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rom Heaven, wisely and resolutely appeal'd nto Cæsar j and so was sent to Rome,
'Their PUN ISHMENT S.
Having given the foregoing large Account of the Method and Proceedings of the Great Council, or Senate; let us next inquire into the 'Punishments which ensued, upon particular Crimes, after Condemnation was past therein. These, as we find them specified in the Law, were, Restitution, Fine, Retaliation, Whipping, Banishment, being fold, and Death various ways.
Of Restitution, we read thus; If <*exck} man Jhall seal an ox or a Jheep, and kill it3 xxii. ij orfell it; he Jhall restore five oxen for an ox, and four Jheep for a Jheep, with variety of other Cafes, that follow..
Of Fine, we have an Instance in this Cafe; If men strive, and hurt a woman with ___x . 2, child, so that her fruit depart from her, and 23, &c. yet no (other) mischief follow: He Jhall be surely punijhed, according as the woman1 s hufband will lay upon him; and he Jhall pay, as the judges determine.
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And immediately follows, the Cafe ri Retaliation. And, if any mi/chief foilers, then thou stall give, life for life, eye for ejt, I tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for fa, burning for burning, Jlripefor stripe.
For whipping or beating, it is thus orDwt. dain'd; If a man be worthy to be beaten, (a XXT' 2* judge Jhall cause him to lie down, and to k beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number. Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: lest, if be f&odd exceed, and beat him above these, with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile unto thee.
Exod. As to being fold, it is said; A thief jhall XX11'3' make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he Jhall be fold for his theft.
Banishment, was to be to some one of the Cities of Refuge, afterwards allotted for that Purpose, in such a [Case as this; If a man lie not in wait, (for another) but God deliver him into his hands (if Providence so orders that the Person whom he kills, falls accidentally in his way) then I will appoint thee a place whither he Jhallfee.
There are three kinds of Death Trnention'd exprefly in the Law, by way of Punishment ifhment for particular Criminals j besides iing^wf to death in general: And those, are ir~ningy crucifying, and Jloning. Of burn2gy in this Cafe; If a man take a wife, and Lev. xx. er mother, (to be his Wife also) it is wick- '4« dnefs. They shall be burnt with fire, both and they.
Of crucifying, the Law speaks thus If a man have committed a fin worthy of death, Daut.xxi, and be be to be put to death, and thm h*ng 22' him on a tree; (suspend him on a Cross 3) bis body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou Jhalt in any wife bury him that day j (for he that is hanged is accursed of God) that thy land be not defiled. . . ,
That, by hanging on a tree, is meant crucifying, we are assur'd by the Interpretation of Peter and the other Apostles, who fay to the Jews; The God of our fathers Acts. v. raised up J E S U S, whom ye flew and hanged 30on a tree. Again,- in another Place, St. Peter speaking of Jesus, and the Jews who crucified him, saysj Whom they flew and — x.39, hanged on a tree: Him God raised up the 4°' third day, and Jhewed him openly. And so St.Ptf«/says* When they had fulfill'd all— xiii. that was written of him, they took him down *9' D d £ from
from the tree, and laid him in aJepulckri, But God raised him from the dead. And Gal. iii. again he tells us, Christ hath redeemed m ,J" from the curse of the Law, being made a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree. Jofh.viii. Accordingly, we find fofhua hanged t6t ~9' ting of Ai on a tree until eventide j and, ai sum as the fun was down, Joshua commanded that they should take his carcase down from the tree. And when he had slain the five Josh. x. j£jngS D£ jjjg jfaoritet, it is said, He hangd
them on five trees; and they were hanging upon the trees until the evening. And it camt to pass, at the time of the going down of the fun, that Joshua commanded, and they took them down off the trees, and cast them into the cave wherein they had been hid, and laid greatstones in the cave's mouth.
When therefore David suffers the Gibeonites to hangup seven of the Sons of Saul-, and they are left hanging from the begin-* xxi!gl i o. nin£> °f Harvest, until water dropped upon • them out of heaven; which probably was» several Weeks: This seems to have been an extraordinary Cafe. And, as this Execution was made by way of Atonement, to. iif£rt the Anger of the Lor D, who had pxinifh'd the Land with a famine of three years, it is probable, it was attended with a Vow, that the Bodies of Saul's Sons stiould continue hanging on their Crosses until God should shew he was appeas'd, by sending _Rain j The Want of which, in all likelyhood, had been the Occasion of the Famine.'
All these Instances are of an arbitrary Kind, and not in Execution of Judgment according to Law. Of these we have, I think I mayjsay, two. One, by a Sentence of God himself; the other, of the Great Council, or Senate. The first was, when Israel joined himself unto Baal Peor, and the Numbanger of the Lord was kindled against If- X rael; 'The Loud J aid unto Moses, Take all the 'heads (Chiefs) of the people, and hang them up before the Lord (the Tabernacle) againjl the Sun; that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel.
The other was exemplified in our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; who, as the Gospels tell us, was condem'd by the Council, to Death j and accordingly, crucified; by the Permission of Pilatet the RoD d 4 § man