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he is distinguished from them. And though he is joined with them, yet this only defigns his presence in judiciary affairs; "who stands in the congrega❝tion of the mighty, and judges among the gods." Upon the whole, the argument in proof of Chrift's divinity, from the incommunicable name, Jehovah, being given to him, ftands firm and unshaken. I go on,


2. To fhew that he is called God abfolutely, and that both in the Old and in the New Testament. In Pfalm xlv. 6. it is said, Thy throne, O God, is "for ever and ever:" where by God is meant the Son; fince he is, in ver. 7. distinguished from God the Father, who is called his God; and is moreover faid to be anointed by him with the oil of gladness. But this is put beyond all dispute by the author of the epistle to the Hebrews, chap. i. 8. "But unto the "Son he faith, Thy throne, O God, &c." Again, in Ifa. xlv. 22, 23. a divine Perfon is introduced fpeaking thus: "Look unto me, and be ye faved, "all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is none elfe: I have "fworn by myfelf, &c." Which words are, by the apostle Paul, in Rom. xiv. 10-12. applied to Chrift. Many more paffages of the like nature might be produced out of the Old Teftament. I will but just mention one in the New Teftament, and that is in John i. 1. "In the beginning was the Word, "and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." We cannot be at a lofs who is meant by the Word; fince he is distinguished from God the Father, with whom he was, and is faid, in ver. 14. to be made flesh, and dwell among us. Nor is it any wonder that he should be called God abfolutely, and in the highest and most proper fenfe of the word; feeing he is in the form of God; and has thought it no robbery to be equal with him. But I proceed to observe,

3. That Chrift is called God, with fome additional epithets; fuch as our God, your God, their God, and my God. He is called our God, in Ifa. xxv. 9. and xl. 3. The fcope and circumstances of the texts manifeftly shew that the Meffiah is intended, whom the Jews were waiting for, and whofe forerunner and harbinger John the Baptift was to be. He is called your God, in Ifa. xxxv. 4, 5. "Behold, your God will come.-Then the eyes of the blind "fhall be opened, and the ears of the deaf fhall be unftopped:" all which were fulfilled in the times of the Meffiah, and by him appealed to as proofs of his Meffiahship and Deity. He is called the Lord their God, in Luke i. 16. which words" are, in ftrictness of construction', immediately connected with "the following word him; which must neceffarily be understood of Christ." Thomas calls him, in John xx. 28. "My Lord, and my God;" which words are not an apostrophe to the Father, but a full and ample confeffion of the Deity

Dr Clarke's fcripture-doctrine of the Trinity, N° 534.


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Now though angels, magiftrates,

Deity of Chrift, and his interest in him. and judges, are called gods, in an improper and metaphorical sense, yet are they never called our gods, your gods, &c. This way of speaking is peculiar to him who is truly and properly God. Again, one of the names of the Meffiah is Immanuel, Ifa. vii. 14. "which being interpreted, is God with us," Matt. i. 23. that is, God in our nature; cloathed with our flesh, and dwelling among us. Or, in other words, he is "God manifeft in the flesh," 1 Tim. iii. 16. on which text Dr Clarke himself obferves": That "it has been a great controversy among learned men, whether eds, or as, or, be the true reading in this place. But it is not in reality of great importance: for "the fenfe is evident, that that Perfon was manifeft in the flesh, whom St John, in the beginning of his gofpel, ftiles es, God." He is moreover called the mighty God, in Ifa. ix. 6. which prophecy, though the Jews would wreft to Hezekiah", yet their attempts have been vain and fruitless. It stands a glorious prophecy of the Meffiah, and is expreffive of his proper divinity, real humanity, and excellent offices; which offices he has took upon him for the good of his people, and is capable of performing them, because he is the Mighty God. Likewife he is faid to be "over all, God bleffed for ever," Rom. ix. 5. It is trifling to obferve, that when Chrift is faid to be over all, that the Father muft needs be excepted. For no one pleads for a fuperiority of the Son to the Father, but an equality with him nor is the ftress of the proof for Christ's divinity, from this text, laid upon his being over all; but upon his being God, blessed for ever. Again, Chrift is called, the Great God, in Tit. ii. 13. whofe glorious appearing, and not the Father's, the faints were looking for; and of whom the following words, "And our Saviour Jesus Christ," are plainly exegetical. It is objected, that this phrafe, "The "Great God, being, in the Old Teftament, the character of the Father, is " in the New Testament, never used of Christ, but of the Father only, Rev. "xix. 17." Which text in the Revelation, befides this in Titus, is the only one where this phrafe is ufed in the New Teftament; and manifeftly belongs to him who is called the Word of God, ver. 13. who is faid to have on his vesture, and on his thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords, ver. 16. and who is represented to John, as a mighty warrior, and triumphant conqueror, taking vengeance on the great men of the earth. And therefore, an angel calls to the fowls of the heaven, to come and gather themselves to the

a Dr Clarke's fcripture-doctrine of the Trinity, N° 540..

w See my book of the prophecies of the Old Teftament, refpecting the Meffiah, confidered, c. c. xiii. p. 200, 201, &c.

* Dr Clarke's fcripture-doctrine of the Trinity, N° 539. y Dr Clarke's commentary on 40 felect texts, &c. P. 86..

the fupper of this Great God; who appears to be no other than he who is before called the Word of God; which is a character that peculiarly belongs to Jefus Chrift. Once more, he is called the true God 7, 1 John v. 20. “And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, "that we may know him that is true: and we are in him that is true, even "in his Son Jefus Chrift. This is the true God and eternal life," that is, Jefus Chrift is the true God; for he is the immediate antecedent to the relative this; and is exprefsly, in this epiftle, chap. i. 2. faid to be eternal life. Since then Chrift is fo frequently called God, with thefe additional epithets, which are peculiar to the one only God, it follows, that he must be truly and properly God.

Secondly, The proper divinity of Chrift may be strongly concluded from the divine perfections which he is poffeffed of: "For in him dwelleth all the "fulness of the Godhead bodily." There is no perfection effential to Deity, but is in him; nor is there any that the Father has, but he has likwife; for he says, "All things that the Father hath, are mine." Independence and neceffary existence, are effential to Deity. He that is God, neceffarily exists; does not receive his Being from another; nor is he dependant on another; fuch is the Lord Jefus Chrift: for though he is not duloids, Son of himself, yet he is alouds, God of himself: though he, as man and Mediator, has a life communicated to him from the Father, and lives by the Father; yet, as God, he owes his Being to none; it is not derived from another: he is "over all, God bleffed for ever." Eternity is peculiar to the Godhead. He that is God, is from everlasting to everlasting. Jefus Chrift was not only before Abraham, but before Adam; yea, before any creature exifted. For if he is the ax, the beginning, the first cause of the creation of God; if he is wewrolóxos wáons lows, the first parent, bringer forth, or producer of every creature; if he was in the beginning of the creation of all things with God; and by him were all things made; then he must be before all things. As Mediator he was fet up from everlasting, and had a glory with his Father before the world was. His goings forth, or acting in the covenant of grace,

z See Dr Calamy's fermons, p. 56, 57, &c.

Rev. iii. 14.

a Col. ii. 9. d Col. i. 15.

b John xvi. 15.


This is the right interpretation of the text, if we only grant, that the accent (which were all added to the words long fince the apostles days) is misplaced; and that inftead of wewlóτoxos, the first born, it should have been gwloróxos, the firft bringer forth, or former of every creature. This alone will make the sense of the words clear and plain, and free them from all the difficulties which have arofe from this mistake. Bedford's Scripture Chronology, p. 163. in the margin. To which I would only add, That this sense of the word makes the apostle's reasoning in the following verfe to appear with much more beauty, ftrength and force.

on the behalf of his people, were of old, from everlafting. The elect of
God were chofen in him, before the foundation of the world; and had grace
given them in him, before the world began. In fine, he is the alpha and the
omega', the first and the last, the beginning and the ending; which is, and
which was, and which is to come; and therefore a very proper antitype of
Melchizedeck; "having neither beginning of days nor end of life." Again,
Omniprefence, and immenfity, belong to God. He that is God is every
where; is not confined to any place, but fills heaven and earth with his pre-
fence. Jefus Chrift was, as he was the Son of God, in heaven, whilft, as
the Son of man, he was here on earth, John iii. 13. which he could not be if
he was not the omniprefent God; any more than he could make good those
promises he makes, Matt. xviii. 20. and xxviii. 20. that he will be with his
people when they meet in his name, and with his minifters, unto the end of
the world. Nor could he walk in the midst of his golden candlestics, Rev.
ii. 1. or be present in all his churches, as he certainly is, and fill all things,
Epb. iv. 10. as he certainly does. Omniscience is another perfection of Deity,
which is easy to be observed in Jesus Christ. He knew what was in man,
even the secret thoughts and reasonings of the mind. He could tell the woman
of Samaria all that ever she did. He knew from the beginning who would.
believe in him, and who fhould betray him. Peter appealed to him as the
searcher of hearts, and faid: "Lord, thou knowest all things, thou knowest.
"that I love thee." He is indeed that divine Aéyos, or Word', that is a
difcerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart; who, in a fhort time will.
let all the churches know, that he it is who "searcheth the hearts and reins *."
And though he is faid not to know the day and hour of judgment'; yet, that
is to be understood of him, not as God, but as man. Omnipotence is.
another perfection effential to God, and may be truly predicated of Jefus
Christ, who is the Almighty". His works of creation, providence, and suf-
tentation; as also thofe of the redemption, and prefervation of his own people,
and the refurrection of them from the dead; which he has performed, and
does, and will perform," according to his mighty power, which is able to
“fubdue all things to himself," loudly proclaim his omnipotence. Once
more, He that is God is unchangeable, is without variableness or shadow of
turning. And of Jesus Christ, it is faid", That he is "the fame, and his
years fail not:" yea, that he is "the fame to-day,yesterday, and for ever."
In fine, whatever perfection is in God, is in Chrift; and therefore he must be
truly, properly, and effentially God.

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Thirdly, The true and proper Deity of Chrift, may be fully proved from the divine works which he has performed. Indeed, he "can do nothing of himself, but what he feeth the Father do ";" that is, he can do nothing but what the Father is concerned in with him: or, he can do nothing that is oppofite to his will, or that is not in his power: for "my Father worketh hitherto, and I work." They work together as coefficient caufes: though they work in diftinction, yet not in contradiction to each other: "for what things foever he (the Father) doth, thefe alfo, pois, in like manner doth the Son." The works which prove his Deity, are these: The creation of all things out of nothing; upholding all I things by the word of his power; performance of miracles; the redemption of his people; the refurrection of the dead; and the laft judgment. That all things, vifible and invifible, were created by the image of the invifible God, is ftrongly afferted by the apostle Paul: and that all things were made by the Logos, or Word, and that "without him was not any thing made that was "made," is as fully attefted by the evangelift John'. Indeed, God is faid to create all things by Jefus Chrift, and by his Son to make the world: but then Chrift is not to be confidered as the Father's inftrument, which he used in making them; for he made ufe of none; but as a coefficient caufe, equally working with him. The propofition a, does not always intend the inftrumental caufe; it is fometimes used of God the Father. If now the creation, which is purely a divine work, is afcribed to Chrift, and he is properly the Creator of all things, then he himself cannot be a creature; and if not a creature, he must be God; for between God and a creature there is no medium. Moreover, as he has made all things, fo by him all things confift; they have their dependance on him. As he has laid the foundations of the earth, so he bears up the pillars thereof; yea, he upholds all things by the word of his power, or they would fall into their first nothing; which he could not do, if he was not truly God. The miracles which he wrought in his own perfon here on earth, and which were wrought by his apoftles through his divine power, are not only proofs that he is exóm, the Meffiah that was to come; but alfo, that the Father is in him, and he in the Father; or, in other words, that he is the Son of God, and equal with him. The redemption of God's people, obtained by Christ at the expence of his blood and life, is a full demonftration of his Deity. Had he not been God, he would not have been equal to the work; nor would the Father have entrusted him with it; nor would he have undertaken it. The reafon why he is mighty to fave, is because he is the mighty God. It is his true and real Deity which has put a proper

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