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time give encouragement to it,—will they not, by so doing, be thought to be acting in contradiction to the profession which they have made ? But this, it is to be feared, is the case with all those who, instead of pointing out to the laity the dan

upon their officiously meddling with the ministerial office, and the duty of submitting to those teachers, who by authority are set over them, by their loose writing or irregular practice lead them to the very opposite conclusion. And what reasonable hope can be entertained, that the unity of the church will, in any degree, be preserved, whilst those whose office it is to preserve it, become the instruments of its dissolution ?

When, therefore, such loose opinions as these prevail, entirely destructive of the unity of the christian church,—when every one must perceive the increasing defection from the communion and authority of this church; silence on the part of its friends, whether clergy or laity, becomes criminal, and a cold neutrality is inexcusable. To use the the words (with the alteration of a single word) of Archdeacon Daubeny: When I see so many apparently idle and unconcerned, whilst the enemy is digging and undermining the very ground on which they stand; and at the same time consider, that they who help not to support the church when she is in distress, do in reality contribute to pull her down; in writing as an honest. lay-member of that church ought to write on her subject, I feel that satisfaction which must ever accompany a conscientious discharge of duty.

I am sensible that the doctrines maintained in the following pages are become unpopular in this age of boasted illumination; that they are too contracted for the expansive liberality, or (to speak morejustly) the religious indifference of the times, and that the maintainers of them are branded with the name of bigots. Professing myself to be one of those bigots, and being perfectly satisfied with the company in which I am placed, my only hope is, that I may be thought worthy to continue in it.

To this important subject, the attention of the English and Scotch clergy has been turned for some years past, and by them the world has been favoured with some excellent treatises. I shall mention three in particular : 1. A Guide to the Church, by the Rev. C. Daubeny, Archdeacon of Sarum, 2d edit. 1804, strongly recommended by the Bishops of Gloucester and Lincoln. 2. Primitive Order Vindicated, in answer to Campbell's Lectureś, by the Right Rev. Dr Skinner, Bishop of Aberdeen, 1803. 3. The Nature and Guilt of Schism, &c. in eight sermons, preached before the University of Oxford, by the Rev. T. Le Mesurier, 1808.-It is to be lamented, that very few indeed of these, or of similar publications have been imported into this country.

The following treatise, the reader will perceive, is almost entirely compiled from the writings of our celebrated divines. This method of compilation I preferred, not only on account of the success which appears to have attended some late compilations of a similar nature, particularly Bishop

Huntingford's Call to English Protestants,—but, to use the words of Dr Wake, “ I hoped that quotations from departed writers of great and deserved fame, would find a more general and unprejudiced acceptance with all sorts of


any thing that could be written by any one now living, who, if esteemed by some; is yet in danger of being despised by more.” Accordingly, as it is in general collected from authors, many of whom flourished above a hundred years since, the reader is to expect, not elegance of style, but a plain and correct statement of facts, accompanied, I hope, with correspondent reasoning. At the same time, although I have managed this dispute in a manner somewhat different from other authors, and have endeavoured to reduce the tedious and intricate disputes about schism, church authority, church establishments, &c. into a clear, regular, and consistent method ; yet it will easily be perceived, that my principles are the have been constantly received and maintained, with very

few exceptions, by all the learned divines of our church *.

very same, that

* The opinions mantained in this treatise are absurdly described as belonging to the high church school, as if there were now such parties in the church as high church and low church. The latter, as every one knows, has for many years disappeared; it did not flourish greatly even in the days of Hoadley, and seems to have expired with Archdeacon Blackburne. It could never în fact have been in high repute,- for it must always have borne the appearance of hollowness and treachery. See Le Mesurier's Bampt. Lect.p.431. -Even papists themselves acknowledge that, at present, “both learned and unlearned doctors condemn the loadleyan theory on the nature of church government. Protestant Apology, &c. 1809,

If any of our Romanists will be pleased to consider what I have said with respect to the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome, with that attention and impartiality which is due to religious subjects, I presume to think he will perceive, that the christian religion does not oblige him to acknowledge the Bishop of Rome's authority in this kingdom. It will plainly appear, that such universal authority has no foundation in the scriptures, and that it was unknown to the primitive Fathers, who conceived themselves obliged to hold communion with him (or any other Bishop,) only so long as he continued catholic and orthodox; but when he became an heretic, we find that the Bishops of those pure ages anathematized him, and refused to have any communication with him. How much more excusable, then, are our Reformed Churches for rejecting his communion, since he not only invades the primitive rights of Bishops, but attempts to obtrude on us, as articles of faith, his decrees, which are contrary to reason, scripture, and the primitive Fathers *.

P. 36.

* Those men must surely be very ignorant of the nature and spirit of Popery, who suppose that there is no necessity, at present, of exposing the pernicious errors of the Romish Church, and of guarding our people against being infected by them. Let such men consider well the following words of Bishop Stillingfleet:66 While we have such restless adversaries (as the Romish priests) to deal with, part of our danger lies in being too secure of the goodness of our cause.” Dedication to Anthony, Earl of Shaftsbury, Vol. V. 117.

As for the performance itself, I must expect from the christian reader some favourable allowances,

for any oversights and imperfections that: may be found in it. And if at

And if at any time I have either mistaken or misrepresented the church, in defence of which I write, I shall, upon information, with all due submission acknowledge the error. To conclude, I earnestly beseech Almighty God of his infinite mercy, to make all those who shall

peruse this book, honest and impartial, diligent in the search of truth, and heartily willing not only to receive, but also to acknowledge conviction.

Trinity College, Dublin,

May 1. 1811.

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