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foreign divines (b) as were most celebrated for their learning and discretion, respecting further improvements. The portion of Scripture which was now daily read in the churches, and the zeal and diligence with which the genuine truths of Christianity were disseminated among the people, opened their minds, and operated so strongly upon their understandings, that in about two years a general revision of the Liturgy was thought expedient, and commissioners were appointed for that purpose. The revision was made with the utmost care and judgment: and the book, thus improved, was confirmed by parliament in the beginning of April 1552, and ordered to be used in all churches throughout the kingdom, from the feast of All Saints following. In this "Second Book," as it is called, of King Edward, there were many additions and corrections. Among the former were the sentences, exhortation, confession, and absolution, at the beginning of the morning and evening prayer, and the ten commandments in the communion service. The principal omissions were, the use of oil and the sign of the cross in confirmation, extreme unction at the visitation

(b) Particularly Bucer and Martyr, who, through his recommendation, were now divinity professors in Cambridge and Oxford.

visitation of the sick, and prayers for the dead, both in the communion and in the burial service, the use of the cross and the invocation of the Holy Ghost, and the mixture of water with wine in the celebration of the holy supper; and there were also several other alterations in the communion service. By these additions and alterations, our public offices were, in all important points of doctrine, brought nearly to their present


Soon after the publication of this book, King Edward died, and his successor Mary, immediately upon her Accession, caused both the statutes to be repealed which had authorized and directed the use of these two books, and restored the Latin Liturgies according to the popish forms of worship.

Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, commissioners were again appointed to prepare an English Liturgy. Elizabeth had certainly not imbibed the same pure spirit of Christianity, which had directed the pious and enlightened Edward and the venerable Cranmer; and it was at first debated, whether the First or Second Book of King Edward should be made the basis of the Liturgy, which was now to be offered to parliament. It was decided in favour of the second


book; and the commissioners having entered upon their business in December 1558, finished it in the April following. This new book was immediately ratified by act of parliament, which took effect on the day of St. John the Baptist 1559. The following were the most considerable circumstances in which it differed from the second book of King Edward the Sixth: power was given to the ordinary to appoint the part of the church where morning and evening prayer should be read, the chancel having hitherto been the place commonly used for that purpose; proper first lessons were appointed for Sundays, no distinction of that sort having been made in former Liturgies; in the litany, a sentence, praying to be delivered "from the bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enormities," was omitted, and prayers were added for the "queen's majesty," and " for the clergy and people;" and several alterations were made in the communion service and in the rubric, with a view to conciliate the Roman Catholics. "This comprehensive plan, added to the Queen's apparent attachment to usages that had obtained under the antient establishment, induced many of the Roman Catholics to continue to join in the communion of the established church. Even the Pope was ready to give his sanction to the


Liturgy, and to assent to the use of the communion in both kinds, provided the queen would acknowledge his supremacy; and it was not till after a conformity of more than ten years that the Roman Catholics withdrew to separate congregations (c)."

This Liturgy continued without any alteration, through the long reign of Quee Elizabeth; but early in the reign of James the First, when the Puritans, who were now a numerous body, petitioned for a reform of what they termed abuses, the King appointed a conference to be held at Hampton Court, between a select number of bishops of the establishment, and the principal leaders among the dissenters, before himself as president, to hear what could be alleged for their non-conformity, and to judge whether an accommodation between the parties would be practicable. The demands of the Puritans were far too unreasonable to be granted, and very soon set aside the idea of agreement; but their objections might contribute to produce some of the following improvements, which were soon after made in the Liturgy. In the morning and evening prayers a collect, and in the litany a particular intercession, were appointed for the royal family;

(c) Shepherd's Elucidation.


the forms of thanksgiving upon several occasions were then added; the questions and answers concerning the sacraments were subjoined to the catechism; and the administration of private baptism was by the rubric expressly confined to the lawful minister. These and some other additions and improvements were made by the authority of James the First, and universally adopted, although they were not ratified by parliament.

Charles the First, by his own authority only, made some few unimportant alterations in the Liturgy; but in 1661, the year after the restoration of Charles the Second, when the hierarchy had been broken down with the monarchy above fourteen years, and the Liturgy had been entirely laid aside by puritanical usurpers of the government, twenty-four commissioners, twelve of whom were episcopalians, and twelve presbyterians, with nine assistants on each side, were appointed by patent, and were enjoined " to meet at the master's lodging in the Savoy, and to take into consideration the several directions, rules, forms of prayer, and things in the Common Prayer contained; to revise the same, comparing them with the most antient Liturgies; to advise upon the exceptions and objections that might be made, and, if occasion should require, to


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