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concerning the sinful, miserable state of man by nature. Dr. Taylor says, by tuxur@, is meant the animal man, the man who maketh sense and appetite the law of his action. If he aims to limit the meaning of the word to external sense, and bodily appetite, his meaning is certainly not the apostle's. For the apostle in his sense includes the more spiritual vices of envy, strife, &c. as appears by the four first verses of the next chapter ; where, as I have observed, he substitutes the word carnal in the place of luxux. So the Apostle Jude uses the word in like manner, opposing it to spiritual, or hav. ing the spirit, ver. 19. “ These are they' that separate them. selves, sensual, (fuxixos) not having the spirit.” The vice's he had been just speaking of, were chiefly of the more spiritual kind. Ver. 16. “ These are' murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having men's persons in admiration, because of advantage." The vices mentioned are much of the same kind with those of the Corinthians, for which he calls them carnal, envying, strife and divisions, and saying, I am of Paul, and I of Apollos ; and being puffed up for one against another. We have the same word again, Jam. iii. 14, 15. “ If ye have bitter envying and strife, glory not; and lie pot against the truth : This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual (boxoxn) and devilish';" where also the vices the apostle speaks of are of the more spiritual kind.''

So that on the whole, there is sufficient reason to under. . stand the apostle, when he speaks of the natural man in that 1 Cor. ii. 14, as meaning man in his native, corrupt state. And his words represent him as totally corrupt, wholly a stranger and enemy to true virtue or holiness, and things appertaining to it, which it appears are commonly intended in the New Testament by things spiritual, and are doubtless here meant by things of the Spirit of God. These words also represent that it is impossible man should be otherwise, while in his natural state. The expressions are very strong: The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, is not susceptible of things of that kind, neither can he know them, can have no true sense or relish of them, or notion of their

real nature and true excellency, because they are spiritually discerned : They are not discerned by means of any principle in nature, but altogether by a principle that is divine, something introduced by the grace of God's Holy Spirit, which is above all that is natural. The words are in a considerable degree parallel with those of our Saviour, John xiv. 16, 17. “He shall give you the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither know. eth him ; but ye know him, for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you."


Observations on Romans iii, 9....24.

IF the scriptures represent all mankind as wicked in their first state, before they are made partakers of the benefits of Christ's redemption, then they are wicked by nature ; for doubtless men's first state is their native state, or the state they come into the world in. But the scriptures do thus represent all mankind.

Before I mention particular texts to this purpose, I would observe that it alters not the case as to the argument in hand, whether we suppose these texts speak directly of infants, or only of such as are capable of some understanding, so as to understand something of their own duty and state. For if it be so with all mankind, that as soon as ever they are capable of reflecting and knowing their own moral state, they find themselves wicked, this proves that they are wicked by nature; either born wicked, or born with an infallible disposition to be wicked as soon as possible, if there be any difference between these, and either of them will prove men to be born exceedingly depraved. I have before proved, that a nauive propensity to sin certainly follows from many things said in the scripture of mankind ; but what I intend now, is something more direct, to prove by direct scripture testimo. ny, that all mankind, in their first state, are really of a wicked character.

To this purpose is exceeding full, express, and abundant that passage of the apostle, in Rom. iii. beginning with the 9th verse to the end of the 24th ; which I shall set down at Jarge, distinguishing the universal terms which are here so often repeated, by a distinct character. The apostle, having in the first chapter, verse 16, 17, laid down his proposition, that none can be saved in any other way than through the righteousness of God, by faith in Jesus Christ, proceeds to prove this point, by shewing particularly that all are in them. selves wicked, and without any righteousness of their own. First, he insists on the wickedness of the Gentiles, in the first chapter, and next, on the wickedness of the Jews, in the second chapter. And then in this place, he comes to sum up the matter, and draw the conclusion in the words following: “What then, are we better than they? No, in no wise ; for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin ; as it is written, There is nonc righteous, no, not one ; there is none that understandeth ; there is none that seeketh after God ; they are all gone out of the way ; they are together become unprofitable ; there is none that doth good, no, not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre ; with their tongues they have used deceit ; the poison of asps is under their lips ; whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness; their feet are swift to shed blood; destruction and misery are in their ways, and the way of peace they have not known ; there is no fear of God before their eyes. Now we know that whatsoever things the law saith, it saith to them that are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight ; för by the law is the knowl. edge of sin. But now the righteousness of God without the law, is manifest, being witnessed by the law and the prophets ; even the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all, and upon all them that believe ; for there is no difference. For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption which is in Jesus Christ.”

Here the thing which I would prove, viz. that mankind in their first state, before they are interested in the benefits of Christ's redemption, are universally wicked, is declared with the utmost possible fulness and precision. So that if here this matter be not set forth plainly, expressly, and fully, it must be because no words can do it, and it is not in the power of language, or any manner of terms and phrases, however contrived and heaped up one upon another, determinately to signify any such thing.

Dr. Taylor, to take off the force of the whole, would have us to understand, pages 104...107, that these passages, quoted from the Psalms, and other parts of the Old Testament, do not speak of all mankind, nor of all the Jews ; but only of them of whom they were true. He observes, there were many that were innocent and righteous ; though there were also many, a strong party, that were wicked, corrupt, &c. of whom these texts were to be understood. Concerning which I would observe the following things :

1. According to this, the universality of the terms that are found in these places, which the apostle cites from the Old Testament, to prove that all the world, both Jews and Gentiles, are under sin, is nothing to his purpose. The apostle uses universal terms in his proposition, and in his conclusion, that all are under sin, that every mouth is stopped, all the world guilty....that by the deeds of the law no flesh can be justified. And he chooses out a number of universal sayings or clauses out of the Old Testament, to confirm this universality ; as, “ There is none righteous, no, not one : They are all gone out of the way: There is none that understandeth," &c. But yet the universality of these expressions is nothing to this purpose, because the universal terms found in them have indeed no reference to any such universality as this the apostle speaks of, nor any thing akin to it; they mean no universality, either in the collective sense, or personal sense ; no universality of the nations of the world, or of particular persons in those nations, or in any one nation in the world : “But only of those of whom they are true.” That is, there are none of them righteous, of whom it is true that they are not righteous, no, not one: There are none. that understand, of whom it is true, that they understand not : They are all gone out of the way, of whom it is true, that they are gone out of the way, &c. Or if these expressions are to be understood concerning that strong party in Israel, in David's and Solomon's days, and in the prophets' days, they are to be understood of them universally. And what is that to the apostle's purpose ? How does such an universality of wickedness as this....that all were wicked in Israel, who were wicked ; or that there was a particular evil party, all of which were wicked, confirm that universality which the apostle would prove, viz. that all Jews and Gentiles, and the whole world, were wicked, and every mouth stopped, and that no flesh could be justified by their own righteousness.

Here nothing can be said to abate the nonsense but this, that the apostle would convince the Jews that they were capable of being wicked, as well as other nations ; and to prove it, he mentions some texts, which shew that there was a wicked party in Israel a thousand years ago ; and that as to the universal terms which happened to be in these texts, the apos!le had no respect to these ; but his reciting them is as it were accidental, they happened to be in some texts which speak of an evil party in Israel, and the apostle cites them as they are, not because they are any more to his purpose for the universal terms, which happen to be in them. But let the reader look on the words of the apostle, and observe the violence of such a supposition. Particularly let the words of the 9:h and 10th verses, and their connexion, be observed. “ All are under sin : As it is written, There is none righteous; no, not one." How plain is it, that the apostle cites that latter universal clause out of the 14th Psalm, to confirm

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