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Judge* and^call'd by the Name of the one OE".the. other, according as the Nature of the r Business was, for which he was placed, at the Head of their Affairs. Jojhua Numb, was constituted a Leader or Captain of 'the People; to go out before them, and to go in before them, and to lead them out, and to bring them in: And particularly,to
Dcut. conduct them into the promisd land.
XXXI. 23. Aii 1
And, when, after the Death of Jojhua, they forsook the..Lord God of their Fathers; and fhere.by caused the Lord to forsake ther% and to deliver them up into the Hands of (their Enemies, we are told that, after & Tinie» the Loud, reT Tud et membring Jw® froniise to Abraham; raiii. 16. fid up fudges, -which delivered them mit of the hands of those that spoiled them. Not but that,, the Chief Magistrate, \>y whatever Name he was called, governs mv both these Capacities; as we may fee plainly from the Nature and End of the Kingly Office, when they are any where spoken of. The Lord says to Samuel, concerning
"1x^6* SaUl' T Wil1 fmd thee a man out °fthe land of Benjamin, and thou shalt-anoint
him to be captain over my people Israel.
And so, the Lord said unto *David; Thou /halt- feed my people Israel, and thou *Sam' v' /halt be & captain over Israel. And again David says concerning Solomon his Son; / have appointed him to be ruler t over If- 5 K'ngt rael, and over Judah.
And to (hew that it was their Business to judge as well as rule, The Elders fay to Samuel, Behold, thou art old, and Vin s/ thy Jons walk not in thy ways; now make us a king to judge us like all the nations. And so it is said of David, That he reign- z.Sam. ed over all Israel; and executed judgment, and justice unto all his people. Nay, to shew that this latter Qualification is the; great End of Kingly Government; God fays to Solomon; Because thou hast asked.2 Chroo. wisdom and knowledge for thy self, that thou may est judge my people, over whom I have made thee king; wisdom and knowledge is granted unto thee; and I will give thee riches and wealth and honour, such as none of the kings have had.
Such a Character is by far the greatest that any King can arrive at; and, of all ot,hcr§, the most desirable, in point of Interest and Prpfit j as the Rewards annex'd
to it sufficiently declare. It is exalted a
bove all mortal Glory and Splendor; it
is truly divine and Godlike. When the
Pfalmiji is raising his Voice to the highest
Pitch of Rapture and Gratulation, he fays,
Psalm ix. J will praise thee, 0 Lord, for thou haft
"" " maintained my right and my cause; tbou
safest in the throne, judging right. Again;
Tie Lo R D jhall endure for ever; be bath
prepared his throne for judgment. He shall
judge the world in righeousness; He Jhall
minister judgment to the people, in upright*
To rule and to judge make up the natural Notion we have of the Office of a supreme Magistrate. And therefore, when Moses would have compos'd the Difference between the two contending Israelites, the Aggressor fays to him, Exod. ii. Who made thee a Prince and a Judge o*+• ver us? In a Word, the whole Duty of the Head of any People is, first to administer justice among them, according to their Laws j and when there is Occasion, to lead them forth, either to avoid or meet their Enemies j in Defence of their Religion, Liberty, and Possessions.
And such a Power God delegated to ISAoses over the Children of Israel; even before the Promulgation of the Law; when he gave him a Commission to bring Exod.iii. forth his people out of Egypt. By Virtue of this Commission, therefore, Moses andib- iv. 29. Aaron went and gathered together all the*1' Elders of the children of Israel: And the people believed, that he was appointed by God to be their Captain and fudge, and they submitted themselves to him accordingly, and bowed the head and worshipped. But, after he had brought them out into the Wilderness, fethro, his Father-inLaw, observing that he fate to judge the &. xviii. people from morning until evening, said unto bint; The thing that thou dost is not good-, Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this feople that is with thee: For this thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to per j or m it thy self alone. Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee. Be thou for the people to Godward, that thou mayejl bring the causes unto God. And thou stalt teach them ordinances, and laws, and stall Jhew them the way, wherein they must
'Walk,' and the work that they must do. Moreover thou jhalt provide, out of all the people, able men, such as fear God; men of truth, hating covetousness, and' let" them judge the people at all seasons. And, it Jhall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee; but every small matter they Jhall judge. So Jhall it be easier for thy self, and they Jhall bear the burden with thee.
And we arc told further, that Moses hearken d to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had jaid; and chose able men out of all -Israel, and made them heads over the people; rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. And they judged the '^people at all seasons. The hard causes they brought unto Moses; but every small matter they judged themselves^ • Vw.^
This Jurisdiction Moses, at his Death, bequeath'd to Joshua; and, by Virtue thereof Joshua conducted and settled the People, in the Land of Canaan. After Joshua's Time, they were govern'd by that Form which God himself had prescrib'd to them; according to the Command and