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and governor) and he said to David, thou shult not render it afwy, peur-trees; as Aquila does in the come here, to make it thy residence, unless thout place before us: and the Vulgate, both liere and in take away, discharge, dismiss, whatever is offensive Chronicles. But, what is meant by the voice, or to the diguity of so holy a place, of a temple sound of going in the head of these trees? If these like this; no sick soldiers can be allowed, not the trees were near to David, why in their tops, or head? blind persons, nor the lame persons, of thine attend. If they were distant from him, how could he distinants: we stipulate espressly, that thou keep this dis- guish the place of this sound? These objections are trict sacred.
proposed by those who observe, that he might disNow, as he well knew David would not comply tinguish a sound from the head, or further part of a with these conditions, this was saying, in effect, Dae valley; and, that it is perfectly analogous to the rid shall not come here at all. Bui David took the mode of Eastern warfare, to creep along any concealfortified post of Zion, which was on the hill adja. ment, ravine, or hollow way, in order to attack the cent: and that became the city of David, instead enemy at unawares. of Jerusalem, which he had at first designed. And Is there any allusion in this sound of going, to a David said, in that very day, when he
determined breeze of wind? Perhaps, the morning breeze, which, to render Zion his royal seat, every degradation by shaking the tops of the trees, might produce a shall attend the Jebusite, and he shali labour in the sound. In wbich case, the direction would be equivdrain of my royal building: even his blind men, and alent to “when the breeze blows stifly, then attack lame men, for all his people are but blind and lame, the enemy.” The usual idea, is that of thunder; who hold David's person in aversion, and have re but this implies a distance; for thunder near at hand fused bis intended royal favour: accordingly, as must needs seem to come from above, from the tops they say, the blind man, the lame man shall not enter of trees, not from their roots. Nevertheless, thunder into the house, meaning their sacred temple, so I
at the head of distant moist vallies is not unlikely: say, they shall not enter my house, my royal palace, but then this dismisses the mulberry-Irees. with honour; but shall serve in the impure parts, the discharge of what is offensive in it. So David dwelt
CHAPTER VI. VERSE 5. in the fort, and called it the city of David, &c. It seems, then, that David was so offended with the “ And David, and all the house of Israel, played refusal of the Jebusite, who considered him; for before the Lord, on all manner of woods of Brushim."
possibly he had been himself wounded in some encounter
It is clear that this passage refers to musical instruwith his enemies; and his men as not good enough, too ments; and probably this word denotes that kind of impure to inhabit their city, which city David prob- wood which is most proper to form musical instruably knew was appointed to be the metropolis of Ju- ments; it is generally rendered fir wood; and this dea; that he employed these haughty persons in the may be its meaning; but the word being plural
, seems lowest offices of his palace, now become their rival
to include more. I doubt even, whether it does not and their superior. That house means temple, ride
mean an instrument of music, for such seems to be 2 Sain. vii. 6; 1 Kings, vi. 22; 2 Kings, x. 21; sii.
the connection; playing before the Lord upon all 12; siji. 27. et al.
woods, on  rushim and on cinnaruth, &c. where The reader will observe the counterpart, or paral the connecting and, j, seems to have some force. lelism of the sentence and sentiments, as maintained Otherwise, the instruments are, Ist, The cinnoruth, in this version.
harps. 2d, Nebalim, another kind of harp, rendered This view of the passage, I believe, is entirely in our version psaltery. 3d, Tophim, timbrels, or new: the difficulty of rendering it, which is allowed tympani, the modern diff of the East. 4th, Menoby all translators, must apologize for this attempt, to noim, cornets. [I suspect we want information on direct its meaning into this channel.
this instrument.] T'jelljelim, cymbals; but some think this was the sislrum, an Egyptian instrument
formed of wires. VERSES 23, 23.
As figures of these instruments are given in the When thou hearest the sound of a going in the third vol. FRAGMENT, No. 231, &c. we shall not entops of the mulberry-trees. The mulberry-tree is large on them here. well known among us.
Pliny calls it “ the wisest of It is worth observing, on this word berosh, how trees; because it is the last of domestic trees which contradictorily the Lxx bave rendered this word, for shoots out its buds, and does not display its flowers, want of established principles of natural history. In till the cold weather be entirely over.” But there this place, they put cypress: in Isai. xxxvi. 24; are doubts whether the mulberry-tree was known in lv. 13; 1x. 13. pitun. Ezek. xxxi. 8; Zech, xi. 2. Syria, so early as the days of David ; and the word peuken. 1 kings, v. 8, 10; is. 11; vi. 15. elaten, fir. baku, becain, has been taken rather to signify moist Isai. xli. 19. myrtle. Hosea sii.9 ; 2 Chron. ii. 18. rallies, than trees. In 1 Chron. xiv. 15. the exx juniper. The Vulgate, in fourteen places, reads fir;
in our text, fabrefacta; 2 Chron. ii. 8. arcenthina. signed by similar estimation, vide FRAGMENT, No. Nahum ii. 4. agitatores.
150. The Chaldee reads fir constantly; and most inter
CHAPTER XVII. VERSE 8. preters follow him: it is likely this writer should be as well acquainted with this subject, as any foreign Thy father and his men are chased in their minds, translator.
as a bear bereaved of her whelps. It is something
singular that the bear is generally masculine in the CHAPTER XII. VERSE 30.
Hebrew: for instance, this passage does not refer, in
the original, to a female bear, but to a male; and And David took their king's crown from off his
might be rendered, like a male bear bereaved, i.e. of head; the weight thereof was a talent of gold, with
his mate. The same may be said of the passages, the precious stones; and it was set on David's heud. The great weight of this crown, renders it impossible
where a similar comparison is nientioned, Prov. xvii.
12. “Let a man meet a bear bereaved, rather than a to have been worn by any king in the world: what it
fool in his folly." Hosea, xiii. 8.“I will come upon was, what was the precious stone, not stones, plural,
them as a bear bereaved.' The reader will choose and what was set on David's head, see, conjectured,
between the affection of a she bear for her young, and in Dictionary, vol. i. art. CROWN; and in FRAGMENT,
that of a he bear for his female. “The she bear is No. 282. The talent of gold weighed 114 lbs.
intensely fond of her young, and is dreadfully furious CHAPTER XIV. VERSE 26.
when deprived of them: in fact, she ventures her
life to avenge her loss :" on the other hand, “ the The weight of Absalom's hair, says Scheuzer, is male is extremely formidable in the season of accomone of the most difficult passages of Scripture. This panying the female, which, perhaps, is owing to jealdifficulty is by no means lessened in our translation, ousy,” Brokes's Nat. Hist. vol. i. Now, this dispowhich renders, and when he polled his kead, for at sition must be proportionately increased, if, during EVERY YEAR'S END he polled it, he weighed the hair this season, he should be deprived of his partner. of his head at two hundred shekels, after the king's The passage where we read, that two she bears tare weight. Here we should consider, that the original forty-two children, though it leads to the notion does not say, at every year's end, but at the end of of their being females more strongly than any days, to the time he polled it, meaning, after a period other passage, yet is in the masculine. I'would of time: and if we examine the scope of the place, therefore query, whether there might not be an we shall see, I apprehend, the reason of putting this anomaly of language in the Hebrew, as among ourremark in this place. Suppose Absalom had brought selves, who, at first mention, usually call a cut, she, himself under a vow, to let his hair grow, at the time though it may prove to be a male ; as we call an aniwhen his sister Tamar was injured. This would mal of the canine kind, a dog, though it be really a make nearly six years' growth : nay, if he had let it bitch; nor do we always discriminate between a grow only after he had killed Amnon, it would be duck and a drake, but say a number of ducks; or a Three years; and it should seem, that he polled it on goose and a gander, but say a number of geese: being returned to Jerusalem again: for such probably whereby we include both sexes under the name of is the connection of the passage, verse 23.
Joab one: so a mare is a horse, though a horse is not a brought Absalom to Jerusalem; Absalom returned mare; and certain naturalists, reckon the bull, under to his house; Absalom polled his hair. Having the cow kind; as they reckon the hind a female stag. therefore worn his hair, apparently neglected, as a I suppose the current idiom of all languages has somekind of mourning during his absence; on his return, what of this imperfection: so that we may still conhe resumed his apparent affection for it, and care of tinue to reckon the bears of these passages as females, it. To complete this solution, we may add, that not if the construction require it, though the words be the absolute weight, but the value, is meant by the really masculine. 200 shekels. The value of his hair, arising from its beauty, was
VERSE 28. 200 royal shekels. This hair seems to be mentioned as an instance of personal beauty, not personal strength “ David being come to Mahanaiin, Shobi, Machir, to produce, or to bear, such a quantity of hair; and Barzillai brought, 1st, beds, mesheceb; and 2d, now, the colour of it, or the fineness of it, might add basins, sephut; and 3d, earthen vessels, cali iutjer; much to its value, though not to its weight. More- and 4th, wheat, chittim; and 5th, barley, shoarim ; over, against the usual idea that the weight of his and 6th, flour, kemach ; and 7th, parched corn, kali , hair was 200 shekels, we ought to recollect, that it and 8th, beans, pul; and 9th, lentils, odeshim; and was not his whole head of hair, but the pollings, or 10th, parched pulse, kali; and 11th, honey, dabash; quantity taken from his head, that he thus estimated. and 12th, butter, chemah; and 13th, sheep, tjon ; Bor other instances, wherein value, not weight, is de- and 14th, cheese of kine, shephut bekar.
1st, Beds. This is a word of large signification, 7th, Parched corn, kali. This word, kali, occurs and denotes whatever is laid down in : whether these again below, and is rendered by our translators, parchbeds were of the litter kind, or somewhat like our ed pulse. That there was a distinction between the settees.
subjects parched ; or, in the manner of parching, is 2d, Basins, sephut. I suppose there was suffi- very likely. The reader will find, on Matth. xxiv. cient distinction between the sephut of this passage, 41. two ways of parching corn, described by Mr. and the sephel of Judges v. 25. (vide on Judges vi. Pennant, who informs us, that it is an expeditious 19.] but, that each is a deep, capacious bowl, im mode of preparing corn for food : perhaps, this recplying concavity, is unquestionable: it is probable, ommended it, on the present occasion. Parched corn, however, that ihe “lordly dish” of Jael, was of however, is a kind of food still retained in the East, metal, and handsomely embossed ; while the basins for so Hasselquist informs us. “ On the road from of the present article were merely wooden bowls, Acre to Seide, we saw a herdsman eating his dinner, such as the Arabs still use for kneading their bread consisting of half ripe ears of wheat, which he roastin, and afterward eating out of. This is only con- ed, and ate with as good an appetite as a Turk does jecture.
his pillau. In Egypt such food is much eaten by the 3d, Earthen vessels, cali iutjer. We have else- poor, being the ears of maize, or Turkish wheat, and where [vide Supplement to Calmet, articles Sın, of their durra, which is a kind of millet. When this Sinner] considered culi, as deroting a beautiful food was first invented, art was in a simple state; yet vase, a vase embossed, embellished, and painted; the custom is still continued in some nations, where the whether we ought to attach this meaning to it here, inhabitants have not even at this time learned to pamdepends on the connection of it with the foregoing per nature.” articles, and what we may suppose to have been their 8th, Beans, pul. Dr. Shaw says, “beans, after they application. The beds could not be for the whole are boiled and stewed with oil and garlick, are the army; beds for some thousands of soldiers ! they principal food of persons of all distinctions." could only be for the king, and his retinue; the ba 9th, Lentils, odeshim. The lentil is reckoned sins, if of the nature we have hinted at, magnificent among pulse ; and is, indeed, a kind of bean. We and capacious, were for the royal service, not for the find Esau longing for a mess of pottage made of lenhost at large : if so, these cali, vases, were of the na tils, Gen. xxv. 34. Augustin, in Psalm xlvi. says, ture of our china, not coarse earthen ware; they also“ lentils are used as food in Egypt, for this plant grows were for the king's use; and consequently cali may abundantly in that country ; which is what renders here, as well as in Eccl. ix. 18. signify a beautiful, the lentils of Alexandria so valuable, that they are no less than an useful vase ; a vase carefully finished brought from thence to us, as if none were grown by the hands of the potter : the words might be ren among us.” Lentils, however, were little esteemed by dered, literally, vases of form, or of the former. the Romans, who ranked them below that species of The reference of this, to the antiquity of ornamental grain, from which they made a kind of beer, the alica. china, and to the practice of such an art, perhaps,
Accipe Niliacum Pelusia munera lentem; not confined to one country, cannot escape the read
Vilior est alica, carior illa faba. er's notice,
4th, Wheat, chittim. This word is plural here, But in Barbary, Dr. Shaw says, “lentils are dresssignifying several sorts of wheat : which has led ed in the same manner as beans, dissolving easily into Scheuzer to say, “it comprehended anciently all a mass, and making a pottage of a chocolate colour. sorts of beaten corn, cleansed from impurities.' This we find was the red pottage which Esau, from
I rather doubt this, however, because barley, which thence called Edom, 0176, red, Gen. xxxv. 30. exis a kind of corn, follows directly after. It is proba. changed for bis birthright. ble, that the ancients attributed to wheat, a delicacy, 10th, Parched pulse, kali. The repetition of this a delicate fatness, which may account for the men word here, after food of the pulse kind, seems strongly tion of it, in a manner not usual, Deut. xxxii. 14. to support the propriety of our public version ; the - Butter of kine, milk of sheep, fat of lambs, rams, first kali placed after the corn, wheat, barley, flour, goats, kidney fal of wheat, pure wine ;” or, if we read' kali, may mean an additional quantity of the proper with Dr. Geddes,““ kidney fat and wheat,” it is evi- kinds of these parched: so here being placed after the dent, that not merely delicacy, but delicate plump- pulse, it may imply an additional quantity of the propness, or fatness, is the general character of the sub er kinds of pulse, parched also, i.e. some ready for injects particularized; and that wheat is understood to stant eating, other in store. be so far of the same character, as to be properly The Vulgate renders this kali, frixum, cicer; now associated with them.
Dr. Shaw informs us, that the cicer, garranços, or 5th, Barley, shorim: the hairy grain.
chichpea, which is a kind of tare, are in the greatest 6th, Flour, kemach, i.e. corn reduced to powder by repute after they are Parched in pans, or ovens, then grinding
receiving the name of leblebby. This seems to be of
the greatest antiquity, for Plaulus speaks of it as a Now, if we accept the idea of sheep cheese, for that thing very common in his time:
of this word in our text, we see the reason why the Tam frictum ego illum reddam, quam frictum est cicer.
distinctive description, cheese of kine, is attachBacch. Act iv. Scene 5.
ed to the following word ; at the same time, we main
tain the uniformity of subjects in the passage : “butAnd Horace mentions the frictum cicer, as a kind
ter of kine, cheese of sheep, cheese of kine." Vide on of food used by the poorer Romans:
1 Sam. xxv, 18.
14th, Cheese of kine, shephut bekar. We have Si quid fricti ciceris probat, et nucis emptor.
A rt. Poet. 240.
just seen Dr. Shaw's notion of the cheeses sent by Da
vid ; which we ought to observe, are described in The like observation we meet with in Aristophanes, the original by another word, ann 'n chrutji hespeaking of a country clown, who was av@poexu (w TypeGov@y, cheleb, signifying strictly, “cultings off of milk ;" or parching of cicers.
rather, "separations of milk,” lumps of coagulated The leblebby of these times may probably be the milk; the soft, tender curd, curd recently set. I kali, parched pulse, of Holy Scripture. It is at least suppose, after what we have seen in Dr. Shaw, we may certain, that this food is purchased by travellers to
consider the new cheese, or Bath cheese, of our own form a part, and a considerable part too, of the stock markets, as the nearest approach to thein, in substance, of provision, which they take with them on their jour, though not in shape. Now, if the cheeses sent by ney. It is sold in almost every street of the principal David were thus soft and tender, we may possibly see cities.
the reason why cheese made for keeping is described 11th, Honey, debash.
by another word in this passage ; and if we consider 12th, Butter, chemah. Butter is the unctuous part the former word, as denoting cheese made of sheep's of milk, collected together apart from the whey. This milk, which is hard and durable, it coincides with is effected in the East, by shaking the milk in a skin the notion, that this shephut was hard and durable, bottle, and pressing it.' Hasselquist says, “they also : perhaps our Cheshire cheeses may be comparmade butter in a leather bag, hung on three poles eil to it, in general properties, while in shape it might erected for the purpose, united at top in the form of a be, as the root of the word imports, round like an emcone, by swinging it to and fro by strength of arm.” inence, or mountain like ; which is no bad descripThe heat of the climate in the East, does not suffer
tion of some of our Cheshire cheeses. The historian their butter to become solid like ours, but it is eaten expressly observes, that this cheese was of kine; quickly after it is made.
this remark coincides with the notion that there was 13th, Sheep, tjon. That the import of this word is another kind of cheese, which was not of kine ; if so, sheep, in general, is admitted; but, in this passage, it it can only be the article intended by the foregoing seems rather extraordinary that sheep should be the word. That cheese of kine was somewhat of a rarity, only living animal mentioned, and that between but
we may inser from the little quantity of milk afforded ter of kine, and cheese of kine also. Is it not rather by kine in hot countries : so Dr. Shaw informs likely, that some kind of food, prepared from the
us; “notwithstanding the rich herbage of this counsheep, is the article here intended ? for instance, try from December to July, the butter hath never cheese made of sheep's milk, for so Dr. Shaw informs the substance, or richness of taste, with what our us, p. 241. folio edition ; "the sheep and the goals English dairies afford us in the depth of winter. Abcontribute also to the dairies of this country, it being dy Bashaw, dey of Algiers, was no less surprised CHIEFLY of their milk that the Moors and Arabs make than his ministers, when admiral Cavendish a few Instead of runnet, they make use, in the
years ago acquainted him that he had a Hampshire summer season, particularly, of the flowers of the
cow on board the Cambridge, then in the road to Algreat headed thistle, or wild artichoke, to turn the giers, which gave a gallon of milk a day, a quantity milk; putting the curds, thus made, into small bas- equal to what half a dozen of the best Barbary cows kets of rushes, or palmelta, and binding them after- would yield in the same time. The Barbary cattle ward and pressing them. I have rarely seen any of likewise have another imperfection, that they always these cheeses above two or three pounds weight, be- lose their calves and their milk together.” [Compare ing usually of the shape and size of a penny loaf ; Isai. vii. 15.] such, perhaps, as we may suppose those ten to have been which David carried with other provisions to
CHAPTER XVIII. VERSES 6, 8. the camp of Saul, 1 Sam. xvii. 18. They have no other method of making butter than by putting their The battle was in the wood of Ephraim. milk or cream into a goat's skin, which being suspend The wood devoured more people than the sword. ed from one side of the tent to the other, and press On Josh. ii. 6. we observed, that the Egyptians ed to and fro in one uniform direction, quickly occa and Hebrews called woody plants, those which were sions that separation which is required of the unc of a strongish stem, like hemp, or flax: and here, I tuous and wheyey parts.” Compare Prov. XXX. 33. presume to think, they called woods, or woody places,