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seems to be the breathing of the day here men. tioned. Egmont and Heyman (vol. ii. p. 13.) inform us, that "though the heat of the coast of the Holy Land, and of some other places there, is very great, yet this excessive heat is very much lessened by a sea-breeze, which constantly blows every morning, and by its coolness, renders the heats of the summer very supportable." (See Nature Displayed, vol. iii. p. 177. English ed. 12mb.)

No. 224.-iii. 6. Who is this that cometh out of the wilderness like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frankincense?] The use of perfumes at eastern marriages is common, and upon great occasions, very profuse. Not only are the garments scented till, in the Psalmist's language, they smell of myrrh, aloes, and cassia, but it is customary for virgins to meet and lead the procession with silver-gilt pots of perfumes; and sometimes even the air around is rendered fragrant, by the burning of aromatics in the windows of all the houses in the streets, through which the procession is to pass. In the present instance, so liberally were these rich perfumes burnt, that, at a distance, a pillar, or pillars of smoke arose from them; and the perfume was so rich as to exceed in value and fragrancy all the powders of the merchant. Lady M. W. Montague confirms the foregoing observations in the account which she gives of the reception of a beautiful young Turkish bride at the bagnio; she says "two virgins met her at the door, two others filled silver-gilt pots with perfumes, and began the procession, the rest following in pairs to the number of thirty. In this order they marched round the three large rooms of the bagnio." And Maillet (Lett. v.) describing the entrance of the ambassadors of an eastern monarch, sent to propose marriage to an Egyptian queen, into the capital of that country, tells us, “the

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streets through which they passed were strewed with flowers; and precious odours, burning in the windows from very early in the morning, embalmed the air."

HARMER, on Sol. Song, p. 123.

No. 225.-iv. 9. Thou hast ravished my heart with one of thine eyes.] "There is a singularity in this imagery which has much perplexed the critics; and perhaps it is not possible to ascertain the meaning of the poet beyond a doubt. a doubt. Supposing the royal bridegroom to have had a profile, or side view of his bride in the present instance, only one eye, or one side of her necklace, would be observable; yet this charms and overpowers him. TERTULLIAN mentions a custom in the East, of women unveiling only one eye in conversation, while they keep the other covered: and NIEBUHR mentions a like custom in some parts of Arabia. (Travels, vol. i. p. 262.) This brings us to nearly the same interpretation as the above."

WILLIAMS's New Translation of Solomon's
Song, p. 267.

No. 226.-iv. 12. A garden inclosed is my sister, my spouse; a spring shut up, a fountain sealed.] "This morning we went to see some remarkable places in the neighbourhood of Bethlehem. The first place that we directed our course to, was those famous fountains, pools, and gardens, about an hour and a quarter distant from Bethlehem southward, said to have been the contrivance and delight of king Solomon. To these works and places of pleasure that great prince is supposed to allude, (Eccles. ii. 5, 6.) where, amongst the other instances of his magnificence, he reckons up his gardens, and vineyards, and pools.

As for the pools, they are three in number, lying in a row above each other, being so disposed that the waters

of the uppermost may descend into the second, and those of the second into the third. Their figure is quadrangular; the breadth is the same in all, amounting to about ninety paces; in their length there is some difference between them, the first being about one hundred and sixty paces long, the second two hundred, the third two hundred and twenty. They are all lined with wall; and plastered, and contain a great depth of water.

Close by the pools is a pleasant castle of a modern structure; and at about the distance of one hundred and forty paces from them is a fountain, from which principally they derive their waters. This the friars will have to be that sealed fountain to which the holy spouse is compared Cant. iv. 12.); and, in confirmation of this opinion, they pretend a tradition, that king Solomon shut up these springs, and kept the door of them sealed with his signet, to the end that he might preserve the waters for his own drinking, in their natural freshness and purity. Nor was it difficult thus to secure them, they rising under ground, and having no avenue to them but by a little hole like to the mouth of a narrow well. Through this hole you descend directly down, but not without some difficulty, for about four yards, and then arrive in a vaulted room, fifteen paces long and eight broad. Joining to this is another room of the same fashion, but somewhat less. Both these rooms are covered with handsome stone arches, very ancient, and perhaps the work of Solomon himself.

Below the pools here runs down a narrow rocky valley, inclosed on both sides with high mountains. This the friars will have to be the inclosed garden alluded to in the same place of the Canticles before cited. What truth there may be in this conjecture I cannot absolutely pronounce. As to the pools, it is probable enough they may be the same with Solomon's; there not being

the like store of excellent spring-water to be met with any where else throughout all Palestine."

MAUNDRELL'S Journey, April 1, p. 88, 7th edit.

No.227. viii. 2. I would cause thee to drink of spiced wine, of the juice of my pomegranate.] The spiced wine is thought to allude to a custom of the parties drinking wine from the same cup in one part of the marriage ceremony, and we know that spiced wine was a great delicacy in the East. Spiced wines were not peculiar to the Jews. "Hafiz speaks of wine richly bitter, richly sweet, The Romans lined their vessels (amphora) with odorous gums, to give the wine a warm bitter flavour; and it is said the Poles and Spaniards have a similar method to give their wines a favourite relish." (NOTT's Odes of Hafiz, note, p. 30.)

The word rendered by our translators juice, is properly new wine, or must; and the new wine of pomegranates is "either new wine acidulated with the juice of pomegranates, which the Turks about Aleppo still mix with their dishes for this purpose, or rather wine made of the juice of pomegranates, of which Sir J. Chardin says, they still make considerable quantities in the East." HARMER, vol. i. p. 377.

No. 228.-ISAIAH i. 8.

As a cottage in a vineyard.

THIS was a little temporary hut, covered with boughs, straw, turf, or the like materials, for a shelter from the heat by day, and the cold and dews by night, for the watchman that kept the garden, or vineyard, during the short season while the fruit was ripening, (Job xxvii. 18.) and presently removed when it had served that purpose. The eastern people were probably obliged to have such a constant watch to defend the fruit from the jackals. "The jackal," says HASSELQUIST (Travels, p. 277.) "is a species of mustela, which is very common in Pa» lestine, especially during the vintage, and often destroys whole vineyards, and gardens of cucumbers."

Bp. LowTH, in loc.

No. 229.-i. 22. Wine mixed with water.] This is an image used for the adulteration of wine with more propriety than may at first appear, if what Thevenot says of the people of the Levant of late times were true of them formerly. "They never mingle water with their wine to drink, but drink by itself what water they think proper for abating the strength of the wine." It is remarkable, that whereas the Greeks and Latins, by mixed wine, always understood wine diluted and lowered with water, the Hebrews on the contrary generally mean by it, wine made stronger and more inebriating, by the addition of higher and more powerful ingredients, such as honey, spices, defrutum, (or wine inspissated by boiling it downs to two-thirds, or one-half of the quantity) myrrh, man dragora, opiates, and other strong drugs. Such were the exhilarating, or rather stupifying ingredients, which Helen mixed in the bowl, together with the wine, for

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