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And immediately follows, the Cafe of Retaliation. And, if any mischief follow, then thou pall give, life for life, eye for eyet tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, Jlripefor stripe.
For whipping or beating, it is thus or
Dwt. dain'd; If a man be worthy to be beaten, the judge shall cause kirn to lie down, and to br beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number. Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: lest, if he should exceed, and beat him above these, with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile unto thee.
Exod. As to being fold, it is said j A thief shall
xxu'3' make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be fold for his theft.
Bani/hment, was to be to some one of the Cities of Refuge, afterwards allotted for
—xxi.13. that Purpose, in such a [Case as this -, Isa man lie not in wait, (for another) but God deliver him into his hands (if Providence so orders that the Person whom he kills, falls accidentally in his way) then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall fee.
There are three kinds of Death mentions exprefly in the Law, by way of Punishment nishment for particular Criminals; besides heingjwtto death in general: And those, are burning, crucifying, and Jloning. Of burnings in this Cafe; If a man take a wife, and Lev. xx. her mother, (to be his Wife also) it is wick- '+• ednefs. They Jhall be burnt with fire, both he, and they.
Of crucifying, the Law speaks thus; If a man have committed a fin worthy of death, Daut.xxi. and he be to be put to death, and thsu hung zz* him on a tree; (suspend him on a Cross;) bis body Jhall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wife bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God) that thy land be not defiled.
That, by hanging on a tree, is meant crucifying, we are assur'd by the Interpretation of Peter and the other Apojlles, who fay to the Jews; The God of our fathers Acts. v. raised up J E S U S, whom ye flew and hanged 3°on a tree. Again, in another Place, St. Peter speaking of J E s u s, and the Jews who crucified him, fays; Whom they flew and — x.39, hanged on a tree: Him God raised up the 4°* third day, and Jhewed him openly. And so St. Paul fays; When they had fulfill'd all—xlii. that was written of him, they took him down *9'
P d I from
from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre* But God raised him from the dead. And Gal. iii. again he tells us, Christ hath redeemed us %i' from the curse of the Law, being made a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree. Jofh.viii. Accordingly, we find Joshua hanged the ~9' king of Ai on a tree until eventide; and, as
soon as the fun was down, Joshua commanded that they Jhould take his carcase down from the tree. And when he had slain the five 26.27* Kings of the Amorites, it is said, He hanged them on five trees-, and they were hanging upon the trees until the evening. And it came to pass, at the time of the going down of the fun, that Joshua commanded, and they took them down off the trees, and cast them into the cave wherein they had been hid, and laid greatjlones in the cave's mouth.
When therefore David suffers the Gibeonites to hang up seven of the Sons of Saul; and they are left hanging from the begin-* fcxi.ojio. ning °f Harvest, until water dropped upon them out of heaven; which probably was, several Weeks: This seems to have been an extraordinary Cafe. And, as this Execution was made by way of Atonement, ta Avert the Anger of the Lord, who had punistVd the Land with a famine of three years, it is probable, it was attended with a Vow, that the Bodies of Saul's Sons should continue hanging on their Crosses until God should shew he was appeas'd, by sending _Rain; The Want of which, in all likelyhood, had been the Occasion of the Famine.'
All these Instances are of an arbitrary Kind, and not in Execution of Judgment according to Law. Of these we have, I think I may]say, two. One, by a Sentence os God himself j the other, of the Great Council, or Senate. The first was, when Israel joined himself unto Baal Peor, and the Numk anger of the Lo RD was kindled against Israel; 'The Lord Jald unto Moses, Take all the 'heads (Chiefs) of the people, and hang them up before the Lord (the Tabernacle) against the Sun; that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel.
The other was exemplified in our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; who, as the Gospels tell us, was condem'd by the Council, to Death j and accordingly, crucified; by the Permission of Pilate, the RoD d 4 man man Governor. It is said [that, prevail'd on by their outrageous Importunity, He delivered Jesus to their will: otherwise, as to his own Inclination, and Judgment of Acts. iii. the Matter, he was determined to let him go. I3' The Jews, therefore, having treated him
with Variety of Insults and Indignities, John xix. jgj fcm away f0 fo crucified. And he, bearing his cross, as far as his fatigued, and now well-nigh exhausted Spirits could support him under it, went forth, without the City, toward the Place of Execution; which was call'd, by the yews, Golgotha, by the Romans, Calvary, from the Skulls of those who were executed, by Decollation; and might possibly, some of them, lie there unburied. However, after they were got without the Gates, because they perceiv'd how utterly unqualified He was for bearLuke ing so great a Burden, they laid hold of one xxm. 2 . gjmon a Cyrenian, who was providentially thrown in their way; and then, on him they laid the cross, or, at least, the hinder Part of it, that he might bear it after Jesus.
'there were also two other, malefactors condemn'd for Robbery, led with him, tebe,