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CHAP. XII. 1—28.

God had promised to Abraham, in Gen. xv. 13, 14, 'Know of « surety that thy teed shall be a stranger in a land that is not their*, and shall serve them and they shall afflict them four hundred years; and also that nation, whom they shall serve, urill I judge; and afterward shall they come out with great substance ;' in this chapter we have the fulfilment of that prophecy.

1 AND the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land

2 .XJL of Egypt, saying, This month jtbib [shall be] unto you the beginning of months: it [shall be] the first month of the year to you.*

.3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth [day] of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of [their] fathers, a lamb for

4 an house: And if the household be too little for the lamb, too few to eat it at one meal, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take [it] according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb; every master of a family shall compute how much his family useth to eat, and shall take sucA a share of the lamb as may suffice them.

3 Your lamb shall be without blemish; intimating that God must be served with the best; a male of the first year, or, about a year old: ye shall take [it] out from the sheep, or

* from the goats: And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening; tlie Hebrew signifies, between the two evenings, between three o'clock and sunset, t

T And they shall take of the blood, and strike [it] on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it; not on the threshold, lest it should be profaned, as trampling upon any thing was reckoned to do.

• And they shall eat the flesh in that m^h\.\ following the fourteenth, and beginning the fifteenth day, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; [and] with bitter [herbs] they shall eat it.

9 This was to remind them of their bitter bondage in Egypt. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast [with] fire ; his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof,

* Thai the beginning of their year was changed; it was before this command in tho middle of September, but now in the middle of March. Hence in all reckonings of the months in scripture, where they are numerically named, this is counted the first, and the others as they lie in order from this.

t Every master of an house was to kill it in the presence of his whole family, which ssude him a priest in his bouse ; but afterward it was restrained to the priests only.

. T The lamb was killedon the fourteenth day in theevening, that is, after three o'clock, ». 6, bat was eaten that night, which was the beginning of the fifteenth d jy.

10 all the entrail* that are properfor food. And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning, fur any superstitious use; like some of the ancient idolaters, who preserved some part of the sacrifices for superstitious purposes; but ye shall entirety consume yours: and that which remaineth of it until the

11 morning y» shall burn with fire. And thus shall ye eat it at this time; [with] your loins girded, your long garments tied up, your shoes on your feet, as a sign and token of your liberty, Cfor slaves always went barefoot,) and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste ; like persons on the point of departing: it [is] the Lord's passover; that is, a sign of his passing over you and your houses, when he comes to destroy the Egyp.

. tians.

12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judg

13 ment :* I [am] the Lord. And the blood which sliall be sprinkled on the doorposts shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye [are ;] not to direct the destroying angel, but to confirm your faith and hope: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to

14 destroy [you,] when I smite the land of Egypt.f And this day shall be unto you for a memorial of this deliverance from Egypt, and a type of your redemption by Christ; and ye shall keep it a feast to the Lord throughout your generations, as a time of rejoicing for your deliverance: ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever, every year, all the days of your life, or rather, tii( the coming of Christ who is our passover, 1 Cor. v, 7, 8,

15 Seven days after the passover shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day after the passover ye shall put away leaven put of your houses :\ for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel, be excommunicated, or cut off by the hand of God, as a rebel against him; as one who hath renounced his

16 religion and his covenant. And in the first day [there shall be] an holy convocation, a solemn day of public worship, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save [that] which

17 every man must cat, that only may be done of you.|| And ye

* This was designed tn show them the vanity of idols and to confirm their faith in the God of Israel. An heathen writer says, that an earthquake threw down their temples also.

t r.piphanivt tells OS, that the Egyptians used at this time of the year to mark their, cattle, trees, and one another with red ochre, which they fancied to be a preservative from Ueath ; it probably took its rise from hence.

J This was to be a memorial of their speedy departure out of Eg)pt, when they had not time to leaven their bread.

|On the first of these holy days thajr delivrrance was begun, by the death of the first, horn of Eeypt; and on the last of them their deliverance Wjs completed, by the drowning s>f Pharaoh and his host in the sea.

shall observe [the feast of] unleavened bread: for in this selfsame day have I by my angel brought your armies, all your 'tribes, like a triumphant army, out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordi

18 nance for ever. In the first [month,] on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the

19 one and twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger,

20 that is, a proselyte, or one born in the land. Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.

21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, to give them the directions he had received Jrom God, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a Iamb according to your families, and kill thepassover, that is, the lamb appoinled for a memorial.

22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip [it] in the blood that [is] in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts, with the blood that [is] in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morn

23 ing. For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians ; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the Lord will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite

24 [you.*] And ye shall observe this thing, this commandment of the passovcr, but not all these rites and ceremonies of it,

25 for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the Lord will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service, and instruct your children and house

26 holds in the nature and design of it. And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by

27 this service? That ye shall say, It [is] the sacrifice of the Lord's passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped God, in token of their thankful acknowledgment of his favour, and cheerful submission to his command and ordinance.

38 And the children of Israel went away, and did as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

* God could have distinguished them without this blood, and preserved them if they had gone out; but it was his own appointed method for their safety, and had they neglected it, they would have been justly destroyed. Thus it is said, Heb. xL 28. Through Uith he, that ;s, Moses, kept the passover and sprinktint of blood, that is, through faith m GodN declara. pion, and jn this condition of their preservation.

REFLECTIONS.

I. T E T us be thankful that Christ our passover was sacrifiei ^ ed for us. He is the Lamb of God, without blemish and without spot. Let us rejoice in his sacrifice. The sprinkling of the blood of Jesus was designed to purge our conscience», and so «ave us from the wrath to come.

2. Let us keep the Christian feast in a gospel manner ; not vfith the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity; mingling sincere repentance with our joy; and -whatever ine do, do it heartily as unto the Lord.

3. Let us do what we can to transmit the memory of this transaction from generation to generation. If it was reasonable for the Israelites to teach their children the meaning of the passover, much more should we teach ours the nature and design of gospel ordinances. Children should ask parents the meaning of Baptism and the Lord's Supper; and parents should labour to understand them, and be careful to explain them, and do it frequently, that they may know the obligations they are under, and be brought to join themselves to the Lord in the bonds of an everlasting covenant, never to be forgotten.

CHAP. XII. 29, to the end.

We have here the last and most dreadful plague of Egypt; Israel's departure i and some further directions about the passover.

29 Д N D it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote ¿\. all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, his son and heir, unto the firstborn ef the captive that .[was] in the dungeon, the house of the /it/, that t«, the drawers of voter; and all the

30 firstborn of cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt ; for [there was] not a house where [there was] not one dead, where there vías anyßrstborn s«n.*

31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, [and] get you forth from among my people, both y* and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye

32 have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also, firayfor me that I may

33 not perish. And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; fof . *hey said, We [be] all dead [men,] we shall all be destroyed.

* Thil was at midnight, when asleep, and they thought themselves secure. They expected some comfort after the three days ofrbrkness, when this ffreat calaniitv catne upon •hem Thus God fulfilled his threatening, chap. xi. 5. and awfully punished mem for the death of those children of the Israelites, whom they had destroyed.

34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes upon their

35 shoulders. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed, or requested, of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:

86 And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent, or gave freely, unto them [such things as they required.] And they spoiled the Egyptians.

37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses, their place of general rendezvous, to Succoth, so called, because they there dwelt in tents or booths; about six hundred thousand on

38 foot [that were] men, beside women and children. And a mixed multitude went up also with them, strangers of several nations ;* and flocks, and herds, [even] very much cattle.

39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened ; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither

'40 had they prepared for themselves any victual. Now the sojourning/rem place toplace of the children of Israel, and their fathers who dwelt in Egypt, [was] four hundred and thirty

41 years.f And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt.

42 It [is] a night to be much observed, or, as in the Hebrew, a night of observations, unto the Lord for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this [is] that night of the Lord to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations, in which his power, mercy, andfaithfulness appeared.

43 And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaron, This [is] the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger, that is,

44 no uncircumcised gentile, eat thereof: But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised

45 him, then shall he eat thereof. A foreigner, and an hired

46 servant shall not eat thereof. In one house shall it be eaten, to promote family piety, and brotherly love; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house: neither

47 shall ye break a bone thereof. All the congregation of Israel

48 shall keep it. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircum.

49 cised person shall eat thereof. One law shall be to him that

* At least fifteen hundred thousand in all; some writers say, more than two millions. A'vast increase from seventy souls!

t That is, from the time of Abraham's departure from Haran, Cm. xii. I—5, to the giving of the law, as the apostle shows. Cat. Hi. 16,17. Abraham and his postertty were two hundred *ad fifteen years in Canaan, and two hundred and fifteen years in £gypt.

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