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part o of Asiatic palaces by far the most conspicuous and magnificent, and upon adorning of which immense sums are often expended, is an expression, that, throughout the East, is figuratively used for the mansion itself. Indeed it seems to be thus denominated "with singular propriety, since it is under those GATES that conversations are holden, that hospitality to the passing traveller is dispensed, and the most important transactions in commerce are frequently carried on. Captain Hamilton (Voyage, vol. i. p. 368) giving an account of Fort St. George, observes, "that the GATE of that town, called the sea-gate, being very spacious, was formerly the common exchange, where merchants of all nations resorted about eleven o'clock, to treat of business or merchandize." Astronomy, deriving its "birth in Asia, and exploring nature and language for new symbols, soon seized upon this allegorical expression as highly descriptive of romantic ideas; and the title' was transferred from terrestrial houses to the spheres. It may here be remarked, that the expression occurs frequently in holy writ, often in the former sense." and sometimes even in the astronomical allusion of the word." In the former acceptation we read, (Esther ii. 19.) of the Jew, Mordecai, sitting in the king's GATE, in Lamentations v. 14. that the elders have ceased from the GATE, and, in Ruth iii. 11. it is used in a sense remarkably figurative, all the GATE, (that is "house) of my people know thou art virtuous. In the second acceptation, the word as well as the attendant symbol itself, to our astonishment occur in the account of Jacob's vision of the LADDER, WHOSE TOP REACHED TO HEAVEN, and in the exclamation, THIS IS THE GATE OF HEAVEN. It is hence manifested to have been an original patriarchal symbol. A similar idea occurs in Isaiah xxxviii. 10. I shall go to the GATES of the gribe; and in Matt, xvi. 18. The GATES of hell shall not prevail


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against it. Nor is it impossible but our blessed Lord himself might speak in allusion to the popular notion of the two astronomical GATES, celestial and terrestrial, when in Matt. vii. 13, he said, Enter ye in at the strait GATE; for wide is the GATE, and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there are which go in thereat; because strait is the GATE, and narrow is the way that leadeth to life, and few there are that find it.” Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 241.

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No. 16-xxviii. 18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it.] One of the idols in the pagoda of Jaggernaut is described by Captain Hamilton, as a huge black stone, of a pyramidal form, and the sommona codom among the Siamese is of the same complexion. The ayeen Akbery mentions an octagonal pillar of black stone fifty cubits high. Tavernier observed an idol of black stone in the pagoda of Benares, and that the statue of Creeshna, in his celebrated temple of Mathura, is of black marble. It is very remarkable, that one of the principal ceremonies incumbent upon the priests of these stone deities, according to Tavernier, is to anoint them daily with odoriferous oils: a circumstance which immediately brings to our remembrance the similar practice of Jacob, who, after the famous vision of the celestial ladder, took the stone which he had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. It is added, that he called the name of that place BETH-EL, that is the house of God. This passage evinces of how great antiquity is the custom of considering stones in a sacred light, as well as the anointing them with consecrated oil. From this conduct of Jacob, and this Hebrew appellative, the learned Bochart, with great ingenuity and reason, insists that the name and

veneration of the sacred stones, called bactyli, so celebrated in all pagan antiquity, were derived. These bactyli were stones of a round form; they were supposed to be animated, by means of magical incantations, with a portion of the deity: they were consulted on occasions of great and pressing emergency, as a kind of divine oracles, and were suspended, either round the neck, or some other part of the body. Thus the setting up of a stone by this holy person, in grateful memory of the celestial vision, probably became the occasion of the idolatry in succeeding ages, to these shapeless masses of unhewn stone, of which so many astonishing remains are scattered up and down the Asiatic and the European world.

MAURICE'S Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 355. and a curious passage in Sir W. JONES's works, vol. 3. p. 89.

No. 17. xxix. 2. A great stone was upon the well's mouth.] In Arabia, and other places, they cover up their wells of water, lest the sand which is put into motion by the winds, should fill, and quite stop them up, (Chardin.) So great was their care not to leave the well open any length of time, that they waited till the flocks were all gathered together, before they began to draw water: and when they had finished, the well was imme diately closed again. HARMER, vol. i. p. 113.

No. 18.-xxix, 24. And Laban gave unto his daughter Leah, Zilpah his maid, for an handmaid.] Chardin observes that none but very poor people marry a daughter in the East, without giving her a female slave for an handmaid, there being no hired servants there as in Europe. So Solomon supposes they were extremely poor that had not a servant. Prov. xii. 9. HARMER, vol. ii. p. 366.

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No. 19.-xxx. 32. I will pass through all thy flocks to day, removing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle, and all the brown cattle among the sheep, and the spotted and speckled among the goats; and of such shall be my hire.] The following extract from the Gentoo laws, p. 150, is remarkable for its coincidence with the situ ation and conduct of Jacob; and demonstrates that he acted with propriety, if the regulations here mentioned existed in his time; and of their very great antiquity there is no doubt. "If a person without receiving wages, or subsistence, or clothes, attends ten milch cows, he shall select, for his own use, the milk of that cow which ever produces most; if he attends more cows, he shall take milk after the same rate, in lieu of wages. If a person attends one hundred cows for the space of one year, without any appointment of wages, he shall take to himself one heifer of three years old; and also, of all those cows that produce milk, whatever the quantity may be, after every eight days, he shall take to himself the milk, the entire product of one day. Cattle shall be delivered over to the cowherd in the morning the cowherd shall tend them the whole day with grass and water, and in the evening shall re-deliver them to the master, in the same manner as they were intrusted to him: if, by the fault of the cowherd, any of the cattle be lost, or stolen, that cowherd shall make it good. When a cowherd hath led cattle to any dis tant place to feed, if any die of some distemper, notwithstanding the cowherd applied the proper remedy, the cowherd shall carry the head, the tail, the forefoot, or some such convincing proof, taken from that animal's body, to the owner of the cattle; having done this, he shall be no farther answerable; if he neglects to act thus, he shall make good the loss." Probably this last circumstance is alluded to in Amos iii. 12.

No. 20.-xxxi. 27. Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me, and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth and with songs, with tabret and with harp?] The Easterns used to set out, at least on their longer journeys, with music. When the prefetto of Egypt was preparing for his jour ney, he complains of his being incommoded by the songs of his friends, who in this manner took leave of their relations and acquaintance. These valedictory songs were often extemporary: if we consider them, as they probably were used not on common but more solemn occasions, there appears peculiar propriety in the complaint of Laban. HARMER, vol. i. p. 435.

No. 21.-xxxi. 34. The camel's furniture.] PocockE informs us, that "one method of conveyance, still used in the East, is by means of a sort of round basket, slung on each side of a camel, (with a cover) which holds all their necessaries, and on it (the camel) a person sits crossed-legged." Mr. Moryson, whose travels were printed in the year 1596, mentions (p. 247.) in his journey from Aleppo to Constantinople, "two long chairs, like cradles covered with red cloth, to hang on the two sides of the camel, which chairs' the Turks used to ride in, and sleep upon camels backs." Mr, Hanway likewise mentions (Travels, vol. i. p. 190.) ked◄ gavays, "which are a kind of covered chairs, which the Persians hang over camels in the manner of panniers, and are big enough for one person to sit in."

No. 22. xxxi. 40. In the day the drought consumed me, and the frost by night.] "In Europe the days and nights resemble each other with respect to the qualities of heat and cold; but it is quite otherwise in the East. In the Lower Asia in particular, the day is always hot; and as soon as the sun is fifteen

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