Coxe's stores, below Walnut street, may

Very respectfully, your obdt. servt.

JOIN M. READ. be re-paved. Referred to Paving Committee.

On motion of Mr. Donaldson, the report of the committee on the public property on Schuylkill, north of

CANAL DOCUMENTS, Chesnut street, was taken into consideration. The first resolution, extending William E. Tucker's and New Jersey, in relution to the Delaware, at Trenton,

Report to the commissioners of the state of Pennsylvania lease of the old Engine House, was amended so as to October 2011, 1829, read two years, instead of three years, and adopted.

READ), December 10, 1829. Thie second and third resolutions, directing the City Commissioners to cause a wharf to be built at the ter: To John Rutherford, Caleb Newbold, and Garret D. mination of Chesnut street, and to pave Chesnut strect

Wall, Esqrs. on the part of New Jersey; Nathaniel B. from Beach street to the Schuylkill, were rejected.

Eldred, John Ross, and David Scott, Esqis. on the The fourth resolution was a lopted. It is as follows: part of Pennsylvania, commissioners relative to the "Resolved by the Select and Common Councils, that

river Delaware. the City Commissioners be and they are hereby author. GENTLEMEN, ized and directed to advertise for proposals for leasing Being honored with your appointment, to make such for ten years so much of the city property as is contain "surveys on each side of the river Delaware, as ed within 50 feet of the north line of Chesnut street, and should deem necessary to ascertain at what places the south line of the Bridge Company's property south of waters of the Delaware may be most advantageously High street, and from the wesi line of Ashton street to taken by the said states, respectively, for canal and othe river chuylkill, (the City reserving the right to ther purposes; also, the best mode of constructing dams, continue Beach street through said property) the pro- and the height of the same, so as to guard from injury, posals to specify the kind of wharves and improvements in the best manner, the shad fishery and the navigation to be made by the lessee, and the City Commissioners of the said river, and the least height at which the said are further directed to report to the Councils all the dams can be made to answer said purposes,"and that we proposals that may be made.'

report on said several matters, together with such calThis resolution was not adopted without debate, and culations, remarks, information and objections, as may can hardly be considered as the absolute decision of Coun- appear expedient, and submit the same to your board, cils on the subject.

at Trenton, on the 26th of October, then next ensuing. Mr. Walmsley thought it would be impolitic to grant We were furnished with a copy of your agreement to leases for so long a period as ten years.

that effect, which being made on the 28th of SeptemMr. John Price Wetherill thought it premature to at her last, we have presumed, from the early day therein tempt the improvement of the property at this moment. named, that we might consistently avail of any former

Mr. Troth thought that the public good would, in the official surveys applicable to this occasion, and make course of the ensuing summer, make it incumbent on those only found to be further necessary. Councils, to sell or let on permanent ground rent, all that Having now examined the whole course of the Melapart of the property lying between Beach street and the ware, as it flows between the states of New Jersey and river. The remainder ought to be kept out of the mar- Pennsylvania, above tide, and investigated, specially, ket for some years.

the local circumstances of those places to which we proMr. Johnson thoughi it necessary, before making any pose to call your particular attention, we concur in the disposition of the property, to settle a pending dispute following statements and recommendations: with the Bridge Company.

We have thought it our duty to inquire, as much as On his motion, the following resolution was adopted: time and opportunity would permit, into the practice

Resolved, by the Select and Common Councils, That on other rivers, where the business of rafting is followed the City Recording Surveyor be requested to lay before in time of freshets, as well as to apply the results of our Councils at their next stated meeting, a profile of the own observations and practical experience. Indeed, City Plot, west of Schuylkill Front streets, noting such the great value of the lumber trade and fisheries on the streets as are now recorded as public highways, togeth- Delaware, both to the public and the numerous persons er with those which are not recorded as such, accom- engaged in them-citizens of three states, and your sopanied with such observations and remarks as in his licitude to guard those interests from “injury,”has made opinion inay be deemed necessary for the information us sensible of the propriety of great caution. of Councils.

The progress of agriculture and trade, it is well known

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has given occasion for the formation of canals in various od having been employed with advantage, we are creil.
parts of our country, vleriving their waters from rivers ibly informed, on the Lackawaxen bralich of the Dela:
by means of dams. The Hudson, the Susquehanna, the ware, and must in our opinion, be well calculated to
Connecticut, and the Merrimack, are conspicuous in control the acceleration which a ratt acquires in descend-
stances; and experiment has suggested precautions, ing a fall.
which taken, no injury or inconvenience ensucs. In: Sixty feet is mentioned as the width of the upper
deed, on the latter, (within Mr. Sullivan's knowledge,) end of the apron; being informed that it is not usual to
the dams have enabled the people engaged in the lum- make rafis more than two lenglits of a board wide, or
ber trade, to make and fulfil contracts during the sum thirty-two feet, and that the space between the piers
mer months, into which they could not have entered, of some of the bridges over the Delaware, is not much
but for this improvement of the natural navigation. more than this, rafts may be guider or steered by marks,

It is commonly noticed, that the perpendicular rise in the usual manner. The most convenient and perma.
of the water is, in time of freshets, greater below than nent mark, is a timber, chained by one end to the bot-
above rapids. · From remarks made at Wells' falls, we tom, the other consequently rising above water.
believe sometimes nearly twice as much. But the rise buoy of this kind on each side the passage through the
of the water above dams, will not, in time of fresliets, dam, would be seen at a sufficient distance. Such are
be increased as much more as the height of the dams a- used to mark the channel on the Hudson.
bove low water mark; because, the water has over them At each dam there should also be two fish ways, one
a free vent, or is not, as in the natural state of the river, on each side of the sloping apron. The 'method em-
so much impeded by the great rise, or accumulation of ployed on some of the northern rivers, with success,
the water at the foot of the fall,

(within Mr. Sullivan's knowlerlge,) is on the principle

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modate rafts in low river, the water is concentrated and rent shall be greatly diminished, and at the same time deepened in the channels, they will pass in time of high affording resting places. To prolong the current, the water equally well as before; and if the low state of the slope, which should be thirty feet long, and construct. river, the artificial slope is no more, or the same as some cd of stone, being twenty feet wide, with sides, is dividof the natural rapids, the current must be equal. ed by partitions projected from its sides alternately, but

It now requires a rise of about five feet at Milford, not extending its whole width. The passage is consequentand three feet at Easton, above low water mark, to be ly from right to left. If these spaces be 3 ft.wide and 2 ft. a safe rafting pitch of water.

deep, there is room for fish to pass in great numbers. But The perceptible amelioration of our climate, from one besides passing up this passage, they may pass directly period to another, and the diminution of the waters of over the partitions to the opening in the dam, which the head branches of rivers, may at length make the should be at least as low therein as the raft-way is deep. complete improvement of the Delaware for rafting, im Fish would travel one hundred and forty feet thus to portant; and we conceive it expedient on this occasion, ascend four feet. The fish way should be planked over to suggest the establishment of a rule of construction, to protect them, and exclude the light. We are also of which if approved by the joint board of commissioners, opinion, that shad would ascend the sloping apron of and the legislatures of the two states, may become a law. the dams, especially if formed in gradations, which is

We suggest the plan of construction, subsequently the mode of building on the Hudson. described, from being aware of the velocity which a raft It is also a fact, (observed by Mr. Sullivan,) that shad is liable to acquire, and the force with which its prog- ascend canals when connecled by locks with the tide. ress is resisted wlien striking into water having less mo It was his practice to let out the right to fish, at the tide tion than itself; also, when the river is low, the accele lock of a canal formerly under his care. Whether it ration which the water gels in descending along a slop- was instinct that led them to ascend the same waters ing apron, whereby it may become two shallow, unless from which they had come, or to seek some stream of ihe slope has raised sides converging and keeping it fresh water, is immaterial; if we suppose the former, from flowing laterally off. We are also aware, that they are as likely to descenil the Pennsylvania canal, when the forepart of a raft passes over and beyond the from the Lehigh, as to enter the Delaware, and will in pitch of the dam, it for a moment ceases to be so much the spring be found in every lock, awaiting the opening water borne forwarıl as before, and that the weight of of the gates to ascend. this end depresses the middle into the water, unless the We might here avail of skilful and ingenious modes mosle of rafting be such as to allow the raft to be verti- of constructing the sloping aprons and fishways, sugcally flexible as when composed of cribs of boards, or gested by one of the board, but that simplicity and pracboxes of coal. The passage into the apron should there. tical experience in those we have above described, fore have sufficient depth to allow a stiff raft to settle a seems to make them more easy to build, and therefore little in the middle, without touching the dam. Few proper to be adopted. We should also be glad to sugrafts draw more than two feet of water.

gest some mode of protecting the young fishi, qid the We proceed to describe the form of a dlam which is various avenues opened for the spring asceul permit. adapted to a low stage of the water as well as to fresh The best mole of constructing dams depends so much

It will be found to lengthen in the same propor- on the nature of the bottom, and exposure to floods and tion as it raises the rapiil.

ice, that we do not enter into this topic further on this We recommend it as a general rule, that whenever a occasion, as regards the plan of the above meftioneşi dam shall be constructed on the Delaware river, it shall passage through them. be placed in the range of the channel, at a sufficient 2d. The question, "at what places the waters of the distance above the upper pitch of the full, to alinit of Delaware may be most advantageously taken for canals placing below it, or from it, down stream, a sloping a. and other purposes, cannot, perhaps, be intelligibly pron, which shall extend at least ninety feet for every answered without first offeriog to your attention a brief four feet, perpendicular measurement; that it shall have general description of the river Delaware, so far as it raised sides of three feet, converging so as to narrow borders on New Jersey, above Trenton, with a view esthe lower end one-fourth; that the opening through the pecially to the relaiive situation of the falls, ai which we dam into the said apron, shall be at least sixty feet wide concur in thinking dams may be advantageously estaband three feet deep; that to prevent rafts from running lished, and with locks near for the Durham boats. their forward en onder water, when it reaches the bor The nearest rapid above Carpenter's point, is calles tom of the apron, there shall be a range of long timbers, Peter's rift. It is within the state of New York. . The hinged or chained to the foot of the slope, with their next is at Dunning's ferry, a short distance above it. --other ends floating down stream, in orcier to lift and These come within the range of this report, only as bc. check the raft in iis velocity, in some degree; this methol ing the proposed location of a dam, from whence the

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ets.

12

90

DAMMING THE DELAWARE.

(FEBRUARY

Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canal is to derive estimate of this two miles is by Major Douglass, 58,000 its principal supply of water. The former location be- dollars, being the lowest estiinate. ing designated in the survey by Major Douglass, the up The river might be crossed by an aqueduct bridge at per one by the survey of Mr. Sargent; both places have the head of the gap, wore it of importance enough to the recommendation of rock bottom, and both approach avoid the rocky shore of the Pennsylvania side, or to near the Hudson and Delaware canal.

form a junction with the Sussex and Orange canal, or, At Carpenter's point, where the boundary of three if the whole dis'ance to below Foul rift were found less states coincide, the channel of the river is deep, and for expensive on the Jersey side the river. a considerable distance above and below it, the river is But it is also true, that a connection with that canal not rapid.

may be easily formed by locks opposite Columbia, esIn descending the river, the first suitable place for a pecially if a low dam were used below that place to dam is at Thornton's rifts, which would back the water form still water. above the point, in whatever manner the navigation shall The canal will now have on the Pennsylvania side fabe conveniently extended to the line; it will strongly vorable ground, till it comes to the Slate Hill at Long invite the Hudson and Delaware canal company, by rift, (520 mile) which is succeeded by the flats oppotheir own interest, to form a junction with it, as their site Belvidere, and then by the Limestone steep of canal will then become the most direct route to Phila- Foul rift, but it may be worthy of a future investigation delphia from the north and north west; the same loaded whether some expense might not be saved and advanbuat may then go from Philadelphia to Lake Cham- tages gained, by crossing by an aqueduct bridge at the plain and to lake Erie in about the same distance, but beginning of the Slate Hill

, and recrossing below Foul at less expense than by any other route probably, as rift, especially as a seasonable re-supply of water could others involve transhipment.

be drawn from the Pequest, below most of the mills in The junction of this extensive navigation, which will the village. The great water power at this place, as originate business, not previously calculated on, will be well as the produce of the county of Warren, might be done at only the expense of three locks and a short cut. expected to increase the canal revenue considerably.

Considering ths direction of the Pennsylvania canal Mr. Sullivan having visited Belvidere, heard in an interas located, the following suggestion is with a view to view with the principal inhabitants, much solicitude exenable New Jersey to partake in its advantages by giv. pressed to have the line re-examined, notwithstanding ing the townships along the river above the walpack access to the canal could be had by crossing the river, bend, access to it.

to locks if on the other side. Accordingly, it is worthy of notice, that the next rap

The roads on the Pennsylvania side lead to the points id is about a mile below the Millford bridge, near the where the aqueducts would cross and re-cross, and towhouse of William Brink, Esq. There is here a chain paths might be easily madle wide enough for bridges; of islands on the Jersey shore, extending two or three Erie canal crosses and re-crosses the Mohawk to occumiles, the channel being on the Pennsylvania side, a. py more favorable ground. cross which were a dam thrown and a basin formed be The alternatives are rock excavation for the entire ca. hind the islands, these being also connected, water nal, along Foul rift, according to the location of it by might be at the necessary elevation to supply a canal on Major Douglass, or a river balik wall and terrace accordthe flats to the bend, and by an aqueduct bridge con- ing to Mr. Sargent's location. This is no doubt the nect with the Pennsylvania canal, after it had passed by most difficult place on the route, except one. But two tunnel through, or by other means around the Walpack thirds the distance is very favourable ground. bridge. This canal would accommodate the fertile

When the canal line approaches Easton, the alterna-, towns of Montaque, Landiston and Walpack in Sussex. tives hava heen presented of building a dam, and of mak

Had time permitted us, this side of the river would ing an embankment in front of the town, to reach the have been thus far instrumentally investigated; it may in- Lehigh basin. But as the plan of building dams, which deed be worthy of a future survey, as the union of pur- we have suggested, may obviate all objections to them, pose in the two states will not now limit the preliminary we recommend that one be erected at the head of the operations of engineers to one side alone.

Philipsburg rapid, to form also a basin on the Delaware Should New Jersey deem it expedient to open this

side of Easion, also with the lock iu some convenient line, Flat Kill may be made a source of supply; as the place for the Durham boats. The wide lock now building Delaware rarely runs between banks so low as to per- Morris canal will also be accommodated.

in the Lehigh dam, will connect the two basins; the mit water to be taken from it by dams, without exten.

We fix the dam at Philipsburg, to be four feet high, sive works capable of sustaining the force of the freshets, but if the canal should be on one side of the river kill

, where there is a suitable place for the lower lock

as this will hack the water to the mouth of the Bushonly, there is a suitable place below the bend for a of the upper section of the canal, which the commisdam, for the other to gain access to it by locks.

sioners will recollect, will be 66 miles in length, deFrom the bend, the groumd is more favourable on the scending 259 feet, according to the surveys. Pennsylvania side to Broadhead's creek, on which the It will also be recollected that the southern section extensive village of Stroudsburg is situated, and here from Easton to Bristol, (now nearly completed,) is 59 there will not only be the accession of this water as a miles, of which the first thirty five miles extend to New feeder, but of business to the canal, this being the expect. Hope, and derived supply from the Lehigh; the other ed termination perhaps, of the rail road from Pittstown on 24 miles being calculated to draw its supply from the the Susquehanna, or rather from the coal valley of the Delaware, at Well's falls, situated near that village. Lackawana to the water gap. There are so few places In dlescending the river from Easton, we find in the in our country whence coal can be derived, and so few ten miles to the month of the Muscanetcong, six rapids, routes for this trade compared to those of England, that in which the whole fallis 28 feet, there can be no reasonable doubt of business enough on As the canal passes along the Flats opposite the mouth them all, to make them profitable stock. The transport of that stream, on which there are many mills, access ation on the upper sections will also add equally to that might be had to it by two locks. From the Delaware, of the lower section; canals are generally profitable in Durham falls a short distance below descends 3 feet. proportion to their extent.

In further descending, we pass seven rapids before The ground appears more favourable on the Jersey reaching Warford's falls, which have fourteen feet in side of the water gap, where there are for the greater 1} miles. part of the distance cultivated flats. But the motives Head of Warford's is by the canal levels, 88 feet above to cross to it may not be sufficient, as Broadhead's creek/tide. The river is here 60 rods wide. The bottom is will have so recently afforded a supply of water. The rock. This was the place from whence the feeder to

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