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corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day that ye have brought an offering unto your God : [it shall be] a statute for
ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. 15 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the
sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave 16 offering ; seven sabbaths shall be complete : Even unto the
morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty
days ;* and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the Lord. 17 Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two
tenth deals : they shall be of fine flour ; they shall be baken
with leaven ; [they are] the first fruits of the wheat harvest 18 unto the LORD. And ye shall offer with the bread seven
lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams : they shall be [for] a burnt offering unto the LORD, with their meat offering, and their drink of
ferings, [even) an offering made by fire, of sweet savour unto 19 the LORD. Then ye shall sacrifice one kid of the goats for a
sin offering, and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of 20 peace offerings. And the priest shall wave them with the
bread of the first fruits (for) a wave offering before the LORD,
with the two lambs : they shall be holy to the Lord for the 21 priest. And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, [that] it.
may be an holy convocation unto you : ye shall do no servile work (therein : it shall be] a statute for ever in all your
dwellings throughout your generations.t 22 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not
make clean riddance of the corners of thy field when thou reapest, neither shalt thou gather any gleaning of thy harvest : thou shalt leave them unto the poor, and to the stran
ger : I [am] the Lord your God. 23 24 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the
children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first
[day] of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of 25 blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation. Ye shall do no
servile work (therein ;] but ye shall offer an offering made by
fire unto the LORD. 26 27 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Also on the,
tenth [day] of this seventh month (there shall be) a day of
• Hence called Pentecost, Acts il. ). I Cor. xvi. 8. or, the Feast of Weeks, Deut. xvi: * 50. It was about the middle of May.
This feast was only observed one day ; probably because it was a busy time, at the beginning of their wheat harvest. It was kept in remembrance of their coming out of Egypt, and the giving of the law at this season. Dedicating their first fruits to God, was a natural acknowledyment of his universal providence ; the heathen had such a custom among them. It was wisely appointed, that at this feast the Spirit should be poured out on the apostles, because multitudes of Jews were then at Jerusalem ; the days were at the longest; the roads best, and great numbers attended beside the men. The promulgation of the gospel answered to that of the law; and as the first fruits were then presented, so the first fruits of the christian church were then gathered in and presented to God.
I This was the first day of their new civil year, and it was introduced with a peculiar solemnity, called the Feast of Trumpets.
atonement : (ch. xvi. 30. Numb. xxix. 7.) it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls with fasting, and bitter repentance, for all your sins, but especially
national sins, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD. 28 And ye shall do no work in that same day : for it [is] a day of
atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD 29 your God. For whatsoever soul sit be that shall not be af
flicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from among his 30 people. And whatsoever soul (it be] that doeth any work in
that same day, though it escape the eye and judgment of man,
it shall not escape my judgment, for the same soul will I de%1 stroy from among his people. Ye shall do no manner of
work : [it shall be] a statute for ever throughout your gener32 ations in all your dwellings. It shall be] unto you a sabbath
of rest, and ye shall aflict your souls : in the ninth [day] of
enth month [shall be] the feast of tabernacles (for) seven 35 days unto the LORD.* On the first day (shall be] an holy 36 convocation : ye shall do no servile work (therein.] Seven
days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD ; on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD : it [is]
a solemn assembly ; [and] ye shall do no servile work (there37 in.t] These [are] the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall pro
claim (to be] holy convocations, to offer an offering made by
fire unto the Lord, a burnt offering and a meat offering, a sac38 rifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day : Beside
the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all
your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give 39 unto the LORD. Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month,
when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land,i ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days : on the first day
[shall be] a sabbath, and on the eighth day (shall be] a sab40 bath. And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of
• At this feast they were to make booths, or arbours ; in remembrance of God's pro, tection of them in the wilderness, when they dwelt in booths or tabernacles, v. 43. and to show their thankfulness for the fruits now reaped, Deut. xvi. 13, 14. ..
+ On this day they removed out of the booths into their houses again, and so it de noted their settlement in the land of Canaan, after their forty years' abode in the wil. derness. In the latter years of the Jewish state there were some circumstances added, which were not of divine institution ; particularly, a custom of pouring water, drawr from the pool of Siloam, on the altar; some say, as an acknowledgment of God's goodness in giving them rain ; others say, of their drinking water in the wilderness: but rather, in token of their desire and expectation of the effusion or pouring out of the Spirit in the days of the Messiah. On that great day of the feast, Jesus stoud and cried, saying, If any mon thirst, let him come unto me and drink. John vii. 37.
Not corn, which was gathered long before, but of vines, olives, &c. hence called the Toast of Ingathering. Exod. xxiii, 16
goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook ; and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days, in remembrance of former de
liverances, CV, 43.) for your present blessings, (Deut. xvi. 15.) 41 and in expectation of future good things. And ye shall keep
it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year. [It shall be)
a statute for ever in your generations : ye shall celebrate it 42 in the seventh month. Ye shall dwell in booths seven days ;* 43 all that are Israelites barn shall dwell in booths : That your
generations may know that I made the children of Israel to
dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of 14 Egypt : I [am] the LORD your God. And Moses declared
unto the children of Israel the feasts of the LORD.
1. T ROM hence we learn, that it is our duty to devote
T a considerable part of our time to God's service ; he is the author of our life, and of all our comforts ; and therefore should be served with the best. Let us not grudgé him that time which should be appropriated to his worship ; but redeem some part of every day for religious purposes. We are under peculiar obligations to keep the sabbath holy, because no other time is made sacred under the gospel. The Jews observed it from evening till evening, that is, the whole day; and it is reasonable that we should devote the whole of it to God. Let us remember, as it is observed, v. 30. that whatsoever soul it be that doeth any work in that day, the same soul will I destroy, from among his people. God observes if we do any unnecessary work, and, though it may not be taken notice of by human laws, he will call us to an account for it. Ye shall keep the sabbath in all your dwellings ; not only in God's house, but also in your own. This is a most important law ; public ordinances do little good, without the fear and worship of the Lord in our own dwellings. .
2. Let us commemorate the greater and more important mercies which God hath granted to us. The Israelites had deliverance from Egypt, but we have deliverance from sin and Satan. They had the passover, but Christ, our passover, is sacrificed for us ; therefore let us keep the feast with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. They had their pentecost ; let us remem. ber the effusion of the Spirit. They had their feast of tabere nacles ; let us acknowledge the goodness of God to us, while passing through this world ; in feeding and clothing us, guiding us by his providence, and giving us views of the heavenly Canaan. They had their day of atonement ; let us remember the great
• These in Jerusalem were made on the tops of houscs, in court yards, in gardens, ja the streets, &c.
atonement, the sacrifice of Christ, to which the sacrifices under the law had regard, and were designed to typify.
3. Let us honour the Lord with our substance, as we desire his blessing. They offered their first fruits to God ; let us acknowledge his goodness and mercy in the blessings of harvest, and our plentiful provisions ; nor let us forget to do good and to communicate, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased. It was attended with great expense to come to these feasts at Jerusalem, where lodgings and provisions were scarce and dear, as a considerable part of their cattle were taken with them to be used for sacrifices. Since we are delivered from all these expensive rites, let us grudge nothing that we can do for God, his cause, or people, and for his ministers too. This is the way to obtain his blessing, which maketh rich, and addeth no sorrow with it.
In this chapter we have directions about the lamps and the shem
bread for the sanctuary : and the conviction and execution of a blasphemer, &c. 1 AND the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Command 2 1 the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee, at the
public charge, pure oil olive beaten, run from the olive, just
bruised, and not squeezed or, firessed in a mill, for the light, to 3 cause the lamps to burn continually, every night. Without
the veil of the testimony, in the tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron and his family, all the priests, order it from
the evening unto the morning before the LORD continually : 4 [it shall be) a statute for ever in your generations. He shall
order the lamps upon the pure candlestick, the candlestick of
pure gold, before the LORD continually.* 5 And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes
thereof, answerable to the number of the twelve tribes represent, 6 ed by them : two tenth deals shall be in one cake. And thou
shalt set them in two rows, six on a row, upon the pure
table before the LORD, on the table covered with pure gold. 7 And thou shalt put pure frankincense upon (each] row, that
it may be on the bread for a memorial, [even] an offering 8 made by fire unto the Lord. Every sabbath he shall set it
in order before the LORD continually, it shall be renewed every sabbath by the priests who minister in their courses, [being taken] from the children of Israel, at the common expense, by
• Some think the lamps burned all day, as well as all night, because there were no Windows in the tabernacle.
+ when Mie bread was eaten this was to be burned, probably on the altar of incense.
an everlasting covenant between God and them, in which they 9 engaged to observe these laws, (1 Chron. ix. 32.) And it shall
be Aaron's and his sons' ; and they shall eat it in the holy place, afier it hath stood a week upon the table before the Lord : for it (is) most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD
made by fire by a perpetual statute. * 10 And the son of an Israelitish woman, whose father (was]
an Egyptian, went out among the children of Israel, came with them out of Egypt : and this son of the Israelitish (woman] and a man of Israel strove together in the camp ; we
are not told the ground of their quarrel, but the contention grew 11 warm ; And the Israelitish woman's son blasphemed the
name [of the LORD,] and cursed, uttered some reproachful speeches in his fury against God, (v. 15, 16.) And they brought him unto Moses : (and his mother's name (was]
Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan ;) 12 And they put him in ward, that the mind of the Lord might
be showed them ; there being then no particular law against 13 blasphemy, Moses sought direction from God. And the LORD 14 spake unto Moses, saying, Bring forth him that hath cursed,
without the camp, as an unclean thing ; and let all that heard Thim] lay their hands upon his head, to mark out the man, and give evidence against him ; to denote that having witnessed nothing but the truth, they were free from his blood, which therefore must be on his own head ; and to imply that he was to be
a sacrifice to the justice of God; and let all the congrega15 tion stone him. And thou shalt speak unto the children of
Israel, saying, Henceforth this shall be the law in all such cases, 16 whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin. And he that
blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death, [and] all the congregation shall certainly stone him : as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemcth the name [of the LORD,] shall be put
to death.t 17 And he that killeth any man shall surely be put to death. 18 And he that killeth a beast shall make it good ; beast for 19 beast. And if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour ; as 20 he hath done, so shall it be done to him ; Breach for breach,
eye for eye, tooth for tooth : as he hath caused a blemish in 21 a man, so shall it be done to him (again.] And he that kill
eth a beast, he shall restore it : and he that killeth a man, 22 he sball be put to death. Ye shall have one manner of law,
as well for the stranger, as for one of your own country : for I sam] the Lord your God. See Exodus xxi.
* God being King of the Jews, the tabernacle was his palace, the priests his servants; The lamps were to light his palace, the incense to perfume it; the sacrifices and shew bread were the provisions of his house and table, and the priests, as God's household and servants, were to partake of what came from his table.
· † The stranger was not obliged to worship God in their way ; in this he was lek to kis own choice; but if he blasphemed the God of Israel, he was to be puc to death.