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ceded to the United States, under prescribed limits and tion east of the Mississippi. Still further to protect the stipulstions, rights of way thro'their territories, streams, Indians in the entire right, perpetual occupancy, and and water courses, thus conclusively proving that up to undisturbed possession of their lands, part of a law of this period the United States or any of their citizens, so the United States formerly enacted, is now by treaty far from possessing any lawful claim to ownership or oc. stipulation made forever operative. This law imposes cupancy of the Indian lands, had not, nor could not, fine and imprisonment on any citizen of the U. States obtain even a right of passage except by treaty and re. liunting gaine, or allowing his catile to feed upon the linquishment.

Indian lands. It prohibits settlements, or even attempts The next treaty was one, in the formation of which, at survey, or marking trees, upon any of the Indian terthe present Chief Magistrate of the United States acted ritories: empowering the President of the United States as a commissioner, and was negotiated at the Chickasaw to employ military force in removing any persons at. Council House, in tbe year 1816. it plainly sets forth tempting “to make settlement thereon.” that the Cherokees were yet considered as a free peo. This law by treaty became a sovereign law of the ple, the treaty is not to be binding without their ratifi- land, never to be altered or rescinded but by the concation in council, and it is stated in the title to be a sent of both parties to the compact by which it was entreaty "to perpetuate peace and friendship between forced and in which it is incorporated. the United States and the Cherokee tribe or nation of From the testimony of a series of Treaties, concludIndians, and to remove all future causes of dissention ed under the sanction of the first five Presidents of the which may arise from indetinite territorial boundaries." United States, ratified by the ablest statesmen that have Lessions of land, and indemnities in money and annui- ever sat in out national councils, and extending in point ties, by the United States, form some of the articles of of time from the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the treaty: In 1817, commissioners (of whom the same down to a late period, your memorialists conceive that distinguished individual was one) negotiated with the they have conclusively demonstrated that the United Cherokees a very important trea:y. Part of the nation States of America have guaranteed in the most solemn was desirous of emigrating from their old territory into manner to the Cherokee Nation, in the first place-the the country west of the Mississippi, and various arrange entire title-undisturbed possession--and complete enments tending to their safe removal, and payment for joyment of all their lands not specifically ceded, except the improvements on their lands thereby relinquished so far as these natural rights may have been modified, or and ceded in exchange for western territory, were relinquished by written agreement; and that in the secagreed to. But the most important part of the com- ond place, the freedom of this nation, and the right to pact, relates to that portion of the nation which remained be governed by their own customs and laws, except so upon the inheritance of their fathers, inasmuch as it clear far as this national attribute may have been restrieted or ly shows that they were recognized once more in solemn abridged by treaty, have been recognized in every comtreaty as a free people, to be governed by their own pact formed between this people and the United States laws and customs, and to be preserved upon their own of America. lands, until they should yield to the United States, the Believing that the representations which they have soil and the right of complete sovereignty over it, by made, are founded in the truth, your memorialists would free consent and fair agreement.

respectfully, but earnestly petition, that Congress would In the preamble, it is admitted, that one of the reas. sustain inviolably, the faith of the United States pledg. ons which bad hitherto influenced many of the nation in ed to the Cherokees and other Indian nations in their consenting to their former large cessions of land (as vicinity, in its full meaning, intent and purpose—that expressed by them to the President of the United States the remnants of this ancient and suffering race may be in 1808,) was "their anxions desire to engage in the protected in the enjoyment of peace and quietude, upon pursuit of agriculture and civilized life” upon the coun- that soil which has been theirs by immemorial posses. try they then occupied, and that by thus contracting sion, which contains the bones of their fathers, and to their society within narrow limits, those that staid pro- which they are attached by all the strong lies, which posed “to begin the establishment of fixed laws and a bind men to country and to home, and that no laws shall regular government,” and President Jefferson, in a let. be permitted to be imposed upon them, which, under ter dated in 1809, and also referred to in this preamble, any pretext, however plausible,shall render them slaves promises them “that those which remain may be assu- in effect, though freemen in name. red of our patronage, our aid and good neighborhool." When your memorialists reflect upon the many faBy this treaty it is solemnly stipulated, moreover, that vours received by the first setilers of these United States, the treaties heretofore made between the Cherokee na- from the bands of the aborigines; when they call to mind tion and the U. States are to continue in full force with that many of the treaties which they have recited, were both parts of the nation," with the reservation of the made when our frontiers were weak, and the Indians right of establishing certain trading and military posts. strong; when they looked at the defenceless and friend. The next and last treaty between the United States and less condition of the sad remains of this once powerful Cherokees, was executed by the present Vice Presi. people, they feel constrained by no common impulse to dent of the United States, and ratified by President Mon- ask of Congress, that not only strict justice and enlightroe and the Senate in 1819; and, as a preliminary, the ened generosity, but also efficient protection and supCherokees were distinctly informed that this was the port may be extended towards them. last requisition of land which the United States would If the government of the United States have made make of them. The preamble states that "the greater engagements with any other parties, supposed to be inpart of the Cherokee nation” bad expressed an earnest compatible with its pledges to the Indians, let all such desire to remain on this side of the Mississippi, and “to claims be deliberately examined, and if they shall apcommence those measures which they deem necessary to pear to be well founded, let a proper adjustment take the civilization and preservation of the nation.” By the place, and suitable indemnity be made to the suffering first article large quantities of land are ceded--one hun- or aggrieved parties. But whilst your memorialists dedred thousand acres being reserved for a school fund sire that in all their doings the United States may obfor the Cherokees, this land being directed to be sold, serve towards all people the means of strict justice, they the proceeds vested by the President of the U. States, cannot but earnestly solicit, that in all questions having and the annual income thereof to be applied to diffuse a reference to the rights of Indians. their claims to the the benefits of education among the Cherokee nation soil which they occupy, as well as other rights guaranon this side of the Mississippi.” Thus a permanent fund teed to them by treaty, may be strictly maintained; for is created for a permanent and noble purpose, and this it must appear self-evident that no compact between the purpose contemplates the continued existence and the United States, and a third party, can effect them, or in gradual improvement and education of a Cherokee na- the least impair either their national or their vested priv





In thus acting towards the Cherokee and other In- orialists are now assembled—when they call to mind dians, according to the dictates of a generous policy, that this compact was never broken-but that with deeds your memorialists do not perceive any practical difficul. I of kindness and good fellowship, every pledge mutually ties. If suffered to continue undisturbed upon their given was mutually redcemed, insomuch that it is their lands, in the course of a few years the progress of civil- happiness to record that for a space of 60 years, no huization, and the increase of knowledge, would of neces- man blood, shed in Indian conflict, erer stained the soil of sity change their character, modify their laws and cus- Pennsylvania--recurring to these cherished recollectoms, and finally prepare them for an amalgamatiun with tions, they cannot but feel it to be a duty imperative the white population. They would then gladly receive upon them, to plead the cause of the Indian at a moment the rights of citizenship, the duties and priviliges of of extremity, when measures are in contemplation, vi. which an improved education would teach them to ap- tally affecting his dearest interests. preciate and perform. That this is the ultimatum of the Considering, moreover, that the Cherokees, by the hopes and wishes of the Indians themselves, your mem- express recommendation, nay, by the aid and assistance orialists think it manifest from an address to the Pres of the Government of the Uniteri States itself, have, for ident of the United States, dated at Washington the 12th a series of years past, been rapidly advancing in civilizaof March, 1825, and signed by Ross, Lowry, and Hicks, tion-That they bave relinquished the habits and per. the principal Cherokee chiefs.

suits of the savage, and have become possessed of hcus. Speaking in refference to this subject, they express es and mills, flocks and herds, schools and printing their full conviction that the day would arrive, “if the presses,--that above all, many of them have forsaken the Cherokees were premitted to remain peaceably and superstitions of the Heathen, and embraced the religiquietly in the enjoyment of their rights, when all dis- on of the Gospel, your memorialists feel bound earnest. tinction between their race and the American family ly to petition that no measures may be permitted to would be imperceptible;" and they emphatically de- ! take place, which shall compel this nation to leave the clare, that “for the sake of civilization and the preserva. small residue of their ancient patrimony, now rendered tion of existence, they would willingly see the habits doubly dear by the meliorations of civilized life, and to and customs of the aboriginal man extinguished.” exchange cultivated fields and comfortable habitations

Secing that such are the dispositions and temper man- for the will and houseless prairies of the West. ifested by the Indians themselves, your memorialists In conclusion, it is the sincere desire of your memobave noticed with regret that a resolution has been off'- rialists that the Government of the United States, and ered in the Senate contemplating a modification of the all others who presume to act towards the Indians, may laws of the United States for the regulation “ of trade be endowed not only with a spirit of ordinary benevoand intercourse with the Indians, so as to exempt ex. lence, but that a remembrance of the solemn accountapressly from their operation, the territory occupied by bility of nations, no less than individuals, 10 a supreme any Indians within a state over whom as tribes or indi- tribunal, may purify their feelings, and direct their purviduals the laws of the state have been or may be exten- poses. den by the legislature thereof."

Unanimously adopted and signed by order and in beYour memorialists fear this proposition, if adopted, half of a meeting of the citizens of Philadelphia, and its would lead to a system of measures hostile to the hest aujoining districts, held on the 11th day of January, A. interests of the Indians, and in opposition to the spirit D. 1830. and letter of the numerous treaties which they have al.

WILLIAM WHITE, Chairman. recủy recited,

ROBERTS VAUX, In looking towards the future and final destiny of the HENRY J. WULLAMS, indian race east of the Mississippi, your memorialists cannot better convey their ferlings than in the language

PENNSYLVANIA RAIL ROAD. used by an eminent jurist* of the state of New York, in reference to the small fragments of tribes resident with

TOWN MEETING. in the territorial limits of that state. When, says he, At a meeting of the citizens of the City of Philadel“the time shall arrive for us to break down the parti- phia, held on Saturday afternoon, the 16th inst. at four tion between us and them, and to annihilate the politi. o'clock, at the County Court House, corner of Sixth and cai existence of the Indians as nations and tribes, I trust Chesnut streets, pursuant to public notice, “in order to we shall act fairly and explicitly, and endeavour to ef-express their sentiments relative to the termination of fect it with the full knowledge and assent of the Indians tfe Columbia and Philadelplria Rail Road:" themselves; and with the most scrupulous regard to their ROBERT RALSTON, was called to the Chair, and weaknesses and prejudices, and with the entire appro GEORGE M. Dallas and BENJAMIN W. RICHARDS, bation of the Government of the United States. I am satisfied that such a course would be required by pru.

were appointed Secretaries.

The chairman having read the order by which the dence, and would become necessary not only for con- meeting was called, the following resolutions moved by science sake, but for the reputation of our national jus- Joseph Möllvaine and seconded by William Boyd, were tice."

adopted. In according with the general wisdom and benovo Resolved, that the original location of the Pennsyllence of the sentiments just recited, their full approba- vonia Rail Road, crossing the Schuylkill at Peters' Isltion, your memorialists feel that as Pennsylvanians they and, and passing thence along the bed of the old Union are peculiarly entitled and enjoined, to ask the United Canal, to the corner of Broad and Vine streets, with a States the inviolate observance of all faith plighted to branch down the cast side of Schuylkill to Sloop navithe Indians, and they are constrained by a deep sense gation, is recommended to the Legislalure by every of gratitude, to bear testimony in the name, and by the consideration of public economy and of general conveexperience of their forefathers, to the fact, that the In- nience and to this community by its tendency to place dians on their part, can maintain with strict integrity, all the local interests of Philadelphia upon a fair and equal promises which they have given in treaty with white footing.

In the remembrance that their ancestors landed Resolved, That after this line had been repeatedly and on the shores of America,a feeble band, without the mu- carefully reviewed by distinguished engineers ; and by nition of arms—that with open hearts and hands, they them unanimonsly preferred to all others, we have learnsought the friendship of the Indians, then a strong and ed with surprise, that another route involving more expowerful race-that this was given and pledged in that pense to the state, and which cannot be completed withmemorable treaty held near the place where your mem- out imminent hazard to the City Water Works, and to

the Schuylkill navigation; a route which presents many Chancellor Kent.

inconveniences, and affords no additional advantages,






has been adopted by the present board of canal com Locust Ward-George W. Smith, John Swist, Wimissioners.

liam P. Smith, James H. Hutchinson, James Bayard, Resolved, that the projected railway bridge, across Samuel H. Thomas. the Schuylkill, below the Fairinount Dam, by suspend. Pine Ward-Samuel Palmer, Robert Cooper, Charles ing the supply of water to the City and Liberties during w. Churchman, Thomas N. Alexander, Dr. J. M. Paul, every freshet, thus depriving our citizens of a great ne- Henry M. Zollickoffer. cessary of life, and exposing their property to the dan New Market-- John Maitland, James Stuart, Elisha ger of conflagration, would inflict an injury upon this W. Cook, Francis G. Smith, Clements S. Miller, Francis community, which they ought not to incur for the sake M'Creedy. of any benefit to be expected from the rail road.

Cedar Ward-Charles Johnson, William Stephens, Resolved, that the erection of bridge piers, in the Joseph Burr, Armon Davis, Richard C. Dickinson, narrow pass of the river below Fairmount Dam, will Enoch Thorn. endanger the safety of that expensive and invaluable Resolved, That copies of the resolutions adopted by work.

this meeting, being authenticated by the signatures of Resolved, That the destruction of the Fairmount dam, the chairman and secretaries, be forwarded to the speakbesides its injurious effects upon the interests and pro- ers of the Senate and House of Representatives. perty of the city, by suspending all operations upon Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be eight miles of the Schuylkill Works—would interrupt published in all the papers of the city. the great chain of inland navigation extending through

ROBERT RALSTON, Chairman. the State, and thus be productive of incalculable loss to GEORGE M. Dallas, ? the citizens of this commonwealth.


Secretaries. Resolved, that these considerations present insupera. ble objections to the route of the rail road, as lately fixed To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Comby the board of canal commissioners.

monwealth of Pennsylvania. Resolved, That the legislature of this commonwealth The Memorial of the subscribers, citizens of Philadelbe respectfully but earnestly requested to re-establish phia, respectfully she weththe original location, with a branch down the east side

That ibe original location of the Pennsylvania rail of Schuylkill to sloop navigation, and to forbid the con.

road, crossing the Schuylkill at Peters' Island, and passstruction by the state of any line from the crossing ing thience along the bed of the old Union canal to the place near Peters’ Island, down the west side of Schuyl- intersection of Broad and Vine streets, with a branch kill.

down the east side of Schuylkill to sloop navigation, is On motion, it was further resolved, That Robert Rals recommended to the legislature by every consideration ton, George M. Dallas, Benjamin W. Richards, Joseph of public economy, and general convenience ; and 10 M'llvaine, William Boyd, Thomas Hale, Alexander Cook, your memorialists, by its tendency to place the local in:James N. Barker, and John M. Read, be a committee to

terests of Philadelphia upon a fair and equal footing. prepare a Memorial to the Senate and House of Repre Your memorialists have however learnt with surprize, sentatives expressive of the sentiments contained in the that after this line had been repeatedly and carefully reforegoing resolutions, to be submitted to the citizens for viewed, by distinguished engineers in the service of the their signatures, with power to take such other mea- state, and by them unanimously preferred to all others, sures as they may deem expedient to effect the objects another route, continuing on the western bank of the of this meeting

Schuylkill, and crossing below the Fairinount dam, inResolved, That committees of six from each ward be volving more expense to the state, and which cannot be appointed to offer the said memorial to the citizens for completed without imminent hazard to the city water signatures.

works, and to the Schuylkill navigation, a route which The following are the names of the committees :

presents many inconveniences, and affords no additional Upper Delaware Ward-Samuel J. Robbins, Lewis advantages, lias been adopted by the present board of Rush, Thomas Richards, John Bacon, George W. Tryon, canal commissioners. John Patterson.

Your memorialists would respectfully represent, that Lower Delaware Ward-Gerard Ralston, Joseph Cake, the projected rail way bridge across the Schuylkill, beJoseph Brown, Charles W. Schreiner, Thomas Wallace, low the Fairmount dam, by suspending the supply of Daniel B. Smith.

water to the city and liberties during every freshet, and North Mulberry Ward-Elhanan W. Keyser, Free. thus depriving the citizens of a great necessary of life, man Scott, John Moore, Henry Simpson, Robert Orr, and exposing their property to the danger of conflagraJoseph M'Clintock.

tion, would inflict an injury upon the community which South · Mulberry Ward—Levi Ellmaker, Edwin T. ought not to be incurred, under any circumstances Scott, James l'assitt, Robert Ralston, Jr., Charles H. whatever. Kirk, Samuel M. Wetherill.

The erection of bridge piers in the narrow pass of High Street Ward-George Emerick, John H. Pale- the river, bclow Fairmount dam, must endanger the thorp, Benjamin W.Clark, Asa Curtis, John M'Clintock, safety of that expensive and invaluable work; and your Edward B. Garrigues.

memorialists cannot too earnestly press upon the attenNorth Ward-Jacob Alter, William Carmán, Durden tion of your honourable bodies, that the destruction of B. Carter, Sansom Perot, Dr. William Wetherill, Owen this dam, besides its injurious effects upon the interests Sheridan.

and property of the city, by suspending all operations Chesnut Ward-Cephas G. Childs, John V. Cowell, upon eight miles of the Schuylkill works, wouli interCharles L. Smith, Jolin Hart, Jr., Samuel N. Gray, Na- rupt the great chain of inland navigation extending thaniel Burton.

through the state, and thus be productive of incalculaMiddle Ward-William J. Leiper, Benjamin Stille, ble loss to all the citizens of this commonwealth. Simon Gratz, Samuel Norris, Charles Barrington, Cas Your memorialists do therefore most earnestly, but

respectfully, pray, that the original location for tlie terWalnut Ward-William T. Dwight, James R. Eck- mination of the Columbia and Philadelphia rail road, ard, Robert W. Sykes, John Snyder, William Badger, crossing near Peters' Island, and terminating at the in-. Nathaniel Holland.

tersection of Broad and Vine streets, with a branch down South Ward-Randall Hutchinson, James Page, Vin- the east side of Schuylkill to sloop navigation, may be cent L. Bradford, William W. Fisher, Thomas Reath, re-established, and that your honourable bodies will forGeorge Smith.

bid the construction by the state, of any line from the Dock Ward-J. J. Borie, Thomas Roney, John M'- crossing place near Peters' island down the west side Mullin, Joseph Chew, Morgan Ash, J. F. Leaming. of the Schuylkill.

per Rehn.



Bonds, Stocks &loans

Deposits & Due Com- surpl's fund Billsdiscoun- judgments, to companies

of other Real Estate Suspense
Notes in Due other dividends monwealth or profitand ted and re- mortgages, securities Specie. Banks or

acc't and
circulation, Banks. unpaid. for tax, &c. loss or sus ceivable. and collate. and bills of ex-

due by Personal. Expenses.
ral securit's change.

North America,

1,000,000 00234023 43 82329 70 433544 06 2000 0075963 571,070,004 33 132618 61 136435 95 130924 501 75983 59 276703 57 5190 21 5

1,800,000 00381994 00 208674 00 417860 00 9050 00 214622 001,663,696 00 165018 00 597348 00 228650 00305672 00 63071 001 8745 00 5 Farmers' & Mechanics, 1,250,000 00329960 00 243146 00 605393 002562 0084827 00 1,457,076 00 205668 00 254585 00 164129 00 340637 00 93794 00 Commercial,

1,000,000 00216904 00 79159 22 356596 57 1920 00 63825 101,029,992 52 13500 00 361338 92 109984 88 154965 10 39029 63 9593 846 Mechanics', 529,330 00 241493 00 258244 81 269117 95 1431 34 65939 05 851,761 78

142164 76 163923 17 145961 77 45776 97 15967 70 9 Schuylkill, 500,000 00336413 00 154425 65 324090 58 1400 00 69474 91 918,949 96

35778 25 95359 21 285807 11 49909 60

7 Northern Liberties, 200,000 60 321431 60 17694 27 363418 32 1600 00 86727 43 634,478 91 12727 80 50000 00 103802 19 189862 12 Southwark, 249,630 00 181590 00 44205 31 226199 36 2000 00 14964 73 601,534 26

90229 93 26825 21

10 Kensington, 124,990 00 116775 00 7195 18 142991 52 892 42 29635 76 337,144 55

48605 41 33229 92 3500 000
Penn Township,
149,980 00 176470 00 38904 32 118983 55 930 00 3000_00|| 375,377 41

10000 00 48632 26 49842 46 3190 74 1225 83
6,803,930 002537053 45 1133978 46 3258194 91 23785 76 708979 55 8,940,015 72 529532 41 1587650 88 1184240 55 1608786 28 574975 51 40721 75
129,500 00 59355 00

84273 08 673 401 27059 30 243,743 79 17035 99 1060 00 20707 7610961 74 7039 50 312 00 67

158,525 00 406384 31 40319 65 202926 16 1014 56 27448 61 435,182 91 22153 84 150860 00 104453 69 78796 44 45171 39 Pittsburg,

346,155 50 308263 0014597 92 201486 73 2211 00 66504 76 671,917 18 7965 43 114387 14 49562 11 90605 01 4782 04
Farmers' Bk. Lancaster 400,000 00 179331 00 13415 41 114298 58 1510 20 819 00 485,806 93 2766 50 79785 25 40635 58 61198 52 39035 96


134,235 00 147460 00 16834 22 40626 44 444 67 13632 40 184,705 87 15524 50 49730 00 24658 44 54194 88 23319 04 135 45 5
Columbia Bridge, 395,000 00 164094 30
56123 76 1054 80 1703 59 210,519 12 24179 60 25338 57 41814 41 61281 11 254843 64

Farmers' Bk. Reading, 300,350 00 191177 00 6050 12 120525 05 934 16 5128 36 395,045 001 37895 06 107374 00 41923 73 23953 95 17972 95

Chiester County,

90,000 00 209064 00 2734 79 171926 56 720 00 60832 51|| 218,557 50 48113 93 163000 0061462 33 39149 05 4163 001 832 05/10
Delaware County, 77,510 00123451 00 2692 82 65458 95

17941 45 54,603 691 119210 52 13523 37 39405 57 43806 83 16070 90 433 34 8
Montgomery County, 133,340 00 145565 00 152 60 119582 69 586 701 17280 48 138,948 81 58470 58 119990 11 48509 57 31527 481 19061 42 206 06 53
Easton Bank,
187,380 00 382009 4010365 55 155640 95 1474 08 58535 91 557,606 72 49445 28 69250 00 42448 90 76654 99

112,500 00 314256 00

47207 47 525 17| 15124 27| 137,602 37 158010 00 28720 00 35136 46 96503 36 33522 84 117 88 7

168,720 00 99185 00 15504 34 155122 15 1012 32 6908 621 239,389 30 14354 27 100340 00 82448 39 9920 47
171,466 00 114385 00 8397 70 55157 35 951 62 6234 40 284,536 76 2000 00 4235 00 23395 10 21097 67 21324 54

247,228 34 184613 25 23794 16 61316 38 1184 701
241,749 20 89597 05 65445 59 21570 00 5118 68 93656 31

125,318 00 78150 00 9223 45 26525 52 501 271

115,691 97 53544 17 1162 97 21748 51 9207 85 37416 48 946 29 6 Mong. Bk. of Brownsv. 162,123 00 171744 00

55735 01 571 88 9122 36 163,753 68 34709 45 1197 00 18635 44 97612 97 23387 71 1036 16 7 Westmoreland, 107,033 0083574 00 36664 29 8281 55

5518 89 204,430 79

660 41 7479 69 28500 75

Farmers' Bk. of Bucks, 60,000 00 74534 00 10137 45 18403 78 103 06 7523 33 96,580 38 28743 35 12807651 8413 17 9367 95

14879 12 3
Miner's of Pottsville, 40,000 00 190000 0016898 00 31421 60 192 00 5524 00|| 197,186 94

40000 00137554 00 8493 16

801 50 3 20,020 00 33055 00 1425 61 3236 50

682 81 18,039 98

3485 00 9393 18 21873 16 4890 75 737 85


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VOL. V.-NO, 5,


NO. 109


county is a very regular ridge nearly uniform in its TON COUNTY.

height and has properly but four passes or gaps in the Written by Isaac A. Chapman, Esq. in 1817. county. These are the Delaware water gap, the wind

gap, the Lehigh water gap and Little gap between the Northampton County was erected from Bucks county wind gap and Lehigh water gap. The mountain is in all March 11th, 1752. lis greatest length from North to places steep, thinly covered with poor timber, generalSouth is 40 miles and its greatest breadth' from East to ly rocky and unfit for cultivation. West 50 miles. It originally included Wayne, Pike and The Wind Gap is a notch or opening in the mounLehigh counties but it now contains only 874 square tain which is very abrupt, and extends from the top miles or 559,360, acres. Northampton is very irregu- nearly to the bottom of the mountain. No stream paslar in its form and greatly diversified in the formatiour of ses through it and various conjectures have arisen conthe face of the country and in the quality of its soil. - cerning its origin; among the most prevalent of whiclı The Blue Mountain which passes through the county is, that it was formed by clic Delaware river, which may from the N. E. to the s.w. appears to be the divisioni bave formed a lake behind the mountain' and have openline between two distinct climates; and the quality of ed a passage at this place. That at some subsequent the soil on the two sides, appears to be no less different, time, vast masses of ice may have choked up this passthan the temperature of the seasons. Vegetation is a- age when the river again forming a lake opened a passbout two weeks later on the North, than on the South age at the water gap where it has continued since to side of the mountain.

run. Various circumstancrs are adduced in support of The general character of the soit below the moun- this opinion which at last is conjecture only. Through tain, is gravel loam and sehistus internixed with sand this gap passes the main road to Wilkesbarré. The in many places. It is warm and productive, particular- Wind gap is about 15 miles from where the Delaware ly for grain for which it appears best adapted. It pro- now passes the mountain. duces excellent fruit and when plaister is used produces The Pokono or second mountain is a range parallet Pery good clover.

to the Blue mountain and distant from it from 7 to 10 Above the mountain the soil is principally a mixture miles in different places. It is much more broken and of gravel and clay, and above the second mountain or irregular than the Blue mountain anel assumes different Pokone, the soil partakes so much of the clay as to be names in different parts of the county and state, Near very cold & unproduesive. The timber is principally small the Lehigh river it is called the Pohopoko and west of Pines and Hemlock and the country almost entirely a the Lehigh for several miles it is called the Mahoning wilderness, there being no inhabitants except a few a- mountain. Its average height above its base is about long the road to Wilkesbarre. Below the niountain the 850 feet. natural limber is principally oak, with a mixture of It is generally rocky and contains very little timber, of hickory and clresnut. There is however but a small a very poor quality. Another part of the Pokono on portion of the natural forest remaining below the moun. both sides of the Lehigh is without a name. tain, as the country is principally cultivated, except The Broad Mountain or fourth range from the Blue what part is necessarily reserved for woodlands. I should nountain commences its eastern extremity near the estimate that about one fourth part of Northampton is hearl of Pokono creek and crosses the Lehigh at " The cultivated and about one third proper for cultivation.- Turn Hole" extends westerly to the River Schuylkill. Three fourths of what is cultivated is the best calculat- Its average height is about one thousand feet above its ed for grain, and wheat and rye appear to flourish hest. base. The Lehigh is very much obstructed on its pass

The Mountains of Northampton are numerous and ex- age through this mountaiô which forms "the Hatcheltensive. They are The Blue Mountain or Kitatinny, tooth fulls,the mountain is generally rock and barren The Pokono, or Second mountain, The Pohopoko, The but in some places where it is very broad upon its top, Broad Mountains The Spring Mountiin, The Mouch the land may be cultivated. Its course is parallel to the Chunk, or Bear mountain, The Mahoning Mountain and Blue mountain and its height 960 feet. the South Morentain or Lehigh bills.

The Spring mountain or fifth range commences en The Blue Mountain sometimes called Kittatinny was the west side of Lehigh river, and extends west to the originally called by the lidians kiAUTATINCHUNK which Susquehanna, where it assumes the name of the Moch. is said to signify main or principal mountain. It crosses anoy mountain. Its altitude is not more than 600 feet the Delaware which forms a deep gap through it, about upon an average above its base, and its form is much 24 miles above Easton and running W.S.W. crosses the broken. Lehigh, which forms also a gap through it, and continues The Mauch Chunk which is said to signify Bear nearly the same direction westward of the Susquehanna. mountain, is the third range or paralled from the Blue

I ascertained the height of this mountain at three mountain and is much more steep and nairow than eithpoints in the county of Northampton. On tlre west er of the preceding. It commences on the west side side of the Delaware at the Delaware water gap, it was of the Lehigh river about one mile south of the Broad foond to be 1250 feet. On the west side of the Lehigh mountain, and extends south westerly between the Nes. water gap it measured 1175 feet and on the easi side of quehoning and Mauch Chunk creeks and is terminated Kunkles gap or Allentown road, it measured 1835 feet by being broken to pieces near the head waters of the These measurements were taken by the common geom. Schuylkill. T ascended this mountain pear the Lehigh etrical method and will give the average height of the in the angle of about 60° with the horizon, pulling mountain in the county of Northampton at 1186 feet. myself up by the bushes until I reached the top which The Blue Mountain so far as it lies in Northampton is 920 feet above its base. The top here forms one regi VOL. V.


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