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determine the amount of these debts.
this instance that the presumption of guilt is not In short, when you pressed this sensitive plant, only no exception to the demands on the public it always contracted its dimensions. When the treasury, but, with these ministers, it is a neces- rude hand of inquiry was withdrawn, it expand. sary condition to their support. But that you ed in all the luxuriant vigor of its original vegemay not think this preference solely owing to tation. In the treaty of 1781, the whole of the their known contempt of the natives, who ought, Nabob's debt to private Europeans is, by Mr. with every generous mind, to claim their first Sullivan, agent to the Nabob and the creditors, charities, you will find the same rule religiously stated at £2,800,000, which (if the cavalry loan observed with Europeans too. Attend, sir, to and the remains of the debt of 1767 be subtract. this decisive case. Since the beginning of the ed) leaves it nearly at the amount originally dowar, besides arrears of every kind, a bond debt clared at the Durbar in 1777; but then there is has been contracted at Madras, uncertain in its a private instruction to Mr. Sullivan, which, it amount, but represented from four hundred thou- seems, will reduce it again to the lower standsand pounds to a million sterling. It stands only ard of £1,400,000. Failing in all my attempts, at the low interest of eight per cent of the le- by a direct account, to ascertain the extent of gal authority on which this debt was contracted, the capital claimed (where, in all probability, of its purposes for the very being of the state, of no capital was ever advanced), I endeavored, if its publicity and fairness, no doubt has been en- possible, to discover it by the interest which was tertained for a moment. For this debt, no sort to be paid. For that purpose, I looked to the of provision whatever has been made ! It is re- several agreements for assigning the territories jected as an outcast, while the whole undissipa- of the Carnatic to secure the principal and inted attention of the minister has been employed terest of this debt. In one of them I found a for the discharge of claims entitled to his favor sort of postscript, by way of an additional reby the merits we bave seen!
mark (not in the body of the obligation), the I have endeavored to find out, if possible, the debt represented at £1,400,000; but when I Impnssible to amount of the whole of those demands, computed the sums to be paid for interest by in
in order to see how much, supposing stallments in another paper, I found they produced
the country in a condition to furnish the interest of two millions, at twelve per cent., the fund, may remain to satisfy the public debt and the assignment supposed that if these inand the necessary establishments; but I have stallments might exceed, they might also fall been foiled in my attempt. About one fourth, short of the real provision for that interest. that is, about £220,000 of the loan of 1767, re- Another installment bond was afterward grantmains unpaid. How much interest is in arrear ed. In that bond the interest exactly tallies with I could never discover; seven or eight years, at a capital of £1,400,000. But, pursuing this least, which would make the whole of that debt capital through the correspondence, I lost sight about £396,000. This stock, which the min- of it again, and it was asserted that this installisters, in their instructions to the Governor of ment bond was considerably short of the interest Madras, state as the least exceptionable, they that ought to be computed to the time mentioned. have thought proper to distinguish by a marked Here are, therefore, two statements of equal auseverity, leaving it the only one on which the in- thority, differing at least a million from each othterest is not added to the principal, to beget a er; and as neither persons claiming, nor any new interest.
special sum as belonging to each particular The cavalry loan, by the operation of the same claimant is ascertained in the instruments of authority, is made up to £294,000, and this consolidation or in the installment bonds, a large £294,000, made up of principal and interest, is scope was left to throw in any sums for any percrowned with a new interest of twelve per cent. sons, as their merits in advancing the interest of
What the grand loan, the bribery loan of 1777, that loan might require ; a power was also left for may be, is among the deepest mysteries of state. reduction, in case a harder hand or more scanty It is probably the first debt ever assuming the funds might be found to require it. Stronger title of consolidation that did not express what grounds for a presumption of fraud never apthe amount of the sum consolidated was. It is peared in any transaction. But the ministers, little less than a contradiction in terms. In the faithful to the plan of the interested persons, debt of the year 1767 the sum was stated in the whom alone they thought fit to confer with on act of consolidation, and made to amount to this occasion, have ordered the payment of the
£880,000 capital. When this consolidation of whole mass of these unknown, unliquidated
able and useful end of government has for a pro
remark4 on the mode or
vision that comes in for the leavings of these glut- and the hire of mercenaries for his use and un
tonous demands, I must take it on my- der his direction. This disposition was to be seState and re sources of the self to bring before you the real con- cured by the Nabob's putting himself under the Carnatic.
dition of that abused, insulted, racked, guarantee of France, and, by the means of that and ruined country; though in truth my mind re- rival nation, preventing the English forever from volts from it; though you will hear it with hor- assuming an equality, much less a superiority, in ror; and I confess I tremble when I think on the Carnatic. In pursuance of this treasonable these awful and confounding dispensations of project (treasonable on the part of the English), Providence. I shall first trouble you with a few they extinguished the Company as a sovereign words as to the cause.
power in that part of India; they withdrew the The great fortunes made in India in the be- Company's garrisons out of all the forts and Introductory ginnings of conquest naturally excited strong-holds of the Carnatic; they declined to re
an emulation in all the parts, and ceive the embassadors from foreign courts, and plundering through the whole succession of the remitted them to the Nabob of Arcot; they fell
Company's service; but in the Com- upon and totally destroyed the oldest ally of the pany it gave rise to other sentiments.
They did Company, the King of Tanjore, and plundered the not find the new channels of acquisition flow country to the amount of near five millions sterwith equal riches to them. On the contrary, ling; one after another, in the Nabob's name, but the high flood-lide of private emolument was with English force, they brought into a miserable generally in the lowest ebb of their affairs. servitude all the princes and great independent They began also to sear that the fortune of war nobility of a vast country. In proportion to these might take away what the fortune of war had treasons and violences, which ruined the people, given. Wars were accordingly discouraged by the fund of the Nabob's debt grew and flourished. repeated injunctions and menaces; and, that the Among the victims to this magnificent plan servants might not be bribed into them by the of universal plunder, worthy of the heroic Hyder native princes, they were strictly forbidden to avarice of the projectors, you have all heard Ali. take any money whatsoever from their hands. (and he has made himself to be well remember. But vehement passion is ingenious in resources. ed) of an Indian chief called Hyder Ali Khan.
The Company's servants were not only stimu- This man possessed the western (Mysore), as lated, but better instructed by the prohibition. the Company, under the name of the Nabob of They soon fell upon a contrivance which an. Arcot, does the eastern division of the arnatic. swered their purposes far better than the meth. It was among the leading measures in the design ods which were forbidden, though in this also of this cabal (according to their own emphatic they violated an ancient, but, they thought, an language) to extirpate this Hyder Ali. They abrogated order. They reversed their proceed- declared the Nabob of Arcot to be his soverings. Instead of receiving presents, they made eign, and himself to be a rebel, and publicly inloans. Instead of carrying on wars in their own vested their instrument with the sovereignty of name, they contrived an authority, at once irre- the kingdom of Mysore. But their victim was sistible and irresponsible, in whose name they not of the passive kind. They were soon obliged might ravage at pleasure ; and, being thus freed to conclude a treaty of peace and close alliance from all restraint, they indulged themselves in with this rebel at the gates of Madras.24 Both the most extravagant speculations of plunder. before and since that treaty, every principle of The cabal of creditors who have been the ob- policy pointed out this power as a natural alliject of the late bountiful grant from his Majes- ance, and on his part it was courted by every ty's ministers, in order to possess themselves, un- sort of amicable office. But the cabinet council der the name of creditors and assignees, of every of English creditors would not suffer their Nabob country in India, as fast as it should be con. of Arcot to sign the treaty, nor even to give to quered, inspired into the mind of the Nabob of a prince, at least his equal, the ordinary titles of Arcot (then a dependent on the Company of the respect and courtesy. From that time forward humblest order) a scheme of the most wild and des- a continued plot was carried on within the divan, perate ambition that, I believe, ever was admit- black and white, of the Nabob of Arcot, for the ted into the thoughts of a man so situated. First destruction of Hyder Ali. As to the outward they persuaded him to consider himself as a prin- members of the double, or rather treble governcipal member in the political system of Europe. ment of Madras, which had signed the treaty, 25 In the next place they held out to him, and he readily imbibed the idea, of the general empire 24 This took place in 1769, when Hyder Ali artof Hindostan. As a preliminary to this under- fully drew off the British army to a great distance taking, they prevailed on him to propose a tri- from Madras, and then suddenly, by a forced march partite division of that vast country—one part to of one hundred and twenty miles in three days, surthe Company, another to the Mahrattas, and the prised the city in a defenseless state. No resistthird to himself. To himself he reserved all the
ance could be offered, and the Council of Madras southern part of the great peninsula, compre- for a restitution of its conquests, and a co-operation
was compelled to conclude a treaty, which provided bended under the general name of the Deccan.
with Hyder Ali for their mutual benefit. On this scheme of their servants, the Company 25 This triple government seems to have been the was to appear in the Carnatic in no other light Nabob of Arcot, the nominal sovereign, and the two than as contractor for the provision of armies, factions into which the Council was divided.
His invasion of the Car natic in 1780.
they were always prevented by some overruling The alms of the settlement (Madras), in this
his usual manner) turns the whole into argument, force.
mingled with the severest irony and sarcasm. When at length Hyder Ali found that he had
Demosthenes gives us a picture of the scene by a to do with men who either would sign starting from their seats in the midst of supper
few distinct characteristic touches-the Presidents no convention, or whom no treaty and rushing into the market-place-tearing down the
no signature could bind, and who were booths around it-burning up the hurdles even, the determined enemies of human intercourse it. though the space would not be wanted till the next self, he decreed to make the country possessed day-sending for the generals-crying out for the by these incorrigible and predestinated criminals trumpeter: The Council meeting on the morrow at a memorable example to mankind. He resolved, break of day-the people (usually so reluctant to in the gloomy recesses of a mind capacious of attend) pouring along to the assembly before the such things, to leave the whole Carnatic an ever
Council bad found a moment's opportunity to inquire lasting monument of vengeance, and to put per into the assembly—their announcing the news
or agree on measures—tbe entering of the Council petual desolation as a barrier between him and their bringing forward the messenger to tell bis ihose against whom the faith which holds the story: And then the proclamation of the berald, moral elements of the world together was no • Who will speak ?"-the silence of all-the voice protection. He became at length so confident of their common country crying out again through of his force, so collected in his might, that he the herald, “Who will speak for our deliverance ?" made no secret whatsoever of his dreadful reso- / -all remaining silent-when Demosthenes arose, lution. Having terminated his disputes with and suggested measures which caused all these danevery enemy and every rival, who buried their gers to pass away üo TEP Vépos, like a cloud!
Mr. Burke had no individual scene of this kind to mutual animosities in their common detestation against the creditors of the Nabob of Arcot, he depict; his description was of necessity a general
one, embracing those elements of terror and destrucdrew from every quarter whatever a savage fe- tion which attend the progress of an invading army. rocity could add to his new rudiments in the arts There are three central points around which the of destruction; and compounding all the mate- description gathers as it advances. First, the forces rials of fury, havoc, and desolation into one black of Hyder Ali (like those of Fabius at the approach cloud, he hung for a while on the declivities of of Hannibal), hanging in “one black cloud on the the mountains. While the authors of all these declivities of the mountains.” Secondly, “the storm evils were idly and stupidly gazing on this men- of universal fire,” which did in fact lay waste the acing meteor, which blackened all their horizon, the "whirlwind of caralry” —how apt an image of
Carnatic from one extremity to the other. Thirdly, it suddenly burst, and poured down the whole Hyder Ali's terrible band of Abyssinian horsemen, of its contents upon the plains of the Carnatic. which swept the whole country around, and hurried Then ensued a scene of woe, the like of which tens of thousands "into captivity in an unknown no eye had seen, no heart conceived, and which and hostile land!" Lord Broughan, in a criticism no tongue can adequately tell. All the horrors on this passage, pointedly remarks, that some of of war before known or heard of were mercy to
the secondary touches which fill up the picture, that new havoc. A storm of universal fire blast. such as " blackening of all the horizon," "the mened every field, consumed every house, destroyed acing meteor," the “goading spears of drivers." and every temple. The miserable inhabitants, flying than increase the effect. He mentions, ulso, “the
“the trampling of pursuing horses," rather diminish from their flaming villages, in part were slaugh. storm of unusual fire"—an expression fat enough tered; others, without regard to sex, to age, to certainly, if Mr. Burke had used it, to merit all bis the respect of rank, or sacredness of function; censures. But is bis Lordship had recalled the cir. fathers torn from children, husbands from wives, cumstances of Hyder Ali's march, he would have enveloped in a whirlwind of cavalry, and, amid seen that fire was one of his chief instruments of the goading spears of drivers and the trampling destruction; and therefore that the “storm of uni of pursuing horses, were swept into captivity, in versal fire," no less than the black cloud and the
whirlwind of cavalry, should occupy a prominent an unknown and hostile land. Those who were
place in the picture. able to evade this tempest fled to the walled
Without wishing, however, to criticise so admiracities, but, escaping from fire, sword, and exile, ble a passage too closely, or agreeing with Lord they fell into the jaws of famine. 26
Brougham in all his remarks, the Editor would sug.
gest that the first two sentences of this paragraph 26 The reader will find it interesting to compare are too much clogged with qualifying thoughts. In this passage with the most eloquent one in Mr. a passage leading to so animated a description, the Fox's speeches, beginning “And all this without an ideas should be few and simple; there should be intelligible motive," page 549; and also with De nothing to occupy or detain the mind; every thing mosthenes' description (about the middle of bis Ora should bear it forward to one point. But instead of tion for the Crown) of the terror and confusion at this, Mr. Burke, when he had spoken of men who Athens, when the news arrived that Elateia bad would sign no convention, goes on to describe them been seized by Philip.
as those "whom no treaty and no signature could Mr. Fox does not attempt to describe ; be simply bind, and who were the determined enemies of bu. shows us a man on a field of battle, asking why it man intercourse itself;" he then represents them is fought; and, as the inquiry goes on, we catch as "incorrigible and predestinated criminals," and in glimpses of the scene around, while Mr. Fox (after the next sentence speaks of them as those “ “against
was done by charity that private charity could | and from the Irish to the German Sea, east and do; but it was a people in beggary; it was a west, emptied and emboweled (may God avert nation which streiched out its hands for food. the omen of our crimes !) by so accomplished a For months together these creatures of suffer- desolation. Extend your imagination a little ance, whose very excess and luxury in their most farther, and then suppose your ministers taking plenteous days had fallen short of the allowance a survey of this scene of waste and desolation ! of our austerest fasts, silent, patient, resigned, What would be your thoughts if you should be without sedition or disturbance, almost without informed that they were computing how much complaint, perished by a hundred a day in the had been the amount of the excises, how much streets of Madras; every day seventy at least the customs, how much the land and malt tax, laid their bodies in the streets, or on the glacis in order that they should charge (take it in the of Tanjore, and expired of famine in the granary most favorable light) for public service upon the of India. I was going to awake your justice relics of the satiated vengeance of relentless entoward this unhappy part of our fellow-citizens, emies the whole of what England had yielded in by bringing before you some of the circumstan- the most exuberant seasons of peace and abundces of this plague of hunger. Of all the calami- anco? What would you call it? To call it ties which beset and waylay the life of man, this tyranny, sublimed into madness, would be too comes the nearest to our heart, and is that where- faint an image. Yet this very madness is the in the proudest of us all feels himself to be noth- principle upon which the ministers at your right ing more than he is. But I find myself unable hand have proceeded in their estimate of the revto manage it with decorum. These details are enues of the Carnatic, when they were providing, of a species of horror so nauseous and disgust- not supply for the establishments of its protecing; they are so degrading to the sufferers and tion, but rewards for the authors of its ruin. to the hearers; they are so humiliating to hu- Every day you are fatigued and disgusted man nature itself, that, on better thoughts, I find with this cant, “The Carnatic is a Not easily reit more advisable to throw a pall over this hide- country that will soon recover, and subertated. ous object, and to leave it to your general con- become instantly as prosperous as ever.” They ceptions.
think they are talking to innocents, who will beFor eighteen months, without intermission, lieve that, by sowing of dragons' teeth, men may this destruction raged from the gates of Madras come up ready grown and ready armed.*7 They to the gates of Tanjore ; and so completely did who will give themselves the trouble of considthese masters in their art, Hyder Ali, and his ering (for it requires no great reach of thought, more ferocious son (Tippoo Saib), absolve them- no very profound knowledge) the manner in selves of their impious vow, that when the Brit- which mankind are increased and countries culish armies traversed, as they did, the Carnatic, tivated, will regard all this raving as it ought to for hundreds of miles in all directions, through be regarded. In order that the people, after a the whole line of their march they did not see long period of vexation and plunder, may be in one man—not one woman-not one child—not a condition to maintain government, government one four-footed beast of any description whatev- must begin by maintaining them. Here the road er! One dead, uniform silence reigned over the to economy lies, not through receipt, but through whole region. With the inconsiderable excep- expense; and in that country nature has given tions of the narrow vicinage of some few forts, I no short cut to your object. Men must propa. wish to be understood as speaking literally. I gate, like other animals, by the mouth. Never mean to produce to you more than three wit did oppression light the nuptial torch-never did nesses, above all exception, who will support extortion and usury spread out the genial bed. this assertion in its full extent. That hurricane Does any of you think that England, so wasted, of war passed through every part of the central would, under such a nursing attendance, so rapprovinces of the Carnatic. Six or seven districts idly and cheaply recover ? But he is meanly to the north and to the south (and these not whol- acquainted with either England or India, who ly untouched) escaped the general ravage. does not know that England would a thousand
The Carnatic is a country not much inferior times sooner resume population, fertility, and Extent of the in exient to England. Figure to your what ought to be the ultimate secretion from
self, Mr. Speaker, the land in whose both, revenue, than such a country as the Carrepresentative chair you sit; figure to yourself natic. the form and fashion of your sweet and cheerful The Carnatic is not by the bounty of nature a country from Thames to Trent, north and south, fertile soil
. The general size of its requires conwbom the faith which holds the moral elements of cattle is proof enough that it is much stanturrigation the world together was no protection." All this, or otherwise. It is some days since I pense". nearly all, were better omitted in such a place, and moved that a curious and interesting map, kept perhaps, also, his description of Hyder Ali's conted in the India House, should be laid before you.28 erates as those “who buried their mutual animosi. ties in their common detestation of the creditors of 27 Cadmus, having slain a dragon which guarded the Nabob of Arcot." Every one must feel, espe the fountain of Mars, sowed its teeth by command cially in reading these sentences aloud, that there of Minerva, and instantly full-grown men sprang up, is a heaviness about them wbich is any thing but armeid, from the ground. fitted to introduce a description like that which fol- 29 Mr. Barnard's map of the Jaghire. By Jago lows.
hire is here meant a tract of country whose reve.
at great ex
The India House is not yet in readiness to send and population, that every where the reservoirs it; I have therefore brought down my own copy, were fallen into a miserable decay. But after and there it lies for the use of any gentleman those domestic enemies had provoked the entry who may think such a matter worthy of his at- of a cruel and foreign foe into the country, he tention. It is, indeed, a noble map, and of no- did not leave it until his revenge had completed ble things; but it is decisive against the golden the destruction begun by their avarice. Few, dreams and sanguine speculations of avarice run very few indeed, of these magazines of water that mad. In addition to what you know must be are not either totally destroyed, or cut through the case in every part of the world (the neces- with such gaps as to require a serious attention, sity of a previous provision of habitation, seed, and much cost to re-establish them as the means stock, capital), that map will show you that the of present subsistence to the people, and of future use of the influences of Heaven itself are in that revenue to the state. country a work of art. The Carnatic is refresh- What, sir, would a virtuous and enlightened ed by few or no living brooks or running streams, ministry do on the view the ruins and it has rain only at a season ; but its product of such works before them ? on the by the ministrs of rice exacts the use of water subject to per- view of such a chasm of desolation for this purpose. petual command. This is the national bank of as that which yawned in the midst of those counthe Carnatic, on which it must have a perpetual tries, to the north and south, which still bore some credit, or it perishes irretrievably. For that rea- vestiges of cultivation? They would have reson, in the happier times of India, a number al- duced all their most necessary establishments; most incredible of reservoirs have been made in they would have suspended the justest payments ; chosen places throughout the whole country. they would have employed every shilling derived They are formed for the greater part of mounds from the producing to reanimate the powers of the of earth and stones, with sluices of solid mason- unproductive parts. While they were performry; the whole constructed with admirable skill ing this fundamental duty-while they were cele. and labor, and maintained at a mighty charge. brating these mysteries of justice and humanity, In the territory contained in that map alone, I they would have told the corps of fictitious cred. have been at the trouble of reckoning the reser- itors, whose crimes were their claims, that they voirs, and they amount to upward of eleven must keep an awful distance; that they must si. hundred, from the extent of two or three acres lence their inauspicious tongues ; that they must to five miles circuit. From these reservoirs hold off their profane and unhallowe currents are occasionally drawn over the fields, this holy work. They would have proclaimed, and these water-courses again call for a consid- with a voice that should make itself heard, that erable expense to keep them properly scoured in every country tho first creditor is the plow; and duly leveled. Taking the district in that that this original, indefeasible claim supersedes map as a measure, there can not be in the Car- every other demand. natic and Tanjore fewer than ten thousand of This is what a wise and virtuous ministry these reservoirs of the larger and middling di- would have done and said. This, therefore, is mensions, to say nothing of those for domestic what our minister could never think of saying services and the use of religious purifications. or doing. A ministry of another kind would These are not the enterprises of your power, have first improved the country, and have thus nor in a style of magnificence suited to the taste laid a solid foundation for future opulence and of your minister. These are the monuments of future force. But on this grand point of the res. real kings, who were the fathers of their people; toration of the country there is not one syllable testators to a posterity which they embraced as to be found in the correspondence of our minis. their own.
These are the grand sepulchers ters, from the first to the last. They felt nothbuilt by ambition; but by the ambition of an in- ing for a land desolated by fire, sword, and famsatiable benevolence, which, not contented with ine; their sympathies took another direction. reigning in the dispensation of happiness during They were touched with pity for bribery, so the contracted term of human life, had strained, long tormented with a fruitless itching of its with all the reachings and graspings of a viva- palms ;29 their bowels yearned for usury, that cious mind, to extend the dominion of their boun. had long missed the harvest of its returning ty beyond the limits of nature, and to perpetuate months ;20 they felt for peculation, which had themselves through generations of generations, been for so many years raking in the dust of an the guardians, the protectors, the nourishers of empty treasury; they were melted into compasmankind !
sion for rapine and oppression, licking their dry, Long before the late invasion, the persons who parched, unbloody jaws. These were the obThe reservoirs are objects of the grant of public mon-jects of their solicitude ! These were the necesneeded repara: ey now before you had so diverted the sities for which they were studious to provide !
supply of the pious funds of culture To state the country and its revenues in their nues are permanently assigned to some individual claims, consistently with the support of an army
real condition, and to provide for those fictitious or company for a specific purpose. The Jaghire referred to in this case was an extensive district in 29 “ Yet let me tell you, Cassius, you yourself the neighborhood of Madras, which had been grant. Are much condemned to have an itching ed by the Nabob to the East India Company for
Julinis Cesar. military service.
30 Interest is rated by the month in India.