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what he might be in this country, then reflect | long life, have invariably chosen his friends from one moment upon what you are. If it be possi- among the most profligate of mankind. His own ble for me to withdraw my attention from the honor would have forbidden him from mixing his fact, I will tell you in theory what such a man private pleasures or conversation with jockeys, might be.
gamesters, blasphemers, gladiators, or buffoons. Conscious of his own weight and importance, He would then have never felt, much less would his conduct in Parlianient would be directed by he have submitted to the dishonest necessity of nothing but the constitutional duty of a peer. engaging in the interests and intrigues of his deHe would consider himself as a guardian of the pendents—of supplying their vices, or relieving laws. Willing to support the just measures of their beggary at the expense of his country. government, but determined to observe the con- He would not have betrayed such ignorance or duct of the minister with suspicion, he would op- such contempt of the Constitution as openly to pose the violence of faction with as much firm- avow, in a court of justice, the purchase and sale ness as the encroachments of prerogative. He of a borough. He would not have thought it would be as little capable of bargaining with the consistent with his rank in the state, or even minister for places for himself or his dependents, with his personal importance, to be the little tyas of descending to mix himself in the intrigues rant of a little corporation. He would never of Opposition. Whenever an important ques- have been insulted with virtues which he had tion called for his opinion in Parliament, he would labored to extinguish, nor suffered the disgrace be heard, by the most profligate minister, with of a mortifying defeat, which has made him ri. deference and respect. His authority would ei- diculous and contemptible, even to the few by ther sanctify or disgrace the measures of govern- whom he was not detested. I reverence the ment. The people would look up to him as to afflictions of a good man-his sorrows are satheir protector, and a virtuous prince would have cred. But how can we take part in the disone honest man in his dominions, in whose in- tresses of a man whom we can neither love nor tegrity and judgment he might safely confide. esteem, or feel for a calamity of which he him. If it should be the will of Providence to afflict self is insensible? Where was the father's him with a domestic misfortune, he would sub- heart when he could look for, or find an imme. mit to the stroke with feeling, but not without diate consolation for the loss of an only son in dignity. He would consider the people as his consultations and bargains for a place at court, children, and receive a generous, heart-felt con- and even in the misery of balloting at the India solation in the sympathizing tears and blessings House ?? of his country.
Admitting, then, that you have mistaken or Your Grace may probably discover something deserted those honorable principles which ought more intelligible in the negative part of this il to have directed your conduct; admitting that lustrious character. The man I have described you have as little claim to private affection as to would never prostitute his dignity in Parliament public esteem, let us see with what abilities, by an indecent violence either in opposing or de- with what degree of judgment you have carried fending a minister. He would not at one mo- your own system into execution. A great man, ment rancorously persecute, at another basely in the success, and even in the magnitude of his cringe to the Favorite of his sovereign. After crimes, finds a rescue from contempt. Your outraging the royal dignity with peremptory Grace is every way unfortunate. Yet I will not conditions, little short of menace and hostility, look back to those ridiculous scenes, by which, he would never descend to the humility of solicit- in your earlier days, you thought it an honor to ing an interview with the Favorite, and of offer- be distinguished ; the recorded stripes, the pubing to recover, at any price, the honor of his lic infamy, your own sufferings, or Mr. Rigby's friendship. Though deceived, perhaps, in his fortitude. These events undoubtedly left an imyouth, he would not, through the course of a
who had so basely betrayed him." Horace Wal3 The Duke had lately lost his only son, Lord Tav. pole confirms this statement. istock, by a fall from his horse. There is great beau- 5 This he did in an answer in Chancery, when ty in the turn of the next sentence," he would con sued for a large sum paid him by a gentleman, whom sider the people as his children," which might well he had undertaken (but failed) to return as a membe done by a descendant of Lord William Russell, ber of Parliament. He was obliged to refund the whose memory was venerated by the people as a money. martyr in the cause of liberty. This thought gives 6 The town of Bedford had been greatly exasper. double severity to the contrast that follows, in wbich ated by the overbearing disposition of the Duke. the character and conduct of the Duke are presented to deliver themselves from the thraldom in which in such a light, that, instead of being able to repose he had held them, they admitted a great number of his sorrows on the bosom of the people, he had made strangers to the freedom of the corporation, and the himself an object of their aversion or contempt. As Duke was defeated. to the justice of these insinuations respecting a want ? As to the justice of this cruel attack, see the of “ feeling" and " dignity" under this calamity, see remarks at the end of the present Letter. the remarks at the end of this Letter.
8 Note by Junius. "Mr. Heston Humphrey, a coun. • It is stated in a note by Junius, " At this inter try attorney, horsewhipped the Duke, with equal view, which passed at the house of the late Lord Egjastice, severity, and perseverance, on the course at lintoun, Lord Bute told the Duke that he was de Litchfield. Rigby and Lord Trentham were also termined never to have any connection with a man cudgeled in a most exemplary manner. This gave pression, though not upon your mind. To such character to think it possible that so many puba mind, it may perhaps be a pleasure to reflect, lic sacrifices should have been made without that there is hardly a corner of any of his Maj- some private compensation. Your conduct caresty's kingdoms, except France, in which, at one ries with it an interior evidence, beyond all the time or other, your valuable life has not been in legal proof of a court of justice. Even the cal. danger. Amiable man! we see and acknowl- lous pride of Lord Egremont was alarmed. He edge the protection of Providence, by which you saw and felt his own dishonor in corresponding have so often escaped the personal detestation of with you; and there certainly was a moment at your fellow-subjects, and are still reserved for which he meant to have resisted, had not a fatal the public justice of your country.
lethargy prevailed over his faculties, and carried Your history begins to be important at that all sense and memory away with it. auspicious period at which you were deputed to I will not pretend to specify the secret terms represent the Earl of Bute at the court of Ver on which you were invited to support an adminsailles. It was an honorable office, and executed istration which Lord Bute pretended to leave in with the same spirit with which it was accepted. full possession of their ministerial authority, and Your patrons wanted an embassador who would perfectly masters of themselves.10 He was not submit to make concessions without daring to in- of a temper to relinquish power, though he resist upon any honorable condition for his sover- tired from employment. Stipulations were cereign. Their business required a man who had tainly made between your Grace and him, and as little feeling for his own dignity as for the certainly violated. After two years' submission, welfare of his country; and they found him in you thought you had collected a strength suffithe first rank of the nobility. Belleisle, Goree, cient to control his influence, and that it was Guadaloupe, St. Lucia, Martinique, the Fishery, your turn to be a tyrant, because you had been and the Havana, are glorious monuments of your a slave." When you found yourself mistaken Grace's talents for negotiation. My Lord, we in your opinion of your gracious master's firmare too well acquainted with your pecuniary ness, disappointment got the better of all your rise to the following story: When the late King humble discretion, and carried you to an excess heard that Sir Edward Hawke had given the French of outrage to his person, as distant from true a drubbing, his Majesty, who had never received spirit, as from all decency and respect. Aster that kind of chastisement, was pleased to ask Lord robbing him of the rights of a King, you would Chesterfield the meaning of the word. 'Sir,' said not permit him to preserve the honor of a gen Lord Chesterfield, the meaning of the word—But tleman. It was then Lord Weymouth was nomhere comes the Duke of Bedford, who is better able inated to Ireland, and dispatched (we well reto explain it to your Majesty than I am.'”
Soon after Lord Chatham was driven from office member with what indecent hurry) to plunder in the midst of his glorious ministry, Lord Bute sent the treasury of the first fruits of an employment the Duke of Bedford to negotiate a treaty of peace which you well knew he was never to execute.1? with France, which was signed November 3d, 1762. This sudden declaration of war against the FaThe concessions then made, which are here enumer-vorite might have given you a momentary merit ated by Junius, were generally considered as highly with the public, if it had been either adopted dishonorable to the country. They were not, how- upon principle, or maintained with resolution. ever, chargeable to the Duke of Bedford personally, Without looking back to all your former servilthough he may have been liable to censure for consenting to negotiate such a treaty.
10 Junius bere refers to the time when Lord Bate The insinuation which follows, respecting the resigned, April 8th, 1763, and the Duke of Bedford Duke's having received "some private compensa and his friends came into power in connection with tion,” refers to a report in circulation soon after the Mr. George Grenville. It was at this period that treaty was signed, that the Duke had been bribed the Duke compelled the King, as mentioned in a by the French, in common with the Princess Dow. former letter, to displace Mr. Stuart Mackenzie, ager of Wales, Lord Bate, and Mr. Henry Fox. brother of Lord Bute, who had received the royal The story was too ridiculous to be seriously noticed, promise of never being removed. This arose out of but the matter was investigated by a committee of the Duke's jealousy of Lord Bute at that time, and the House of Commons, and found to rest solely on a determination to show that he was not governed the statement of a man named Musgrave, who had by him. "no credible authority for the imputations of treach- Note by Junios. “The ministry having endeav. ery and corruption which he was willing to propa. ored to exclude the Dowager out of the Regency gate."-See Heron's Junius, i., 269. Still, Junius re- Bill, the Earl of Bute determined to dismiss them. vived the story at the end of six years, and, when Upon this the Duke of Bedford demanded an audi. called upon for proof, had nothing to allege, exceptence of the King-reproached him in plain terms that the Duke was understood to love money. "I with his duplicity, baseness, falsehood, treachery, combined the known temper of the man with the ex. hypocrisy-repeatedly gave him the lie, and left travagant concessions of the embassador.” There him in convulsions." How far there is any truth in was another and perfectly well-known reason for this statement, it is not easy now to say. It is probthese "concessions." Lord Bute could not raise able there was a rumor of this kind at the time; but funds to carry on the war. The moneyed men no one will believe that the King would ever have would not trust him. He was, therefore, compelled invited the Duke of Bedford again into his service to make peace on such terms as he could obtain. (as he afterward did), if a tenth part of these indig. The downright dishonesty of Junius in this case nities bad been offered him. naturally leads us to receive all his statements with 19 He received three thousand pounds for plate distrust, unless supported by other evidence. and equipage money.
ity, we need only observe your subsequent con- the present, you may safely resume that style of duct, to see upon what motives you acted. Ap- insult and menace, which even a private gentleparently united with Mr. Grenville, you waited man can not submit to hear without being conuntil Lord Rockingham's feeble administration temptible. Mr. Mackenzie's history is not yet should dissolve in its own weakness. The mo- forgotten, and you may find precedents enough ment their dismission was suspected, the moment of the mode in which an imperious subject may you perceived that another system was adopted signify his pleasure to his sovereign. Where in the closet, you thought it no disgrace to re- will this gracious monarch look for assistance, turn to your former dependence, and solicit once when the wretched Grafton could forget his obmore the friendship of Lord Bute. You begged ligations to his master, and desert him for a holan interview, at which he had spirit enough to low alliance with such a man as the Duke of treat you with contempt.13
Bedford ? It would now be of little use to point out by Let us consider you, then, as arrived at the what a train of weak, injudicious measures it be- summit of worldly greatness.
Let us suppose came necessary, or was thought so, to call you that all your plans of avarice and ambition are back to a share in the administration.14 The accomplished, and your most sanguine wishes friends, whom you did not in the last instance gratified, in the fear as well as the hatred of the desert, were not of a character to add strength people. Can age itself forget that you are now or credit to government; and at that time your in the last act of life? Can gray hairs make alliance with the Duke of Grafton was, I pre- folly venerable ? and is there no period to be resume, hardly foreseen. We must look for other served for meditation and retirement ? For stipulations, to account for that sudden resolu- shame, my Lord! Let it not be recorded of tion of the closet, by which three of your de- you, that the latest moments of your life were pendents (whose characters, I think, can not be dedicated to the same unworthy pursuits, the less respected than they are) were advanced to same busy agitations, in which your youth and offices, through which you might again control manhood were exhausted. Consider, that, althe minister, and probably engross the whole though you can not disgrace your former life, direction of affairs.
you are violating the character of age, and exThe possession of absolute power is now once posing the impotent imbecility, after you have more within your reach. The measures you have lost the vigor of the passions. taken to obtain and confirm it are too gross to es- Your friends will ask, perhaps, Whither shall cape the eyes of a discerning, judicious prince. this unhappy old man retire ? Can he remain His palace is besieged; the lines of circumvalla- in the metropolis, where his life has been so often tion are drawing round him; and unless he finds threatened, and his palace so often attacked? If a resource in his activity, or in the attachment be returns to Woburn [his country seat), scorn of the real friends of his family, the best of and mockery await him. He must create a solprinces must submit to the confinement of a itude round his estate, if he would avoid the face state prisoner, until your Grace's death, or some of reproach and derision. At Plymouth, his deless fortunate event, shall raise the siege. For struction would be more than probable; at Exe
ter, inevitable. No honest Englishman will ever 13 A negotiation was opened between Lord Tem- forget his attachment, nor any honest Scotchman ple and Mr. Grenville on the one hand, and Lord Bute forgive his treachery, to Lord Bute.
At every on the other. Mr. Grenville, however, refused to go town he enters, he must change his liveries and forward without the Duke of Bedford, and Lord Bute,
his name. Whichever way he flies, the Hue and as stated above, refused to have any connection with his Grace. Horace Walpole makes a similar state- Cry of the country pursues him. ment in his Memoirs of George III.
In another kingdom, indeed, the blessings of 1This refers to the call of the Duke of Bedford his administration have been more sensibly selt ; into the administration about a year before, which his virtues better understood ; or, at worst, they created so much disappointment to the Rockingham will not, for him alone, forget their hospitality. Whigs, and was probably the occasion, as already As well might Verres have returnes to Sicily. stated, of the first letter of Junius. The King is un. You have twice escaped, my Lord; beware of derstood to have recommended that measure; and Jonius intimates that the close existing alliance
a third experiment. The indignation of a whole with the Duke of Grafton had not then been con
people, plundered, insulted, and oppressed as they templated. Three of the Duke of Bedford's depend have been, will not always be disappointed. ents, viz., Lords Weymouth, Gower, and Sandwich, were now placed in very important stations. The 15 This and the remaining paragraplıs are the most Duke of Bedford was also suspected of being again eloquent parts of the Letter. It is hardly necessary united in full confidence with Lord Bute. Thus Ju. to remark how much there is in them of art, of pasnius insinuates, a plan was formed for giving him the sion, and of keen discernment into human character. absolute control over the government in conjunction There is a rapidity and glow of expression that is with the Duke of Grafton, but with authority over truly admirable. The several places are enumer. bim. The whole paragraph was intended to alarm ated where the Duke bad formerly met with tokens the people on the one hand, and those who were of public aversion, and where he might expect again considered the King's friends" on the other. It to be received with reproach and derision. need not be repeated that these suspicions of Lord 16 The Duke had been once in Ireland as Viceroy, Bate's continued secret influence were, to a great and again when he was appointed to the principal extent, unfonoded.
honorary office in the University of Dublin.
It is in vain, therefore, to shift the scene. You had made a splendid provision for the son whom can no more fly from your enemies than from he lost, and afterward for his widow; and that he yourself. Persecuted abroad, you look into your was distinguished for his bounty to his depend. own heart for consolation, and find nothing but ents and domestics.” The most cruel charge reproaches and despair. But, my Lord, you may in this Letter was that of insensibility to the quit the field of business, though not the field of loss of his son: a charge which Junius repeated danger; and though you can not be safe, you with great vehemence on a subsequent occasion. may cease to be ridiculous. I fear you have Upon this subject, it will be sufficient to give a listened too long to the advice of those perni- note of Sir Dennis Le Marchant, editor of Walcious friends with whose interests you have sor- pole's Memoirs of George III., vol. ii., p. 443. didly united your own, and for whom you have “ The Duke's memory has been repeatedly vin. sacrificed every thing that ought to be dear to a dicated from this cruel aspersion, and never with man of honor. They are still base enough to more generous and indignant eloquence than by encourage the follies of your age, as they once Lord Brougham, in his Political Sketches, vol. did the vices of your youth. As little acquaint- iii. It has always been understood in the quared with the rules of decorum as with the laws ters likely to be best informed, that he felt his of morality, they will not suffer you to profit by son's loss deeply to the last hour of his life.17 experience, nor even to consult the propriety of Instead, however, of yielding to his grief, he ena bad character. Even now they tell you that deavored to employ his thoughts upon public life is no more than a dramatic scene, in which business, and the natural fervor of his disposition the hero should preserve his consistency to the insensibly engaged him in the scenes before him, last, and that, as you lived without virtue, you perhaps more deeply than he was aware. The should die without repentance.
JUNIUS. 'meeting he attended at the India House must, as
appears from the Company's books, have been
that of April 8th, which determined the course The Duke of Bedford died four months after to be taken by the Company on the government the publication of this letter, and Junius has suc- propositions : a great question, in which he took ceeded in handing down his character to poster- a lively interest. The force of mind he thus ity, as a monstrous compound of baseness and displayed is noticed with commendation in a folly. It has been shown, however, in the pre- letter written at the time by David Hume, who, ceding notes, that some of his statements were from his connection with Conway, is assuredly an gross falsehoods, while others were equally gross impartial witness. The absurd charge brought exaggerations.
by Junius (Letter xxix.] against the Duchess, The Duke was certainly a very unpopular of making money by her son Lord Tavistock's
He did experience the public indignities wardrobe, originated in its having been sold for mentioned in this Letter. He was mobbed by the benefit of his valet and Lady Tavistock's the Spitalfield weavers ; his life was more than maid, according to the general practice of that once put in danger; and his palace in Blooms- day.” bury Square was assaulted by congregated thou- Horace Walpole, speaking of this subject, while sands. This was done because the price of silk he censures the Duke for going to the balloting goods fell greatly after the peace which he ne- at the India House, says he was carried there gotiated with France in 1762, and men like Ju- by his creatures, Lord Sandwich, Earl Gower, nius taught those ignorant mechanics to believe and Mr. Rigby, to vote.” He speaks also of that the Duke of Bedford was the cause, when these men and their associates, usually called the fault, if there was any, lay with Lord Bute. " the Bloomsbury gang," as having been shunned In like manner, his administration in Ireland was by Lord Tavistock, and says, "the indecent indifunfortunate. His manners were shy and cold; ference with which such a catastrophe [his sudhis temper was quick and imperious; he had den death] was selt by the faction of the family, bad friends and advisers. The Primate of Ire- spoke too plainly that Lord Tavistock had lived land united the factions of the country against a reproach and terror to them.” We have here him ; and mobs were stirred up to break into the the secret of a considerable portion of the Duke's public buildings and set his authority at defiance. misfortunes for life-those " pernicious friends" And yet Horace Walpole, who, from being his spoken of by Junius, who had “ a privilege to friend, had become his political enemy, states, play on the easiness of his temper." He was a without hesitation, that the Duke went to Ire- very ardent politician; and was reduced to the land with the best intentions, and was really de- necessity of engaging in the interest and insirous to improve the condition of that miserable trigues of his dependents; of supplying their and distracted country. He was charged with vices and relieving their beggary at the expense meanness in his pecuniary concerns, and Junius of his country." His ardor in politics led him sneers at his doing good " by stealth.” Walpole into the borough-mongering alluded to in this adverts to this, and says, "his great economy was Letter. It also made him “at one time rancor. called avarice; if so, it was blended with more ously persecute, and at another basely cringe to, generosity and goodness than that passion will the Favorite of the Sovereign." In connection commonly unite with.” A writer in his favor stated, without contradiction, that "he had paid 17 Walpole says that, “ on hearing of his death, the his brother's debts to the amount of £100,000 ; Duke for a few days almost lost his senses."
with the impetuosity of his feelings and his sud- ing upon every subject, and imagining he underden bursts of passion, it betrayed him into “in- stood it, as he must have done, by inspiration. decent violence in opposing or defending minis. He was always governed-generally by the ters.” These were his real faults, and they were Duchess ; though immeasurably obstinate when great ones; but they by no means imply that de- once he had formed or had an opinion instilled pravity of heart imputed to him by Junius ; and it into him. His manner was impetuous, of which will be observed, that this writer, in all the bit- he was so little sensible, that, being told Lord terness of his satire, does not charge the Duke Halifax was to succeed him, he said, 'He is too with being personally an immoral man. Wal. warm and overbearing : the King will never enpole says " he was a man of inflexible honesty dure him.' If the Duke of Bedford would have and good will to his country." "His parts were thought less of himself, the world would probacertainly far from shining, and yet he spoke read- bly have thought better of him."-Memoirs of ily, and upon trade, well. His foible was speak- George II., vol. i., p. 186.
TO THE KING.
When the complaints of a brave and powerful people are observed to increase in proportion to
the wrongs they have suffered—when, instead Dated December 19th, 1769. The Whigs bad. of sinking into submission, they are roused to reDOW effected a union among themselves. Lord sistance—the time will soon arrive at which ev. Chatham had so far recovered from his three years' ery inferior consideration must yield to the secuillness as to make it certain that he would soon be rity of the sovereign and to the general safety of able to appear in the House of Lords. A reconcili the state. There is a moment of difficulty and ation had taken place between him and the Gren danger, at which flattery and falsehood can no ville and Rockingham Whigs; a new session of Par. liament was about to commence ; and that voice longer
deceive, and simplicity itself can no longwas again to be heard in its councils which had so
er be misled. Let us suppose it arrived. Let often sammoned the nation to the defense of its us suppose a gracious, well-intentioned prince, rights. Janius, though acting by himself, would of made sensible at last of the great duty he owes course be acquainted with these arrangements ; and to his people, and of his own disgraceful situa. to prepare the way for the approaching straggle, he tion; that he looks round him for assistance, and now tarns from the ministry to the Throne, and en- asks for no advice but how to gratify the wishes, deavors at once to intimidate the King, and to roase and secure the happiness of his subjects. In the people to a determined resistance of the govern these circumstances it may be matter of curious ment. The leading object of this Letter is to show the
SPECULATION to consider, if an honest man were King, (1.) How great an error he had committed in permitted to approach a King, in what terms he making the Tories (the hereditary supporters of the would address himself to his sovereign. Let it Stuarts) the depositories of his power, and in choos- be imagined, no matter how improbable, that the ing a Favorite from among them, while he rejected first prejudice against his character is removed, the Whigs, who had brought in the Hanover family, that the ceremonious difficulties of an audience and thus far beld them on the throne. (2.) How dis. are surmounted, that he feels himself animated bonorable was the contest he was then carrying on by the purest and most honorable affections to against a man of corrupt principles and abandoned his King and country, and that the great person life, whose cause good men were nevertheless compelled to take up against their sovereign, in defense whom he addresses has spirit enough to bid him of the dearest rights of the subject. (3.) That the speak freely, and understanding enough to listen breach of the Constitution in seating Mr. Luttrell, to to him with attention. Unacquainted with the the exclusion of Mr. Wilkes, in the House of Com. vain impertinence of forms, he would deliver his mons, was one which the nation could not long en sentiments with dignity and firmness, but not dare ; that a contest was coming on between the without respect.? King and the English people, in which all his reliances throughout the empire would certainly fail early education, and his strong aversion to Wilkes him; and that he ought in time to remember that as a licentious and profligate man. Still, they were "as his title to the throne was acquired by one rev. errors which involved the safety of the empire; it olation, it may be lost by another.” Junius there was right to expose them; and while Junius does it fore exhorts him to turn from his ministers to the with the utmost plainness, he shows comparatively pation; to dissolve Parliament (a measure which little of that insulting and malignant spirit which the Whigs had now determined to press as their characterized his attack upon the King in his first main point), and thus leave the people to decide the Letter. question by the choice of a new House of Commons. * It will repay the student in oratory to review There is bat little to condemn in this Letter, except this introduction, and see how skillfally the reasons the ridiculous charge that "England had been sold which justified so remarkable an address to the sov. to France" in making the peace of 1762, and the at. ereign, are summed up and presented. He will obtempt to create a national animosity against the serve, too, how adroitly Junius assumes the air of Scotch. The King had fallen into great errors, al- one engaged in "a curious speculation" on a supthough there were palliating circumstances in his 'posed case, giving what follows as a muere fancy.