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whose imitation you aspired. Respecting your you, beyond any thing recorded in the history of forefathers, you would have been taught to re- the world; but you have shown that difficulty is spect yourselves. You would not have chosen good for man. to consider the French as a people of yesterday, Compute your gains; see what is got by as a nation of low-born, servile wretches, until those extravagant and presumptuous speculathe emancipating year of 1789. In order to tions which have taught your leaders to despise furnish, at the expense of your honor, an excuse all their predecessors, and all their contemporato your apologists here for several enormities of ries, and even to despise themselves, until the yours, you would not have been content to be rep moment in which they became truly despicable. resented as a gang of Maroon slaves, suddenly By following those false lights, France has bought broke loose from the house of bondage, and there undisguised calamities at a higher price than any fore to be pardoned for your abuse of the liberty nation has purchased the most unequivocal blessto which you were not accustomed, and were ill ings! France has bought poverty by crime ! fitted. Would it not, my worthy friend, have France has not sacrificed her virtue to her inbeen wiser to have you thought, what I, for one, terest, but she has abandoned her interest, that always thought you, a generous and gallant na- she might prostitute her virtue. All other nation, long misled, to your disadvantage, by your tions have begun the fabric of a new governhigh and romantic sentiments of fidelity, honor, ment, or the reformation of an old, by establishand loyalty; that events had been unfavorable ing originally, or by enforcing with greater exto you, but that you were not enslaved through actness, some rites or other of religion. All any illiberal or servile disposition ; that, in your other people have laid the foundations of civil most devoted submission, you were actuated by freedom in severer manners, and a system of a a principle of public spirit, and that it was your more austere and masculine morality. France, country you worshiped, in the person of your when she let loose the reins of regal authority, king ? Had you made it to be understood that, doubled the license of a ferocious dissoluteness in the delusion of this amiable error, you had in manners, and of an insolent irreligion in opingone farther than your wise ancestors; that you ions and practices, and has extended through all were resolved to resume your ancient privileges, ranks of life, as if she were communicating some while you preserved the spirit of your ancient and privilege, or laying open some secluded benefit, your recent loyalty and honor; or, if diffident of all the unhappy corruptions that usually were yourselves, and not clearly discerning the almost the disease of wealth and power. This is one obliterated Constitution of your ancestors, you of the new principles of equality in France. had looked to your neighbors in this land, who France, by the perfidy of her leaders, has uthad kept alive the ancient principles and models terly disgraced the tone of lenient council in the of the old common law of Europe, meliorated and cabinets of princes, and disarmed it of its most adapted to its present state—by following wise potent topics. She has sanctified the dark, susexamples you would have given new examples of picious maxims of tyrannous distrust, and taught wisdom to the world. You would have rendered kings to tremble at (what will hereafter be called) the cause of liberty venerable in the eyes of every the delusive plausibilities of moral politicians. worthy mind in every nation. You would have Sovereigns will consider those who advise them shamed despotism from the earth, by showing that to place an unlimited confidence in their people, freedom was not only reconcilable, but as, when as subverters of their thrones; as traitors who well disciplined, it is, auxiliary to law. You aim at their destruction, by leading their easy would have had an unoppressive, but a product- good nature, under specious pretenses, to admit ive revenue. You would have had a flourishing combinations of bold and faithless men into a commerce to feed it. · You would have had a free participation of their power. This alone (if Constitution, a potent monarchy, a disciplined ar- there were nothing else) is an irreparable camy, a reformed and venerated clergy, a mitigated, lamity to you and to mankind. Remember but spirited nobility, to lead your virtue, not to that your Parliament of Paris told your king overlay it; you would have had a liberal order that, in calling the states together, he had nothof commons, to emulate and to recruit that no- ing to sear but the prodigal excess of their zeal bility; you would have had a protected, satisfied, in providing for the support of the throne. It is laborious, and obedient people, taught to seek and right that these men should hide their heads. It to recognize the happiness that is to be found by is right that they should bear their part in the virtue in all conditions; in which consists the true i ruin which their counsel has brought on their moral equality of mankind, and not in that mon. Sovereign and their country. Such sanguine strous fiction, which, by inspiring false ideas and declarations tend to lull authority asleep; to vain expectations into men destined to travel in encourage it rashly to engage in perilous ad. the obscure walk of laborious lise, serves only lo ventures of untried policy; to neglect those proaggravate and imbitter that real inequality which visions, preparations, and precautions which disit never can remove, and which the order of civil tinguish benevolence from imbecility, and withlife establishes as much for the benefit of those out which no man can answer for the salatary whom it must leave in a humble state, as those effect of any abstract plan of government or of whom it is able to exalt to a condition more freedom. For want of these, they have seen the splendid, but not more happy. You had a smooth medicine of the state corrupted into its poison. and easy career of felicity and glory laid open to They have seen the French rebel against a mild and lawful monarch, with more fury, outrage, SEIZURE OF THE KING AND Queen of France. and insult, than ever any people has been known to rise against the most illegal usurper or the History will record, that on the morning of most sanguinary tyrant. Their resistance was the 6th of October, 1789, the King and Queen made to concession; their revolt was from pro- of France, after a day of confusion, alarm, distection; their blow was aimed at a hand holding may, and slaughter, lay down, under the pledged out graces, favors, and immunities.

security of public faith, to indulge nature in a This was unnatural. The rest is in order. few hours of respite and troubled melancholy They have found their punishment in their suc- repose. From this sleep the Queen was first cess. Laws overturned; tribunals subverted; startled by the voice of the sentinel at her door, industry without vigor; commerce expiring ; who cried out to her to save herself by flightthe revenue unpaid, yet the people impover- that this was the last proof of fidelity he could ished; a church pillaged, and a state not re- give-that they were upon him, and he was lieved; civil and military anarchy made the dead. Instantly he was cut down. A band of constitution of the kingdom ; every thing human cruel ruffians and assassins, reeking with his and divine sacrificed to the idol of public credit, blood, rushed into the chamber of the Queen, and national bankruptcy the consequence; and, and pierced, with a hundred strokes of bayonets to erown all, the paper securities of new, preca- and poniards, the bed from whence this perse. rious, tottering power, the discredited paper se- cuted woman had but just time to fly almost nacurities of impoverished fraud, and beggared ked, and, through ways unknown to the murderrapine, held out as a currency for the support ers, had escaped to seek refuge at the feet of a of an empire, in lieu of the two great recognized King and husband not secure of his own life for species that represent the lasting conventional a moment. credit of mankind, which disappeared and hid This King, to say no more of him, and this themselves in the earth from whence they came, Queen, and their infant children (who once would when the principle of property, whose creatures have been the pride and hope of a great and and representatives they are, was systematically generous people) were then forced to abandon subverted.

the sanctuary of the most splendid palace in the Were all these dreadful things necessary ? world, which they left swimming in blood, polWere they the inevitable results of the despe- luted by massacre, and strewed with scattered rate struggle of determined patriots, compelled limbs and mutilated carcases. Thence they to wade through blood and tumult to the quiet were conducted into the capital of their kingshore of a tranquil and prosperous liberty ? No! dom. Two had been selected from the unpronothing like it. The fresh ruins of France, which voked, unresisted, promiscuous slaughter, which shock our feelings wherever we can turn our eyes, was made of the gentlemen of birth and family are not the devastation of civil war; they are the who composed the King's body-guard. These sad but instructive monuments of rash and igno- two gentlemen, with all the parade of an execurant counsel in time of profound peace. They are tion of justice, were cruelly and publicly dragged the display of inconsiderate and presumptuous, be to the block, and beheaded in the great court cause unresisted and irresistible authority. The of the palace. Their heads were stuck upon persons who have thus squandered away the pre- spears, and led the procession ; while the royal cious treasure of their crimes, the persons who captives who followed in the train were slowly have made this prodigal and wild waste of pub- moved along, amid the horrid yells, and thrilling lic evils (the last stake reserved for the ultimate screams, and frantic dances, and infamous conransom of the state), have met in their progress tumelies, and all the unutterable abominations with little, or rather with no opposition at all. of the furies of hell, in the abused shape of the Their whole march was more like a triumphal vilest of women. After they had been made to procession than the progress of a war. Their taste, drop by drop, more than the bitterness of pioneers have gone before them, and demolished death, in the slow torture of a journey of twelve and laid every thing level at their feet. Not one miles, protracted to six hours, they were, under drop of their blood have they shed in the cause a guard composed of those very soldiers who of the country they have ruined. They have had thus conducted them through this famous made no sacrifice to their projects of greater triumph, lodged in one of the old palaces of consequence than their shoe-buckles, while they Paris, now converted into a Bastile for kings. were imprisoning their king, murdering their fel. low-citizens, and bathing in tears, and plunging The Queen of FrancE AND THE SPIRIT OP in poverty and distress, thousands of worthy men

CHIVALRY. and worthy families. Their cruelty has not even been the base result of fear. It has been the ef- I hear, and I rejoice to hear, that the great fect of their sense of perfect safety in authorizing lady, the other object of the triumph, has borne treasons, robberies, rapes, assassinations, slaugh- that day (one is interested that beings made for ters, and burnings, throughout their harassed suffering should suffer well), and that she bears land; but the cause of all was plain from the all the succeeding days that she bears the im. beginning

prisonment of her husband, and her own captivity, and the exile of her friends, and the insulting adulation of addresses, and the whole weight of her accumulated wrongs, with a serene pa- This mixed system of opinion and sentiment tience, in a manner suited to her rank and race, had its origin in the ancient chivalry ; and the and becoming the offspring of a sovereign dis- principle, though varied in its appearance by the tinguished for her piety and her courage; that, varying state of human affairs, subsisted and inlike her, she has losty sentiments; that she feels fuenced through a long succession of generawith the dignity of a Roman matron; that in the tions, even to the time we live in. If it should last extremity she will save herself from the ever be totally extinguished, the loss, I sear, will last disgrace; and that, if she must fall, she will be great. It is this which has given its characfall by no ignoble hand.

ter to modern Europe. It is this which has disIt is now sixteen or seventeen years since I tinguished it under all its forms of government, saw the Queen of France, then the dauphiness, and distinguished it to its advantage from the at Versailles ; and surely never lighted on this states of Asia, and, possibly, from those states orb, which she hardly seemed to tonch, a more which flourished in the most brilliant periods of delightful vision. I saw her just above the the antique world. It was this wbich, without horizon, decorating and cheering the elevated confounding ranks, had produced a noble equal. sphere she just began to move in, glittering like ity, and handed it down through all the gradathe morning star, full of life, and splendor, and lions of social life. It was this opinion which joy. Oh! what a revolution ! and what a heart mitigated kings into companions, and raised primust I have, to contemplate, without motion, vate men to be sellows with kings. Without that elevation and that fall! Little did I dream, force or opposition, it subdued the fierceness of when she added titles of veneration to those pride and power; it obliged sovereigns to subof enthusiastic, distant, respectful love, that she should ever be obliged to carry the sharp anti- | .--the various orders of knights devoted to the serv. dote against disgrace concealed in that bosom ;? ice of the Monarch, and the honor and protection of little did I dream that I should have lived to see

the Fair, producing " that generous loyalty to rank sach disasters fallen upon her in a nation of gal-dience," which formed so peculiarly the spirit of

and sex, that proud submission, that dignified obelant men, in a nation of men of honor and of eav- chivalry. Individual instances would, no doubt, be aliers. I thought ten thousand swords must present to his imagination, of men like Bayard, and have leaped from their scabbards to avenge even handreds of others, whose whole life was made up a look that threatened her with insult. But the of “high thoughts seated in a heart of courtesy." age of chivalry is gone ; that of sophisters, econ- It is here that we find the true type of Mr. Burke's omists, and calculators has succeeded; and the genius, rather than in the brilliant imagery with glory of Europe is extinguished forever. Nev- which the paragraph commences. er, never more shall we behold that generous hall its evil by losing all its grossness," he obvious

When Mr. Burke speaks of vice as having "lost loyalty to rank and sex, that proud submission, ly refers not to the personal guilt of the man, bat to that dignified obedience, that subordination of the injurious effects he produces on society. Even in the heart, which kept alive, even in servitude it- this sense, he would hardly bave laid down so sweepself, the spirit of an exalted freedom. The un- ing a proposition, except from the influence of one-sidbonght grace of life, the cheap defense of na-ed views in a moment of excited feeling and imagintions, the nurse of manly sentiment and heroic ation. Vice, in the higher classes, when connected enterprise is gone! It is gone, that sensibility with grace and refinement of manners, is certainly

less offensive to taste, but it is more insidious and seof principle, that chastity of honor, which felt a

ductive. It is, in addition to this, a mere system of stain like a wound, which inspired courage while hypocrisy, for vice is degrading in its nature; and it mitigated ferocity, which ennobled whatever the covering of polish and refinement thrown over it touched, and under which vice itself lost half it is intended simply to deceive. Genuine faith and its evil by losing all its grossness.*

moral principle must die out under such a system;

and we see how it was that French society became ? The "sharp antidote against disgrace" here reduced to that terrible condition described by Mr. mentioned was a dagger, which, it was then re Gouverneur Morris, in a passage already quoted for ported, the Queen carried in her bosom, with a view another purpose. " There is one fatal principle to end her life if any indignities should be offered which pervades all ranks; it is a perfect indiffer. her. See London Chris. Obs., vol. vi., p. 67. The ence to the violation of engagements. Inconstancy řeport, however, proved to be incorrect.

is so mingled in the blood, marrow, and very es. * This image may have been suggested by the fol sence of this people, that, when a man of high rauk lowing lines of Milton's Paradise Lost, book i., line and importance laughs to-day at what he seriously 664, which are correspondent in thought, though not asserted yesterday, it is considered the natural orcoincident in expression:

der of things." How could it be otherwise, among He spake; and, to confirm his words, out flew a people who had taken it as a maxim that "manMillions of Naming swords, drawn from the thighs ners are morals ?" Such a maxim Mr. Burke would Of mighty cherabim.

have rejected with horror; but his own remark is * It is hardly necessary to remark on the wide capable of being so understood, or, at least, so apextent of reading and reflection involved in these plied, as to give a seeming countenance to this corthree sentences. The whole history of the Middle rapt sentiment. History, on which he so much reAges must bave flashed across the mind of Mr. lied, affords the completest testimony, that the rain Burke as be wrote—the division of Europe into of states which have attained to a high degree of feudal dependencies, creating a "cheap defense of civilization has almost uniformly resulted from the nations,” in bodies of armed men always ready at polished corruption of the higher classes, and not a moment's call, without expense to the sovereign from the “grossness" of the lower.


mit to the soft collar of social esteem ; compelled economical politicians, are themselves, perhaps, stern authority to submit to elegance; and gave but creatures; are themselves but effects, which, a domination vanquisher of laws, to be subdued as first causes, we choose to worship. They cerby manners.

tainly grew under the same shade in which

learning flourished. They too may decay with POLITICAL INFLUENCE of ESTABLISHED OPIN- for the present at least, they all threaten to dis

their natural protecting principles. With you,

appear together. Where trade and manufacWhen ancient opinions and rules of life are tures are wanting to a people, and the spirit of taken away, the loss can not possibly be esti- nobility and religion remains, sentiment supplies, mated. From that moment we have no com- and not always ill-supplies their place; but if pass to govern us; nor can we know distinctly commerce and the arts should be lost in an exto what port we steer. Europe, undoubtedly, periment to try how well a state may stand withtaken in a mass, was in a flourishing condition out these old fundamental principles, what sort the day on which your revolution was complet- of a thing must be a nation of gross, stupid, feed. How much of that prosperous state was rocious, and, at the same time, poor and sordid owing to the spirit of our old manners and opin- barbarians, destitute of religion, honor, or manly ions is not easy to say; but as such causes can pride, possessing nothing at present, and hoping not be indifferent in their operation, we must for nothing hereafter ? presume that, on the whole, their operation was beneficial.

Views OF THE ENGLISH Nation. We are but too apt to consider things in the state in which we find them, without sufficiently When I assert any thing as concerning the adverting to the causes by which they have been people of England I speak from observation, not produced, and, possibly, may be upheld. Noth- from authority; but I speak from the experience ing is more certain, than that our manners, our I have had in a pretty extensive and mixed comcivilization, and all the good things which are munication with the inhabitants of this kingdom, connected with manners and with civilization, of all descriptions and ranks, and after a course have, in this European world of ours, depended of attentive observation, begun in early life, and for ages upon two principles, and were indeed continued for near forty years. I have often been the result of both combined; I mean the spirit astonished, considering that we are divided from of a gentleman, and the spirit of religion. The you but by a slender dike of about twenty-four nobility and the clergy, the one by profession, miles, and that the mutual intercourse between the other by patronage, kept learning in exist the two countries has lately been very great, to ence even in the midst of arms and confusions, find how little you seem to know of us. I susand while governments were rather in their pect that this is owing to your forming a judgcauses than formed. Learning paid back what ment of this nation from certain publications, it received to nobility and to priesthood; and paid which do very erroneously, if they do at all, repit with usury, by enlarging their ideas, and by resent the opinions and dispositions generally furnishing their minds. Happy if they had all prevalent in England. The vanity, restlessness, continued to know their indissoluble union, and petulence, and spirit of intrigue of several petty their proper place! Happy if learning, not de- cabals, who attempt to hide their total want of bauched by ambition, had been satisfied to con- consequence in bustle, and noise, and puffing, tinue the instructor, and not aspired to be the and mutual quotation of each other, makes you master! Along with its natural protectors and imagine that our contemptuous neglect of their guardians, learning will be cast into the mire, abilities is a general mark of acquiescence in and trodden down under the hoofs of a swinish their opinions. No such thing, I assure you. multitude.

Because half a dozen grasshoppers under a fern If, as I suspect, modern letters owe more than make the field ring with their importunate chink, they are always willing to own to ancient man- while thousands of great cattle, reposed beneath ners, so do other interests which we value fully the shadow of the British oak, chew the cud and as much as they are worth. Even commerce, are silent, pray do not imagine that those who and trade, and manufacture, the gods of our make the noise are the only inhabitants of the

See the fate of Bailly and Condorcet, sapposed field; that, of course, they are many in number ; to be here particularly alluded to. Compare the or that, after all, they are other than the little, circumstances of the trial and execution of the for- shriveled, meager, hopping, though loud and mer with this prediction.

troublesome insects of the hour. Mr. Burke has been accused, without the slight- I almost venture to affirm, that not one in a est reason, of here applying the phrase “swinish hundred among us participates in the "triumph” maltitude" to the lower class of society in general

, of the revolution society. If the King and Queen as a distinctive appellation. The language was ob- of France and their children were to fall into our viously suggested by the scriptural direction, “ Cast not you pearls before swine." Bailly and Condor hands by the chance of war, in the most acrimocet did this, and experienced the natural consequen pious of all hostilities (I deprecate such an event, ces; and Mr. Burke says that such will always be I deprecate such hostility), they would be treatthe case, that "learning will be trodden under the ed with another sort of triumphal entry into Lon hoofs of a (not the) swinislı multitude.”


We formerly have had a king of France


in that situation ; you have read how he was / ulation, instead of exploding general prejudices, treated by the victor in the field; and in what employ their sagacity to discover the latent wismanner he was afterward received in England. dom which prevails in them. If they find what Four hundred years have gone over us; but I they seek, and they seldom fail, they think it believe we are not materially changed since that more wise to continue the prejudice, with the period. Thanks to our sullen resistance to inno- reason involved, than to cast away the coat of vation; thanks to the cold sluggishness of our prejudice, and to leave nothing but the naked national character, we still bear the stamp of reason; because prejudice, with its reason, has our forefathers. We have not (as I conceive) a motive to give action to that reason, and an lost the generosity and dignity of thinking of the affection which will give it permanence. Prejufourteenth century; nor, as yet, have we subtil- dice is of ready application in the emergency; it ized ourselves into savages.

We are not the previously engages the mind in a steady course converts of Rousseau; we are not the disciples of wisdom and virtue, and does not leave the of Voltaire ; Helvetius has made no progress man, hesitating in the moment of decision, skepamong us. Atheists are not our preachers; mad-tical, puzzled, and unresolved. Prejudice renmen are not our lawgivers. We know that we ders a man's virtue his habit, and not a series have made no discoveries; and we think that no of unconnected acts. Through just prejudice, discoveries are to be made in morality; nor his duty becomes a part of his nature. many in the great principles of government, nor in the ideas of liberty, which were understood

THEORY OF THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION. long before we were born, altogether as well as they will be after the grave has heaped its You will observe that, from Magna Charta to mold upon our presumption, and the silent tomb the Declaration of Right, it has been the uniform shall have imposed its law on our pert loquacity. policy of our Constitution to claim and assert In England we have not yet been completely our liberties, as an entailed inheritance derived emboweled of our natural entrails; we still feel to us from our forefathers, and to be transmitted within us, and we cherish and cultivate those to our posterity, as an estate specially belonging inbred sentiments which are the faithful guard to the people of this kingdom, without any referians, the active monitors of our duty, the true ence whatever to any other more general or prior supporters of all liberal and manly morals. We right. By this means our Constitution preserves have not been drawn and trussed in order that a unity in so great a diversity of its parts. We we may be filled, like stuffed birds in a museum, have an inheritable Crown, an inheritable peer. with chaff

, and rags, and paltry blurred shreds age, and a House of Commons and a people inof paper about the rights of man. We preserve heriting privileges, franchises, and liberties, from the whole of our feelings, still native and entire, a long line of ancestors. unsophisticated by pedantry and infidelity. We The policy appears to me to be the result of have real hearts of flesh and blood beating in profound reflection, or, rather, the happy effect our bosoms. We fear God; we look up with of following nature, which is wisdom without awe to kings; with affection to Parliaments; reflection, and above it. A spirit of innovation with duty to magistrates; with reverence to is generally the result of a selfish temper and priests; and with respect to nobility. Why?) confined views. People will not look forward Because, when such ideas are brought before to posterily, who never look backward to their our minds, it is natural to be so affected; be- ancestors. Besides, the people of England well cause all other feelings are false and spurious, know that the idea of inheritance furnishes a and tend to corrupt our minds, to vitiate our pri- sure principle of conservation, and a sure prinmary morals, to render us unfit for rational lib. ciple of transmission, without at all excluding a erty; and by teaching us a servile, licentious, principle of improvement. It leaves acquisition and abandoned insolence, to be our low sport for free; but it secures what it acquires. Whata few holidays, to make us perfectly fit for, and ever advantages are obtained by a state projustly deserving of slavery through the whole ceeding on these maxims are locked fast as in a course of our lives.

sort of family settlement; grasped as in a kind You see, sir, that in this enlightened age I am of mortmain, forever. By a constitutional polibold enough to confess that we are generally cy, working after the pattern of nature, we remen of untaught feelings; that instead of cast-ceive, we hold, we transmit

, our government and ing away all our old prejudices, we cherish them our privileges, in the same manner in which we to a very considerable degree, and, to take more enjoy and transmit our property and our lives. shame to ourselves, we cherish them because The institutions of policy, the goods of fortune, they are prejudices; and the longer they have the gifts of Providence, are handed down, to us lasted, and the more generally they have pre- and from us, in the same course and order. Our vailed, the more we cherish them. We are political system is placed in a just correspondafraid to put men to live and trade each on his ence and symmetry with the order of the world, own private stock of reason; because we sus- and with the mode of existence decreed to a perpect that the stock in each man is small, and manent body composed of transitory parts, wherethat the individuals would do better to avail in, by the disposition of a stupendous wisdom, themselves of the general bank and capital of molding together the great mysterious incorponations and of ages. Many of our men of spec- ration of the hum race, the whole, one time,

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