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lent clergy were either massacred or robbed of tles of their interest, and as their soldiers, how all, and transported—the Christian religion, in should we feel if we were to be excluded from all its denominations, forbidden and persecuted all their cartels? How must we feel if the pride
- the law, totally, fundamentally, and in all its and flower of the English nobility and gentry; parts, destroyed—the judges put to death by rev- who might escape the pestilential clime and the olutionary tribunals—the peers and commons devouring sword, should, if taken prisoners, be robbed to the last acre of their estates; mas- delivered over as rebel subjects, to be condemned sacred if they stayed, or obliged to seek life in as rebels, as traitors, as the vilest of all criminflight, in exile, and in beggary—that the whole als, by tribunals formed of Maroon negro slaves, landed property should share the very same fate covered over with the blood of their masters, —that every military and naval officer of honor who were made free, and organized into judges and rank, almost to a man, should be placed in for their robberies and murders? What should the same description of confiscation and exile, we feel under this inhuman, insulting, and barthat the principal merchants and bankers should barous protection of Muscovites, Swedes, or Holbe drawn out, as from a hen-coop, for slaughter anders? Should we not obtest Heaven, and —that the citizens of our greatest and most flour- whatever justice there is yet on earth? Opishing cities, when the hand and the machinery pression makes wise men mad; but the distemof the hangman were not found sufficient, should per is still the madness of the wise, which is bethave been collected in the public squares, and ter than the sobriety of fools. Their cry is the massacred by thousands with cannon; if three voice of sacred misery, exalted, not into wild hundred thousand others should have been doon- raving, but into the sanctified frenzy of prophed to a situation worse than death in noisome ecy and inspiration—in that bitterness of soul, and pestilential prisons—in such a case, is it in in that indignation of suffering virtue, in that exthe faction of robbers I am to look for my coun- altation of despair, would not persecuted Edtry? Would this be the England that you and glish loyalty cry out with an awful warning I, and even strangers admired, honored, loved, voice, and denounce the destruction that waits and cherished? Would not the exiles of England on monarchs, who consider fidelity to them as alone be my government and my fellow-citizens? the most degrading of all vices; who suffer Would not their places of resuge be my tempo- it to be punished as the most abominable of all rary country? Would not all my duties and all crimes; and who have no respect but for rebmy affections be there, and there only? Should els, traitors, regicides, and furious negro slaves, I consider myself as a traitor to my country, and whose crimes have broke their chains ? Would deserving of death, if I knocked at the door and not this warm language of high indignation have heart of every potentate in Christendom to suc- more of sound reason in it, more of real affection, cor my friends, and to avenge them on their en- more of true attachment, than all the lullabies emies? Could I, in any way, show myself more of flatterers, who would hush monarchs to sleep a patriot? What should I think of those poten- in the arms of death? tates who insulted their suffering brethren; who treated them as vagrants, or, at least, as mendi
CONDUCT EXPECTED FROM Mr. Pirt WHEN cants; and could find no allies, no friends, but in regicide murderers and robbers ? What ought
THE FRENCH BROKE OFF NEGOTIATIONS FOR
PEACE IN 1797. I to think and feel if, being geographers instead of kings, they recognized the desolated cities, the After such an elaborate display had been made wasted fields, and the rivers polluted with blood, of the injustice and insolence of an enemy, who of this geometrical measurement, as the honora- seems to have been irritated by every one of ihe ble member of Europe called England ? In that means which had been commonly used with efcondition, what should we think of Sweden, Den- fect to soothe the rage of intemperate power, the mark, or Holland, or whatever power afforded natural result would be, that the scabbard, in us a churlish and treacherous hospitality, if they which we in vain attempted to plunge our sword, should invite us to join the standard of our King, should have been thrown away with scorn. It our laws, and our religion ; if they should give would have been natural, that, rising in the fullus a direct promise of protection; if, after all ness of their might, insulted majesty, despised this, taking advantage of our deplorable situation, dignity, violated justice, rejected supplication, which left us no choice, they were to treat us as patience goaded into fury, would have poured the lowest and vilest of all mercenaries? If they out all the length of the reins upon all the wrath were to send us far from the aid of our King and which they had so long restrained. It might our suffering country, to squander us away in the most pestilential climates for a venal enlarge- gil's description of Neptune, as seated in his chariot,
* This passage was probably suggested by Virment of their own territories, for the purpose of and controlling his impatient steeds (book v., line trucking them, when obtained, with those very 818), till willing at last to give full course to their robbers and murderers they had called upon us swiftness, to oppose with our blood ? What would be our -manibusque omnes effundit habenas. sentiments, if, in that miserable service, we were He pours forth all the reins from out his hands. not to be considered either as English, or as In like manner, the attributes here personified, Swedes, Dutch, Danes, but as outcasts of the hu- insulted majesty," "despised dignity," &c., " pour man race? While we were fighting those bat-1 out all the length of the reins upon all the wrath have been expected, that, emulous of the glory | forth from their hideous kennel (where his scruof the youthful hero (the Austrian Archduke pulous tenderness had too long immured them) Charles) in alliance with him, touched by the those impatient dogs of war, whose fierce reexample of what one man, well formed and well gards affright even the minister of vengeance placed, may do in the most desperate state of that feeds them; that he would let them loose, affairs, convinced there is a courage of the cab. in famine, fever, plagues, and death upon a inet full as powerful, and far less vulgar than that guilty race, to whose frame, and to all whose of the field, our minister would have changed the habit, order, peace, religion, and virtue are alien whole line of that unprosperous prudence, which and abhorrent. It was expected that he would hitherto had produced all the effects of the blind. at last have thought of active and effectual war; est temerity. If he found his situation full of that he would no longer amuse the British lion danger (and I do not deny that it is perilous in in the chase of mice and rats; that he would no the extreme), he must feel that it is also full of longer employ the whole naval power of Great glory; and that he is placed on a stage, than Britain, once the terror of the world, to prey which no muse of fire that had ascended the upon the miserable remains of a peddling comhighest heaven of invention could imagine any merce, which the enemy did not regard, and thing more awful and august.8 It was hoped from which none could profit. It was expected that, in the swelling scene in which he moved, that he would have reasserted whatever remained with some of the first potentates of Europe for to him of his allies, and endeavored to recover his fellow-actors, and with so many of the rest those whom their fears had led astray; that he for the anxious spectators of a part, which, as would have rekindled the martial ardor of his he plays it, determines forever their destiny and citizens; that he would have held out to them his own, like Ulysses, in the unraveling point of the example of their ancestry, the assertor of the epic story, he would have thrown off his pa- Europe, and the scourge of French ambition ; tience and his rags together; and, stripped of that he would have reminded them of a posterity unworthy disguises, he would have stood forth which, if this nefarious robbery, under the fraudin the form and in the attitude of a hero. On ulent name and false color of a government, that day, it was thought he would have assumed should in full power be seated in the heart of the port of Mars; that he would bid to be brought Europe, must forever be consigned to vice, im
piety, barbarism, and the most ignominious slavwhich they had so long restrained.” We have fewery of body and mind. In so holy a cause it images in our language of equal force and beauty. • See the prologue to Shakspeare's Henry V.:
was presumed that he would (as in the begin.
ning of the war he did) have opened all the temOh for a Muse of Fire that would ascend The highest heaven of invention !
ples; and with prayer, with fasting, and with
supplication (better directed than to the grim • The scene referred to is that near the close of Moloch of regicide in France), have called upon the twenty-first book of the Odyssey, where Ulysses, us to raise that united cry, which has so osten who had appeared disguised as a beggar among the suitors of Penelope, finding that none of them could stormed Heaven, and with a pious violence bend his bow, takes it in hand himself, amid the forced down blessings upon a repentant people. jeers of all, strings it with the ease of a lyre, and It was hoped that, when he had invoked upon sends the arrow whizzing through the rings which his endeavors the favorable regard of the Prohad been suspended as a mark.
tector of the human race, it would be seen that -But when the wary hero wise
his menaces to the enemy and his prayers to Had made his hand familiar with the bow, the Almighty were not followed, but accompaPoising it, and examining—at once
nied, with correspondent action. It was hoped As when, in harp and song adept, a bard
that his shrilling trumpet should be heard, not Strings a new lyre, extending, first, the chords,
to announce a show, but to sound a charge.
ON THE WAR.
In the nature of things it is not with their perGave him his rolling thunder for a sign.
sons that the higher classes principally pay their Sach most propitious notice from the son
contingent to the demands of war. There is anOr wily Saturn, hearing with delight,
other and not less important part which rests with He seized a shaft which at the table side
almost exclusive weight upon them. They fur. Lay ready drawn; but in his quiver's womb
nish the means The rest yet slept, though destined soon to steep Their points in Grecian blood. He lodged the reed
“How war may best upheld, Fall on the bow-string, drew the parted bead Move by ber two main nerves, iron and gold, Home to his breast, and aiming as he sat,
In all her equipage."--Milton's Par. Lost. At once dismissed it. Through the num'rous rings Not that they are exempt from contributing, Swift flew the gliding steel, and, issuing, sped Beyond them.-Cowper.
10 Then should the warlike Harry like himself, He then pours out the arrows at his feet, and Assume the port of Mars, and at his heels, turns bis bow on the suitors till they are all de. Leasbt in like hounds should famine, sword, and stroyed.
Crouch for employment.
also, by their personal service in the fleets and their country may demand the certain sacrifice armies of their country. They do contribute, of thousands. and in their full and fair proportion, according to the relative proportion of their numbers in
SENTIMENTS BECOMING THE CRISIS. the community. They contribute all the mind that actuates the whole machine. The forti- Nor are sentiments of elevation in themselves tude required of them is very different from the turgid and unnatural. Nature is never more unthinking alacrity of the common soldier, or truly herself than in her grandest form. The common sailor, in the face of danger and death; Apollo of Belvidere (if the universal robber has it is not a passion, it is not an impulse, it is not yet left him at Belvidere) is as much in nature a sentiment ; it is a cool, steady, deliberate prin. as any figure from the pencil of Rembrandt, or ciple, always present, always equable; having any clown in the rustic revels of Teniers. Inno connection with anger; tempering honor deed, it is when a great nation is in great diffiwith prudence; incited, invigorated, and sus- culties that minds must exalt themselves to the tained by a generous love of fame; informed, occasion, or all is lost. Strong passion, under moderated, and directed by an enlarged knowl- the direction of a feeble reason, feeds a low seedge of its own great public ends ; flowing in ver, which serves only to destroy the body that one blended stream from the opposite sources entertains it. But vehement passion does not of the heart and the head; carrying in itself its always indicate an infirm judgment. It often own commission, and proving its title to every accompanies, and actuates, and is even auxiliary other command, by the first and most difficult to a powerful understanding; and when they command, that of the bosom in which it resides; both conspire and act harmoniously, their force it is a fortitude which unites with the courage is great to destroy disorder within, and to repel of the field the more exalted and refined courage injury from abroad. If ever there was a time of the council; which knows as well to retreat that calls on us for no vulgar conception of things, as to advance; which can conquer as well by and for exertions in no vulgar strain, it is the delay as by the rapidity of a march or the im- awful hour that Providence has now appointed petuosity of an attack; which can be, with Fa- to this nation. Every little measure is a great bius, the black cloud that lowers on the tops of error ; and every great error will bring on no the mountains, or with Scipio, the thunderbolt small ruin. Nothing can be directed above the of war; which, undismayed by false shame, can mark that we must aim at; every thing below patiently endure the severest trial that a gallant it is absolutely thrown away. spirit can undergo, in the taunts and provocations of the enemy, the suspicions, the cold respect, and Who knows whether indignation may not suc“mouth honor” of those from whom it should ceed to terror, and the revival of high sentiment, meet a cheerful obedience; which, undisturbed spurning away the delusion of a safety purchased by false humanity, can calmly assume that most at the expense of glory, may not yet drive us to awful moral responsibility of deciding when vic- that generous despair, which has often subdued tory may be too dearly purchased by the loss of distempers in the state, for which no remedy a single life, and when the safety and glory of could be found in the wisest councils ?
held on his course. WILLIAM III, FORMING THE GRAND ALLIANCE
He was faithful to his obAGAINST Louis XIV.
ject; and in councils, as in arms, over and over
again repulsed, over and over again he returned The steps which were taken to compose, to to the charge. All the mortifications he had reconcile, to unite, and to discipline all Europe suffered from the last Parliament, and the greatagainst the growth of France, certainly furnish er he had to apprehend from that newly chosen, to a statesman the finest and most interesting were not capable of relaxing the vigor of his part in the history of that great period. It form- mind. He was in Holland when he combined ed the master-piece of King William's policy, the vast plan of his foreign negotiations. When dexterity, and perseverance. Full of the idea he came to open his design to his ministers in of preserving, not only a local civil liberty unit- England, even the sober firmness of Somers, the ed with order, to our country, but to embody it undaunted resolution of Shrewsbury, and the adin the political liberty, the order, and the inde-venturous spirit of Montague and Orsord, were pendence of nations united under a natural head, staggered. They were not yet mounted to the the King called upon his Parliament to put itself elevation of the King. The cabinet (then the into a posture" to preserve to England the weight regency) met on the subject at Tunbridge Wells and influence it at present had on the councils the 28th of August, 1698; and there, Lord Somand affairs ABROAD. It will be requisite Eu- ers holding the pen, after expressing doubts on rope should see you will not be wanting to your the state of the continent, which they ultimately selves."
refer to the King, as best informed, they give Baffled as that monarch was, and almost heart- him a most discouraging portrait of the spirit of broken at the disappointment he met with in the this nation. “So far as relates to England," mode he first proposed for that great end, he say these ministers, “it would be want of duty
not to give your majesty this clear account, that workman died; but the work was formed on there is a deadness and want of spirit in the na- true mechanical principles; and it was as truly tion universally, so as not to be at all disposed wrought. It went by the impulse it had receivto entering into a new war. That they seemed from the first mover. The man was dead; to be tired out with taxes to a degree beyond but the Grand Alliance survived, in which King what was discerned, till it appeared upon occa- William lived and reigned. That heartless and sion of the late elections. This is the truth of dispirited people, whom Lord Somers had reprethe fact upon which your majesty will determine sented, about two years before, as dead in enerwhat resolution ought to be taken.”
and operation, continued that war, to which it His majesty did determine, and did take and was supposed they were unequal in mind and in pursue his resolution. In all the tottering imbe- means, for near thirteen years. cility of a new government, and with Parliament totally unmanageable, he persevered. He per- The Duke of Bedford's HOLD on his Propsevered to expel the fears of his people by his
ERTY. fortitude--to steady their fickleness by his constancy—to expand their narrow prudence by his The Crown has considered me after long servenlarged wisdom—to sink their factious temperice, the Crown has paid the Duke of Bedford in his public spirit. In spite of his people, he by advance. He has had a long credit for any resolved to make them great and glorious; to services which he may perform hereafter. He make England, inclined to shrink into her narrow is secure, and long may he be secure, in his adsell, the arbitress of Europe, the tutelary angel vance, whether he performs any services or not. of the human race. In spite of the ministers, But let him take care how he endangers the who staggered under the weight that his mind safety of that Constitution which secures his own imposed upon theirs, unsupported as they felt utility or his own insignificance; or how he disthemselves by the popular spirit, he infused into courages those who take up even puny arms to them his own soul; he renewed in them their defend an order of things, which, like the sun of ancient heart; he rallied them in the same cause. heaven, shines alike on the useful and the worth
It required some time to accomplish this work. less. His grants are ingrafted on the public The people were first gained, and through them law of Europe, covered with the awful hoar of their distracted representatives. Under the in- innumerable ages. They are guarded by the fluence of King William, Holland had rejected sacred rules of prescription, found in that full the allurements of every seduction, and had re-treasury of jurisprudence from which the jejunesisted the terrors of every menace. With Han- ness and penury of our municipal law has, by nibal at her gates, she had nobly and magnani- degrees, been enriched and strengthened. This mously refused all separate treaty, or any thing prescription I had my share (a very full share) in which might for a moment appear to divide her bringing to its perfection. The Duke of Bedaffection or her interest, or even to distinguish ford will stand as long as prescriptive law enher in identity from England.
dures; as long as the great stable laws of propThe English House of Commons was more erty, common to us with all civilized nations, reserved. The principle of the Grand Alliance are kept in their integrity, and without the smallwas not directly recognized in the resolution of est intermixture of laws, maxims, principles, or the Commons, nor the war announced, though precedents of the grand revolution. They are they were well aware the alliance was formed secure against all changes but one. The whole for the war. However, compelled by the return- revolutionary system, institutes, digest, code, ing sense of the people, they went so far as to novels, text, gloss, comment, are not only not fix the three great immovable pillars of the the same, but they are the very reverse, and the safety and greatness of England, as they were reverse, fundamentally, of all the laws on which then, as they are now, and as they must ever be civil life has hitherto been upheld in all the gove to the end of time. They asserted in general ernments of the world. The learned professors terms the necessity of supporting Holland ; of of the rights of man regarded prescription, not keeping united with our allies; and maintaining as a title to bar all claim, set up against all the liberty of Europe ; though they restricted possession—but they look on prescription as ittheir vote to the succors stipulated by actual self a bar against the possessor and proprietor. treaty. But now they were fairly embarked, They hold an immemorial possession to be no they were obliged to go with the course of the more than a long-continued, and therefore an agvessel ; and the whole nation, split before into an gravated injustice. hundred adverse factions, with a king at its head Such are their ideas, such their religion; and evidently declining to his tomb, the whole nation such their law. But as to our country and our -Lords, Commons, and people—proceeded as race, as long as the well-compacted structure of one body, informed by one soul. Under the Brit- our church and state, the sanctuary, the holy of ish union, the union of Europe was consolidated; and it long held together with a degree of cohe- Lord, which was called forth by an insulting attack
· This passage is taken from a letter to a Noble sion, firmness, and fidelity, not known before or from the Dake of Bedford when Mr. Burke receiv. since in any political combination of that extent. ed his pension.
Just as the last hand was given to this im- Sir George Savile's Act, called the Nullum Tem. mense and complicated machine, the master- pus Act.
holies of that ancient law, defended by reverence, to resist, and whose wisdom it behooves us not defended by power, a fortress at once and a tem- at all to dispute, bas ordained it in another manple, shall stand inviolate on the brow of the ner, and (whatever my querulous weakness British Sion—as long as the British monarchy, might suggest) a far better. The storm has not more limited than fenced by the orders of gone over me, and I lie like one of those old the state, shall, like the proud Keep of Windsor, oaks which the late hurricane has scattered rising in the majesty of proportion, and girt with about me. I am stripped of all my honors; I the double belt of its kindred and coeval towers, am torn up by the roots, and lie prostrate on the as long as this awful structure shall oversee and earth! There, and prostrate there, I most unguard the subjected land—so long the mounds feignedly recognize ihe divine justice, and in and dikes of the low, fat, Bedford level will have some degree submit to it. nothing to fear from the pick-axes of all the levelers of France. As long as our sovereign lord
CHARACTER OF Sir Joshua REYNOLDS. the King, and his faithful subjects, the lords and commons of this realm—the triple cord, which Last night (February 23, 1792), in the sixtyno man can break; the solemn, sworn, constitu- ninth year of his age, died, at his house in Leitional frank-pledge of this nation; the firm guar-cester Fields, Sir Joshua Reynolds. antees of each other's being and each other's His illness was long, but borne with a mild rights; the joint and several securities, each in and cheerful fortitude, without the least mixture its place and order, for every kind and every of any thing irritable or querulous, agreeably to quality of property and of dignity. As long as the placid and even tenor of his whole life. He these endure, so long the Duke of Bedford is had from the beginning of his malady a distinct safe; and we are all safe together—the high view of his dissolution, which he contemplated from the blights of envy and the spoliations of with that entire composure, that nothing but the rapacity; the low from the iron hand of oppres- innocence, integrity, and usefulness of his life, sion and the insolent spurn of contempt. Amen! and an unaffected submission to the will of Provand so be it, and so it will be,
idence, could bestow. In this situation he had Dum domus Æneæ Capitoli immobile saxum every consolation from family tenderness, which Accolet; imperiumque pater Romanus habebit. his own kindness to his family had indeed well
Sir Joshua Reynolds was, on very many acMR. BURKE ON THE DEATH OF His Son.
counts, one of the most memorable men of his Had it pleased God to continue to me the time. He was the first Englishman who added hopes of succession, I should have been, accord- the praise of the elegant arts to the other glories ing to my mediocrity, and the mediocrity of the of his country. In taste, in grace, in facility, in age I live in, a sort of founder of a family; I happy invention, and in the richness and harmoshould have left a son, who, in all the points in ny of coloring, he was equal to the greatest maswhich personal merit can be viewed, in science, ters of the most renowned ages. In portrait he in erudition, in genius, in taste, in honor, in gen- went beyond them; for he communicated to erosity, in humanity, in every liberal sentiment, that description of the art, in which English artand every liberal accomplishment, would not ists are the most engaged, a variety, a fancy, have shown himself inferior to the Duke of Bed and a dignity derived from the higher branches, ford, or to any of those whom he traces in his which even those who professed them in a supeline. His grace very soon would have wanted rior manner did not always preserve when they all plausibility in his attack upon that provision delineated individual nature. His portraits rewhich belonged more to mine than to me. He mind the spectator of the invention of history would soon have supplied every deficiency, and and the amenity of landscape. In painting porsymmetrized every disproportion. It would not traits, he appeared not to be raised upon that have been for that successor to resort to any platform, but to descend upon it from a higher stagnant wasting reservoir of merit in me, or in sphere. His paintings illustrate his lessons, and any ancestry. He had in himself a salient, liv- his lessons seem to be derived from his paintings. ing spring of generous and manly action. Ev. He possessed the theory as persectly as the ery day he lived he would have repurchased the practice of his art. To be such a painter, he bounty of the Crown, and ten times more, if ten was a profound and penetrating philosopher. times more he had received. He was made a In sull happiness of foreign and domestic fame, public creature, and had no enjoyment whatever admired by the expert in art and by the learned but in the performance of some duty. At this in science, courted by the great, caressed by exigent moment, the loss of a finished man is not sovereign powers, and celebrated by distinguisheasily supplied.
ed poets, his native humility, modesty, and canBut a Disposer whose power we are little able dor never forsook him, even on surprise or prov3 Templum in modum arcis. Tacitus of the tem
ocation ; nor was the least degree of arrogance ple of Jerusalem.
or assumption visible to the most scrutinizing • While on the Capitol's unshaken rock,
eye, in any part of his conduct or discourse. The Ænean race shall dwell, and FATHER JOVE
His talents of every kind--powerful from naRule o'er the Empire.
ture, and not meanly cultivated by letters—his Virgil's Æneid, book ix., lin social virtues in all the relations and the hab