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the divine authority of his mission; was assured that the men who sought his life were dead; and was promised the assistance of Aaron his brother.
Q. Where did he meet with his brother?
A. In Horeb, whither Aaron had gone by Divine direction; and they went together to Egypt.
Q. How were they received by their brethren ?
A. The Israelites, convinced by the miracles they wrought, believed : and when they heard that the Lord had looked on their affliction, they bowed their heads and worshipped.
Q. What miracles were wrought by Moses on this occasion ?
A. Having cast his rod upon the ground, it became a serpent; but being seized by the tail, became a rod again.* His hand being put into his bosom, became leprous ;t but on repeating this, it was restored. And some of the water of the river being poured upon the earth became blood.
Q. How did Moses and Aaron open their commission to Pharaoh ?
Q. They said unto him, “Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a' feast unto me in the wilderness :"# but Pharaoh treated their
* This is usually considered as the origin of the Thyrsus of Bacchus, and of the Caduceus, or divining rod of Mercury.
+ The leprosy, an obstinate cutaneous disease, was supposed to be a special infliction of the gods, by whom alone it could be removed. 2 Kings v. 7.
The religious feasts of ancient days were frequented by tlousands of people ; r::d consequently Pharaoh was not surprised at this request.
message with contempt, and ordered his servants to deal more rigorously with the Israelites.*
Q. How did they endure this severity ?
A. Having in vain appealed to Pharaoh, they murmured bitterly against Moses and Aaron.
Q. What was the religious state of the Hebrews at this period ?'
A. They had forsaken the true God for the gods of the land ;t and, rather than depend on the arm of Jehovah, preferred their slavery in Egypt.
Q. How were Moses and Aaron encouraged under these unfavourable appearances ?
A. They believed in God, who assured them of the deliverance of Israel, after He had smitten Egypt with all his wonders. “And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they hearkened not for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage."
Q. What means were subsequently used with Pharaoh?
A. Moses and Aaron again went to him; and being asked for a miracle, Aaron cast down his rod, which became a serpent. The magicians Jannes and Jambres, however, did the same with their enchantments, but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods.
Q. What resulted from Pharaoh's unbelief?
A. The Lord hardened his heart, and he refused to let the people go. Wherefore the Lord smote Egypt
* They were compelled not only to make the usual tale of bricks, but to find the materials, Exod. v. 7, 8.
+ Exod. xiv. 11, 12. Josh, xxiv. 14. Ezek. xx. 6, 7, 8. | 2 Timothy iii. 8.
with ten plagues—all the waters of Egypt became blood* --frogs infested the houses, beds, ovens, and kneading troughs, throughout the land--all the dust of the land became lice upon man, and upon beast-swarms of Aliest were sent, which devoured the Egyptians—all the cattle died 1-all the people, and the magicians also, were smitten with sore boilsa dreadful storm of thunder and hail was sent, which smote all that was in the field, both man and beast, and every herb and every tree-locusts § of an extraordinary kind followed, and ate up every thing which the hail had left-a darkness that might be felt, confined the Egyptians to their dwellings for three days—and lastly, all the first born of man, and of beast, were slain.
Q. What tended materially to harden Pharaoh ?
A. The imitation of the circumstances of the first and second plagues, by the magicians.
Q. Was the whole land of Egypt exposed to these awful visitations ?
This not only exposed them to severe physical suffering, but interrupted their religious duties, of which ablution was an important part.
+ Psalm lxxviii. 45. the Zimb, described in'BRUCE's Travels, vol. ii. was no doubt one of the “divers sorts of fies," which troubled Egypt.
This murrain, by destroying the gods of Egypt, would consequently alarm the people for their own safety.
See Appendix G. Several particulars relative to the plagnies of Egypt occur in Psalms lxxviii. cv. They appear to have produced, in some instances, a salutary effect; for among the servants of Pharaoh there were some that feared the Lord. Exod. ix. 20.
A. No: the land of Goshen, where the Israelites dwelt, was exempt ; that the Egyptians might know that the Lord made a difference between them and the Israelites.
Q. By what was the infliction of the last plague preceded?
A. The last application was made to Pharaoh by Moses, who foretold him the awful consequences which would follow a refusal. The PASSOVEk was then instituted, and the Israelites instructed how to observe it as an everlasting memorial of their deliverance.
Q. What was the victim slaughtered on this occasion ? A. A lamb without blemish, a male of the first year. Q. What became of it ?
A. The blood was sprinkled with hyssop on the doorposts and lintels, that the angel of the Lord might Pass OVER every house on which it was.
The flesh was roasted, and eaten with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, by a sufficient number of individuals collected together into one house for that purpose. Not a bone of it was broken ; and whatever remained of it, was immediately burnt to prevent its corruption.
Q. In what manner were the Israelites to eat it?
A. With their loins girded,* their shoes on their feet, their staves in their hands, and in great haste.
* In the east they wear an upper garment of extraordinary length, called a hyke. From the use to which the Arabs apply it-as a covering for their beds, and as a wrapper for large burdens, it is supposed to resemble those worn by the Israel. ites. Exod. xii. 34. Deut. xxiv. 13. “ The person who wears
Q. How long were the Israelites to eat unleavened bread ?
A. Seven days; no leavened bread was to be found in their houses from the fourteenth day at even, to one and twentieth day at even; to remind them under what circumstances their fathers left Egypt; for “they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual."
Q. Of what was the paschal lamb a type ?
A. Of Christ the true passover : sover is sacrificed for us.
Q. To whom was the participation of the paschal lamb restricted ?
A. To the Israelites, and to those strangers, who, receiving the seal of the Abrahamic covenant, became proselytes to the Jewish faith: thus shadowing forth that believers only, who constitute the true Israel, are partakers of the benefits resulting from the death of Jesus.
Q. At what season of the year did this take place? A. At its first celebration it began on the tenth,
“ Christ our pas
it is every moment obliged to tuck it up, and fold it anew around the body. This shews the great use of a girdle whenever they are engaged in any active employment, and the force of the Scripture injunction alluding to it, of having the loins girded, in order to set about it.”- Horne's Introd. vol. iii.
* 1 Cor. v. 7. Psalm xvi. 10. John xix. 33. Heb. ix. 14.