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"world." Alfo, in the fame writings, the creation of all things in general, is afcribed to the Word. Those words in Deut. xxxiii. 27. "The eternal God is thy refuge; and underneath are the everlasting arms;" are by Onkelos paraphrafed, "The eternal God is an habitation; by whose Word the world was "made." And in Isa. xlviii. 13. "Mine hand alfo hath laid the foundation "of the earth." Targum, "Yea, by my Word I have founded the earth." Juft as the apoftle Paul fays, Heb. xi. 3. And Peter, 2 Peter iii. 5, 7. And the author of the apocryphal book of Wisdom, chap. ix. 1. With which entirely agree the fentiments of Philo; who not only fpeaks of the Word as an organ", or inftrument, which God ufed in the creation of all things; but as the archetype", paradigm, exemplar, and idea, according to which all things were made: Yea, he calls him dúrapis xooμomcinlix, the power which made the world; and afcribes the creation of man to him; after whofe image he fays he was made and alfo, the creation of the heavens and the earth, and all that is in them. Again, When John calls the Word the Light, he makes ufe of a word which was known among the Jews to be the name of the Meffiah, of whom they understand Pfalm xliii. 3. "O fend out thy light and thy truth':" and Dan. ii. 22. "And the Light dwelleth with him." Philo fpeaks of an intelligible Light, which he makes to be the image of the divine Word; and thinks it may be properly called waraysia, the univerfal Light; which is pretty much like what John fays of the Word, whom he calls "the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world."

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Once more, John fpeaks of the incarnation of the Word; and fays, That he "was made flesh, and dwelt among us," Philo calls the Word ", The man of God; who, he fays, being the Word of the Eternal, is himself neceffarily immortal. And in the fame book ", he calls him the man after God's image.


m Σκια Θεῷ δὲ ὁ Λόγῳ ἀὐτῷ ἐεὶν, ᾧ καθάπερ ὀργάνῳ προσχρησάμενος, ἔκοσμοποίει. Ibid. Lege Alleg. 1. 2. p. 79. And elsewhere, speaking of the most ancient Word, whom the Governor of the universe uses as a rudder to fteer and direct all things, he adds; Xpnoάμsvog oprávy rółw πρὸς τὴν ἀνυπαίτιον τῶν ἀπολελυμένων σύςασιν. Ibid. de migratione Abraham, p. 389.

ο Δῆλον δὲ ὅτι καὶ ἡ ἀρχίτυπος σφραγὶς, ὃν φαμὲν εἶναι κόσμον νοητὸν, αυτὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἀρχέτυπον • Ibid. p. 4. παράδειγμα, ἰδέα τῶν ἰδεῶν, ὁ Θεὖ Λόγος. Ibid. de mundi opificio, p. 5.

Ρ ̓Ακόλυθον ἦν τῆς ἀνθρώπε ψυχῆς κατὰ τὸν ἀρχέτυπον τῷ ἀιία Λόγον ἀπεικονισθείσης. Ibid. De plantatione Noc, p. 217. Vide Ib. Leg. Alleg. 1. 2. p. 79. Et de mundi opificio, p. 31.

Leg. Alleg. 1. 1. p. 44. Et de temulentia, p. 244.

Bereshit Rabba, fol. 1. 3. Echa Rabbati, fol. 50. 2.

Philo de mundi epificio, p. 6.

R. Sol. Jarchi in loc.

ο “Ένα καὶ τὸν αὐτὸν ἐπιγεγραμμένοι πατέρα ό θνητὸν, ἀλλ ̓ ἀθάνατον, ἄνθρωπον Θεῷ, ὅς τῷ αἰδίᾳ Aby ŵr, i dvayns xai avlés is aplapl. Philo de confuf. ling. p. 326.

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And it is easy to obferve an agreement between Jefus Chrift, who wou, tabernacled among us, and the Shekinah of the Jews. The words in Lev. xxvi. 11, 12. are thus paraphrafed by Onkelos; "I will fend my tabernacle among you, and my Word fhall not reject you: And I will caufe my "Shekinah to dwell among you, &c." And the author of the apocryphal book of Baruch, speaks of wifdom or understanding, which is the fame with the Word, as appearing on earth and converfing with men. Now thefe Jewish. writers fpeak of the Word after this manner, either on the account of his appearances in an human form, under the Old Testament-difpenfation, or on the account of his future incarnation, which John could fpeak of as paft. And whereas John calls the Word the only begotten of the Father, Philo' fays, "That he is the Father's most ancient Son, his first born; who being begotten by him, imitated his Father's ways; and seeing his exemplars, did the same "things he did." From the whole it is manifeft, that there is a great likeness between what the evangelift John, and thefe Jewish writers fay of the Word. And whether he borrowed the phrafe from them or no, yet it is plain that he expreffed the traditional fenfe of his nation. Philo's works were wrote before his time; as were alfo fome of the Chaldee paraphrases. A Socinian writer", in order to fhew that John did not take Aéyos from the Targums, endeavours to prove them to be of a latter date than they are thought to be; about which, we need not be much concerned and also, that by the Word they never intend a reasonable Person, fubfifting by himself; which the inftances already produced, confute: to which more might be added, was it requifite. But there is no need to say that John borrowed this phrafe from the Jewish Targums; but,

3. From the scriptures of the Old Testament. He manifeftly refers to the history of the creation; where, no lefs than eight times, we read that God faid, "Let it be so, and it was fo:" which phrase so often repeated, remains no longer a mystery to us; fince John has told us, "That by the Word all things "are made;" in perfect agreement with what the Pfalmift fays, in Pfalm xxxiii. 6. "By the Word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the "hoft of them, by the breath of his mouth." Many inftances may be given, where the Word intends a divine Perfon. See 2 Sam. vii. 21. compared with 1 Chron.

H 2

* Μετὰ τῦτο ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ὤφθη, καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις συνανετράφη. Baruch iii. 37.

· Τῶτον μὲν γὰρ πρεσβύτατον υἱὸν ὁ τῶν ὄντων ἀνέτειλε πατήρ, ὃν ἑτέρωθι πρωτόγονον ὠνόμασε, καὶ ὃ γεννηθεὶς μέντοι μιμόμεν· τὰς τῷ πατρὸς ὁδες, παραδείγματα ἀρχέτυπα ἐκείνε βλέπων, ἐμόρφε εἴδη. Philo de confus. ling. p. 329. Which is very much like what the evangelift John fays of the Son of God, in John v. 19.

z Bilibra veritatis, &c. Contr. Rittangel. Ed. Freiftad. 1700.

1 Chron. xvii. 19. and Hag. ii. 4, 5. Pfalm cvii. 20. From whence John might eafily take this phrafe, and apply it to a divine Perfon, as he does. And fome have thought that our Lord uses it himself in the fame fenfe, John v. 38. So that John might take it immediately from him; whofe words, in many instances, he takes a peculiar delight in making use of. But I haften,

Secondly, To enquire whether any other infpired writer of the New Testament makes ufe of this phrafe, befides the evangelift John. And upon enquiry, it will appear, that the evangelift Luke, the apostles Paul and Peter use it in the fame fenfe. So that though the evangelift John ufes it more frequently than they may, yet it is not peculiar to him. The evangelift Luke is thought to use it in chap. i. 2. and by it, to intend Chrift the Word; when he speaks of the difciples as eye-witneffes, and minifters, or fervants of the Word; who, in much greater propriety of speech, may be said to be eye-witneffes of Chrift, according to 2 Pet. i. 16. and fervants or followers of him, than of the gofpel, or written word. And it feems very agreeable, that Luke, intending to write a history of the life and actions of Christ, should, in his preface to Theophilus, make mention of him under fome name, or another, fome title, or character; which he does not, if he is not intended by the Word.

The apostle Paul ufes the phrafe in this fenfe, As xx. 32. where, taking his farewel of the elders of the church at Ephesus, he commends them to God, and to the Word of his grace: where, by the Word of his grace, I understand not the gospel, or written word, but Jefus Chrift, who is full of grace and truth. My reafons for it are these :

1. Because the faints never commend themselves, or others, either in life or in death, to any but a divine Perfon. The word here ufed', fignifies a committing a perfon, or thing, to the care, charge, and protection of another. Now none but a divine Perfon is capable of taking the care and charge of the faints, and of making the fame good: neither will the faints truft any other, nor do they. In life they commit their fouls to God as to a faithful Creator; and reft entirely fatisfied herein, as the apoftle Paul did; who could fay: "I know "whom I have believed," whom I have trusted with my immortal foul; into whofe hands I have committed the falvation of it: "And I am perfuaded, "that he is able to keep that which I have committed to him, against that day." Now certainly to whom he committed himself, he also committed others; having had experience of Chrift's care, faithfulness, and ability, he could, and undoubtedly did, commend the faints unto him, with the utmost pleasure and fatisfaction. And as in life, fo likewise in death they commend themselves


2 Gomarus in Luke i. 2. and in John i. 1. and in Heb. iv. 12. and Arrowsmith in John i. 1. Ο παρατίθεμαι Hapalioua fignificat in genere, patrocinio, curæ, ac tutelæ alterius aliquid commendare, Beza.

themselves to none but a divine person, in imitation of Chrift; who, in his last moments faid: "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.”

2. To put the written word upon a level with the divine Being, does not appear very agreeable. A commendation of the faints equally to the written word, as to God himself, seems to me to be a leffening of the glory of the divine Being, and an afcribing too much to the written word; but fuits well with Chrift, the effential Word, "who being in the form of God, thought it "no robbery to be equal with God." To commend the faints equally to Christ, as to God the Father, is no diminution of the Father's glory; nor is it giving Christ more than his due, or than what he is able to perform; but a commendation of them to the gospel seems to be fo.

3. The faints are never faid to be committed or commended to the gospel; but that to them. The written word is committed to the care and keeping of the faints; but not the faints to the care and keeping of that. They are in the hands, and are made the care and charge of Chrift. We frequently read of God's committing the written word unto the faints, and especially to the ministers of it; and of their committing it unto others; as in 2 Cor. v. 19. 1 Tim. i. 11—18. and vi. 20. and 2 Tim. i. 14, and ii. 2. but never of the faints being committed to the written word.

4. What is here afcribed unto the Word, is more applicable to Chrift than to the written word. Though the gospel is an inftrument in the hands of the Spirit, in building up faints in their most holy faith; yet Chrift is the great master builder; it is he that builds the temple, and must bear the glory. Though the gospel may be as a map, which fhews us where our inheritance lies, and which is the way unto it; yet it is Chrift who gives it us, and puts us into the poffeffion of it: it is in, by, or through him, that we obtain the inheritance. For these reasons, I apprehend, that not the gofpel or written word, but Chrift, the effential Word, is intended: nor am I alone in the fenfe of this text.

Again, The apostle Paul is thought to use the phrase in this fenfe, Heb. iv. 12. "For the Word of God is quick and powerful, and sharper than any "two-edged fword, piercing even to the dividing afunder of foul and spirit, "and of the joints, and marrow; and is a difcerner of the thoughts and "intents of the heart." This is not fo applicable to the written word as to Christ, who is an Aóyos T, the living Word of God, or the Word of God, which liveth, as the words may be rendered. He is that Word that was made flesh, fuffered, and died; but is now alive and lives for evermore; and may truly

e Vide Arrowsmith in John i. 1. and Gomarus in id. and în Luke i. 2, and in Heb. iv. 12.. Arrowsmith, ibid. Gomarus in id. and in Hek, iv. 12. and Dr Owen in Heb. iv. 12. .


truly be faid to be ingrès, powerful, or efficacious. For fo he is in his fufferings and death, being mighty to fave; as alfo in his mediation and interceffion at the Father's right hand; and will ere long appear to be fharper than any two-edged fword, at his coming to judge the world at the laft day. Then he will pierce, to the dividing afunder of foul and fpirit, and of the joints, and marrow, and will shew himself to be prinòs, a critical discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart; for he will then "bring to light the hidden things of "darkness, and make manifest the counsels of the heart;" and will let " all "the churches," yea, all the world, angels and men, know that he it is "which fearcheth the reins and hearts;" all which cannot be fo well applied to the written word. Befides, the following verfe makes the fenfe ftill more plain, which is clofely connected with this, by the copulative a: "And "there is not any creature which is not manifest in his fight; but all things "are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do:" where the apostle manifeftly speaks of a Person, and not of a thing; and of fuch an one as is omnifcient; and to whom we must give an account at the day of judgment. The words ægès rèv nμì ô xóyos, in the last clause, may be rendered, "To whom we must give an account." Now to whom muft we give an account? not to the written word, but to a divine Perfon, as the apostle fays: "So then every one of us fhall give an account of himself to "God." Ministers are accountable for preaching the word, and people for hearing it; but the account will be given not to the written word, but to Chrift, the living Word. Moreover, in ver. 14. this Word is faid to be an high priest, who is paffed into the heavens for us; which can be no other than Christ, who having affumed our nature, and offered himself a sacrifice for us, as an high priest, is paffed into the heavens; where he ever lives to make interceffion for us: which the apostle ufes as an argument with believers, to hold fast their profeffion, and to come with boldness to the throne of grace. I cannot but observe, that many things which the apoftle here fays of the Word, are faid of the Logos, by Philo the Jew; who, as he makes the cherubim in Gen. iii. 24. fymbols of God's two powers, his goodness and power'; fo likewise the flaming fword a fymbol of his Logos, or Word; which he makes to be very swift and fervent. Elsewhere he fays, That God, by his Logos,

e Rom. 14. 12.

f ̓Αρχῆς μὲν ἦν καὶ ἀγαθότητος τῶν δυνάμεων τὰ χερεβὶμ είναι σύμβολα" Λόγε δὲ τὴν φλογίνην ξομφαίαν. Ὀξυκινητόταλον γὰρ καὶ θερμὸν Λόγος, &c. Philo de cherubim, p. 112.

ε ᾧ τομεῖ τῶν συμπάντων ἀυλῷ λόγῳ, ὃς εἰς τὴν ὀξυλάτην ἀκονηθεὶς ἀκμὴν, διαιρῶν ὐδέποτε λήγει τὰ ἀισθητὰ πάντα ἐπειδὰν μέχρι τῶν ἀτόμων, καὶ λεγομένων ἀμερῶν διεξέλθη. Πάλιν ἀπὸ τέτων, τὰ Λόγῳ θεωρητα τις ἀμυθήτες καὶ ἀπεριγράφεις μοίρας ἄρχεται διαιρεῖν ὗτος ὁ τομεὺς. Ibid. Quis rerum divin. Hæref. p. 499.


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