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this, if I mistake not, was the precise month and day resembling a lunette.” What is alluded to in this of the month, on which Noah entered the ark, and ceremony, I think, wants little explanation. the floods came. Moses says, Gen. vii. 11. In the There seem likewise to have been sacred cups six hundredth year of Noah's life, IN THE SECOND the form of boats called by the same name scyphi, MONTH, THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF THE MONTH, the whence, probably, our English word skiff, of which same day were all the fountains of the great deep they made a religious use in the prosecution of their broken up....in the self same day entered Nouh....into mysteries; they were also introduced at festivals, and the ark. Hence, I think, there can be no doubt, but upon other solemn occasions. It is said of Hercules, in this bistory of Osiris we have a memorial of the Macrob, Sat. I. v. c. 21. that he traversed a vast sea patriarch and the deluge. As this event happened, in a cup or skiff, which Nereus or Oceanus lent him according to the Egyptian traditions, when the sun for his preservation. This scyphus, it seems, was entered Scorpio, that sign is continually commemorat made of wood, and well secured with pitch to preed in the diluvian hieroglyphics.
serve it from decay. There were many cups
formed Mention has been made that the moon was an em in imitation of this vessel ; which were esteemed sablem of the ark. Meen, Menes, Manes, Selene, were cred, and only used upon particular occasions. That all terms by which the lunar god was in different coun they were made after the prototype, in the shape of tries distinguished. The lunette did not relate to the a boat or ship, may be known from a fragment of Meplanet in the heavens, but to the patriarch and to the nander, which has been preserved by Atheneus, from ark; for the lunette greatly resembled the sacred the play called Nauclerus. One neighbour tells anship, under which semblance the ark was described; other, ibat Theophilus, a common friend, is returned it was accordingly reverenced under this type in many safe to his son; and, with much good nature, offers to places; especially in Mesopotamia, Syria, Armenia, treat him, upon this joyful occasion, with a cup of and Cappadocia. One of the most superb temples that wine. The dialogue runs thus : ever was built, was at Cabeira in Armenia ; of which “ A. And first of all I make you an offer to partake Strabo gives, l. xii. a particular description. He styles of this fine cup. it the temple of Meen, and adds, “This, too, as well
“ St. What cup? as many others, is a temple of the lunar god." He “ A. Why this boat: don't you understand me, mentions temples of the like nature in Phrygia, Alba- you simpleton?" nia, and at Antioch in Pisidia; also in Antioch of Syria. In another place this person speaks of the same He styles them temples “ of the lunar deity of the ship. " True,” says he, “I have saved it; and a ark."
noble ship it is; the very same which one Callicles, In consequence of adopting the moon as an hiero a silversmith, built, and of which Euphranor of Thuglyphic of the ark, the Egyptians esteemed the moon rium, a boon companion, has oftentimes the steerthe mother of all beings; for the ark and the moon
age. were synonymous terms. Analogous to the above, What was alluded to by cups of this particular we are informed by Plutarch, that the chief concern form, may, I think, be inferred from their invoking, of the Egyptians was shown at the disappearing of upon these occasions, Zeus the saviour and deliverer. Osiris, which they styled the interment of the deity. In a fragment of Antiphanes, there is a description At this season they constructed, by way of memorialof a merry making, when the deity is spoken of under an ark in the shape of a crescent, or new moon. In that title. " The name of Harmodius was remem. this the image of Osiris was for a time concealed. Af bered: they struck up a pæan; and one jolly fellow ter he had been reputed for some time lost, it was a took up the large bowl, called the ship of Zeus the custom among the Egyptians to go in quest of him; preserver," Atheneus, l. xv. and the process, as described by Plutarch, Isis et The like is mentioned, in the same place, with Osiris, p. 866. was very remarkable. “Upon the much humour, in a fragment of the comedian Alexis ; nineteenth of the month, that is, two days after his “Fill up; fill up ; I shall empty this noble vessel to entrance into the ark, the Egyptians go down at night Jupiter the preserver. This Jupiter the preserver to the sea; at which time the priests and supporters is, in my opinion, the most beneficent of all the gods. carry the sacred vehicle. In this is a golden vessel If I burst, I don't care. I drink with a good will and in the form of a ship or boat; into which they pour a safe conscience.' The same author tell us, that some of the river water. Upon this being perform
Upon this being perform- the person whom the Grecians invoked after supper ed, a shout of joy is raised, and Osiris is supposed to by the title of Zeus the preserver, was no other than be found. On this recovery of Osiris, the priests Dio-Nusus. And he adds, what points out the perbrought a sample of the most fruitful kind of earth, son more particularly, that he was styled also the and put it into the water which was in the sacred boat. great dispenser of rains. To this they added the richest gums and spices; and Thus we see that reference was made to the ark the whole was moulded up into the form of a vessel both by a lupette and by a lunette shaped boat.
Various other types were used to commemorate emblem. There is reason to think that they made this great event.
use of some art to impress the figure of a crescent That the Apis and Mneuis were both representa- upon the sides of these sacred animals, as it is certain tions of an ancient personage is certain ; and who that white marks of this sort were generally seen upon that personage was may be known by the account them. Black cattle were generally chosen that these given of him by Diodorus. Mneues, or, as the impressions might more plainly appear. These ani. ancient Dorians expressed it, Mneuas, is a mals are said, Diodorus, I. i. to have a sacred regard pound of Men-Neuas, and relates to the same person, paid to them, “ as being emblems of husbandry, who in Crete was styled Mi-nos, and Menu in the which Osiris found out; and they were designed as East Indies. Diodorus speaks of Mneues as the memorials of the fruits of the earth being propagated; first lawgiver; and says, that he lived after the era and of the persons to whom the world was indebted of the gods and heroes, when a change was made in for those blessings; that the remembrance of so great the manner of life among men. L. i. p. 84; and p.
benefactions might last to the latest generations." 84. he describes him as a man of a most exalted soul, But they were not only representatives of the perand a great promoter of civil society. He was the son or persons by whom the world had been so much same as Menes, whom the Egyptians represented as benefited, but of the machine likewise in which they their first king, and a great benefactor. This was had been preserved. This was described as a cresthe person who first sacrificed to the gods, and cent, and called Theba, Baris, Argus. In consebrought about the great change in diet ; a circum- quence of which we find that these terms, and the stance which occurs continually in the history of the name of an ox, or bull, were among the eastern nations first ages. a We find it made a characteristic of almost synonymous.
synonymous. The Syrians, like the people at Moevery ancient personage, that he withdrew mankind Memphis, held a cow in great reverence; and to from their savage and bloody repasts. The reader wbat They alluded may be known by the etymologists is requested to consider the singular command given who have commented upon their worship. In Ety. to Noah to abstain from eating flesh with the life there- molog. Magnum, we find “The sacred heifer of of. To this foul and most unnatural manner of feed the Syrians is no other than Thebah, the ark." ing, the poets and mythologists continually allude; Again, the scholiast upon Lycophron, verse 1,026, and memorials of it were kept up in all their rites and says, “The ark among the Syrians is styled a cow ;" mysteries, where one part of the ceremony consisted codoubtedly because it was so typified. And it is in eating raw flesh, which was often torn from the said of Isis, that, during the rage of Typhon," she animal when alive. Menes, who put a stop to this enclosed Osiris in a bull of wood,” by which is meant cruel practice, and introduced a more mild diet, is the ark. We see then to what the bull refers, as styled Meen by Herodotus, and was the same person
well as its name. whom the Egyptians reverenced under the symbol In the account given by Kircher of the Pampbilof the sacred bull; especially as it was called by the an Obelisk there is introduced from the Bembine tasame naine Mneuas and Mneuis.
ble a representation of the Egyptian Apis. He is The name of A pis I imagine to have been an Egyp- described with his horns luniformes; and upon his tian terin for father. The name of the earth itself back is the mysterious dove. Before it, in a garden among the Scythians was A pia, the feminine of Apis; pot, is a plant of some kind, as an emblem of husbandthey esteemed her their common parent; they alsó ry. It is an hieroglyphic as curious as it is ancient, gave the title of Pappaius to Zeus, whom they look and wonderfully illustrates the history of which i ed upon as their father, Herod. l. ix. c. 59. One have treated. term explains the other precisely. And that we It is supposed that many of the figures on the cemay not be at a loss to know who was meant by this re lestial globe refer to this great epoch in ancient bisputed father Apis, Epiphanius tells us, Hæres. 1. i. tory: thus we find by Martianus Capella, that the p. 11. that he was the same as Inachus, in whose ancients esteemed the ark an emblem of the hearens. days the deluge happened.
And when men began to distinguish the stars in the Osiris, the planter of the vine, the inventor of the firmament, and to reduce them to particular constelplough, the great husbandman, was no other than lations, there is reason to suppose, that most of the Noah; and to him these animals were sacred. Plu asterisms were formed with the like reference, or the tarch accordingly informs us, " that the bulls, both figures were used as historical memorandums. that which was called Apis, and the other named The watery sign Aquarius, and the great effusion Mneuas, were alike sacred to Osiris.” They were of that element, perhaps related to this history. looked upon as living oracles, and real deities; and Hegesianax maintained that it was Deucalion, and reto be animated, as it were, by the very soul of the ferred to the deluge, Hygin. Poet. Astronom. c. 29. personage whom they represented. The Egyptians p. 482. imagined that the ark had a resemblance to the new Noah was represented, as we may infer from Beromoon, which I have shown to have been a favourite sus, Euseb. Chron. p. 6. under the resemblance of a
fish by the Babylonians; and those representations ark to show by whose influence it was directed. Yet of fishes in the sphere probably related to him and in doing this, they lost sight of the great Director, by his sons. The reasons given for their being placed whose guidance it had been really conducted; and there were, that Venus, when she fled from Typhon, gave all the honour to a man; for under the character took the form of a fish; and that the fish, styled No of Canopus, as well as Canobus, is veiled the history tius, saved Isis in some great extremity ; for which of the patriarch Noah. reason Venus placed the fish Notius and his sons We have shown that the serpent was an hieroamong the stars.
By this we may perceive, that glyphic relating to the deluge, as was also the munHyginus speaks of these asterisms as representations dane egg. Many other things, on account of some of persons : and he mentions from Eratosthenes, real or fancied analogy, were employed for the same that Notius was the father of mankind.
purpose. We shall merely name some them, and It is said of Noah, that after the deluge, he built leave it to the reader's ingenuity to apply them. the first altar to God, which is a circumstance always The bee hive. taken notice of by Gentile writers. He is likewise The lotus; a water lily, whose broad leaf, in the mentioned as the first planter of the vine ; and the greatest inundations of the Nile, rises with the flood, inventor of wine itself and of zuth, or ferment, by and is never overwhelmed. which similar liquors were manufactured: we may A serpent crowned with the lotus. therefore suppose that the altar and cup, found in the A man rising out of or supported by the same saheavens, related to these circumstances.
cred flower. The history of the raven is well known, which A frog, upon the same hallowed seat. Noah sent out of the ark by way of experiment; The chrysalis and butterfly. but it disappointed him, and never returned. This The rhoia, or pomegranate. bird is figured in the sphere: and a tradition, Hygin. The crocodile. C. 40. p. 432. is mentioned that the raven was once The tortoise, shell fish, &c. sent on a message by Apollo; but deceived him, and Others might be added ; but as these are some of did not return when he was expected.
the most obvious, and as the article is extended to The Pleiades, or Peleiades, or doves, were placed considerable length, we shall hasten to conclude. in the heavens to denote by their rising, an auspicious All these emblems were originally the best that season for mariners to sail.
could be devised for putting the people in mind of The Argo, also, that sacred ship, which was said what had passed in the infancy of the world. The to have been formed by divine wisdom, was there, whole was designed as a display of God's wisdom and and was certainly no other than the ark, Hygin. c. goodness, and to transmit, to latest posterity, memo14. p. 45. It was called by Plutarch the ship of rials of the preservation of mankind. The symbols Osiris; that Osiris, who, as I have mentioned, was in ancient times were instead of writing ; harmless, if exposed in an ark to avoid the fury of Typhon. not abused; nay, of great consequence when directThe vessel in the celestial sphere, says he, Isis et ed to a proper purpose. And when properly applied, Osiris, vol. ii. p. 359. which the Grecians called the they were as innocent as the elementary characters Argo, is a representation of the ship of Osiris, in which the same histories were in after times recordwhich, out of reverence, has been placed in the heavens. ed. It is true, that these symbols were at last pervert
The very name of the Argo shows what it alluded to; ed; and the memorials above mentioned degeneratfor Argus, as it should be truly expressed, signifies ed into idolatrous rites and worship. It was accord. precisely an ark, and was synonymous to Theba. It ingly the purpose of Providence, in its dispensations is made use of in that sense by the priests and divin to the Israelites, to withdraw them from this idolatry ers of the Philistines, who, when the ark of God was of the Gentiles; and this was effected, not by deny. to be restored to the Israelites, put the presents of ing them the use of those characters, which were the atonement which were to accompany it, into an 1198 current types of the world, and to which they had ARGOZ, or sacred receptacle.
constantly been used; but to adapt the same to a The constellation of the Argo, as it is delineated, better purpose, and defeat the evil by a contrary desrepresents the hinder part only of a ship: the fore tination. part being hid in clouds. It was supposed to have I have dwelt long upon the history of the deluge, been oracular, and conducted at the will of the because I thought it an object of great moment. Deity. Upon the rudder is a very bright star, the We accordingly find it a circumstance universally chief in the asterism, which was called Canopus, and known; and, however the memorials may have been was too low in the southern hemisphere to be easily abused, yet traditions of it were kept up with great seen in Greece. It was placed on the rudder of the reverence in all the rites and ceremonies of the Gen
tile world. And it is observable, that the further we These evidences are derived to us through the hands go back, the more vivid the traces appear, especially of people who were of different ages and countries; and in those countries which were nearest to the scene of consequently widely separated from each other; and, action. But the reverse of this would happen, if what is extraordinary, they did not know, in many inthe whole were originally a fable. The history would stances, the purport of the data which they transmit. not only be less widely diffused; but the more re- ted, nor the value and consequence of their intellimote our researches, the less light we should obtain: gence. In their mythology they adhered to the letand however we might strain our sight, the objects ter, without considering the meaning; and acquiesced would by degrees grow faint; and the scene termi- in the hieroglyphic, though they were strangers to nate in clouds and darkness. Besides this, there the purport. In respect to ourselves, it is a happy would not be that correspondence and harmony in circumstance not only that these histories have been the traditions of different nations, which we see so transmitted to us, but that, after an interval of so long plainly to have subsisted. This could not be the re date, we should be enabled to see into the hidden myssult of chance; but must necessarily have arisen from tery, and from these crude materials obtain such satisthe same history being universally acknowledged. factory truths.
Tarry at Jericho till your beards be grown, 2 Sam. as to beg for the sake of it: By your beard, by the life x. 5; 1 Chron. xix. 5.
of your beard. God preserve your blessed beard. In the same day shall the Lord shave with a rasor
When they would express their value for any thing, that is hired, [namely,] by them beyond the river, by they say, it is worth more than his beard. These the king of Assyria, the heud, and the hair of the things show the energy of that thought of Ezekiel, chap. feet: and it shall also consume the beard, Isai. vii.
v. verses 1, 5, where the inhabitants of Jerusalem are 20.
compared to the hair of his head and beard. It intiOn all their heads shall be baldness; and every beard was to the Jews, yet they should be consumed
mates that though they had been as dear to God as the beard shall be cut off, Isai. xv. 2.
and destroyed, Harmer, vol. ii. p. 55. When Peter the For every head shall be bald, and every beard clip- Great attempted to civilize the Russians, and introped, Jer. xlviii. 37.
duced the manners and fashions of the more refined We think the whole of these passages receive con- parts of Europe, nothing met with more opposition than siderable elucidation from a circumstance mentioned the cutting off their beards, and many of those, who by Mr. Volney in his Travels through Egypt, and were obliged to comply with this command, testified Syria, vol. i. p. 117, 118. Ali, afterward a bey, was
such great veneration for their beards, as to order them sold by the slave merchants at Cairo to some Jews,
to be buried with them. Irwin also, in his voyage up who made him a present to Ibrahim Bey. “ Ali per
the Red Sea, says, that the signing a treaty of peace formed for his patron the usual services of the mam
with the vizier of Yambo, they swore by their beards, alukes, which are nearly similar to those of the pages the most solemn oath they can take. D’Arvieux to our princes. He received the customary educa- gives a remarkable instance of an Arab, who, having retion which consists in learning to manage a horse well, ceived a wound in bis jaw, chose to hazard his life fire the carbine and pistol, throw the djerid, use the rather than to suffer his surgeon to take off his beard. sabre, and even a little reading and writing. In all
When Joab took Amasa by the beard to kiss him, these exercises he displayed great activity and fire...
2 Sam. xx. 9. Mr. Harmer, vol. ii. p. 54. supposes About the age of eighteen or twenty his patron suf we are to understand this expression as referring to fered him to let his beard grow, that is to say, gave the practice of kissing the beard itself, which was a him his freedom; for among the Turks, to want mus- customary thing. D’Arvieux, Voy. dans la Pal. p. tachios and beard, is thought only fit for slaves and 71. describing the assembling together of several women, and hence arises the unfavourable impression petty Arab princes at an entertainment, says, that they receive on the first sight of an European.
To all the emirs came just together a little time after, The following is from Mr. Burder's Oriental Cus. accompanied by their friends and attendants; and toms.
after the usual civilities, caresses, kissings of the beard It is a great mark of infamy among the Arabs to cut and of the hand, which every one gave and received off the beard. Many of them would prefer death to according to his rank and dignity, they sat down upon this kind of treatment. As they would think it a griev. matts.”. Vide Fragment, No. 80, and article Beard, ous punishment to lose it, they carry things so far in Dictionary.
1 CHRONICLES, XI. 5, 6, 2 SAMUEI. V. 6-8.
And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David, Thou ties are supposed to be here called blind and lame shalt not come hither. Nevertheless, David took the by the Jebusites themselves. But, admitting them castle of Zion, which [is] the city of David. And to be idol deities, what meaning can there be in the David said, Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall Jebusites telling David, he should not come into the be chief and captain. So Joab the son of Zeruiah citadel, unless he took away the deities upon the walls? ? went first up, and was chief.
If he could scale the walls, so as to reach these guarAnd the king and his men went to Jerusalem, unto dian deities, he need not ask leave of the Jebusites the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land : which spake to enter the citadel. But, which is much more diffito David, saying, Except thou take away the blind cult to be answered, what can possibly be the meanand the lame, thou shalt not come in hither ; thinking, ing of the last line, Wherefore they said, The blind David cannot come in hither. Nevertheless, David and the lame shall not come into the house? For, Who took the strong hold of Zion; the same (is) the city of said ? Did the Jebusites say, their own deities, beDavid. And David said on that day, Whosoever get- fore expressed by the blind and the lame, should not teth up
to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the come into the house ; should not, according to some, lame and the blind, (that are] hated of David's soul, (he come where they were; or, should not, according to shall be chief and captain.) Wherefore they said, The others, come into the house of the Lord? Or, could blind and the lame shall not come into the house.
these deities say, David and his men should not come The reason of placing the whole sentence together into the house? The absurdity of attributing such a being obvious, let us proceed to consider the several speech, or any speech to these idols, is too clear to parts of it, in the two chapters. The words inhabi- need illustration; and it is a known part of their real tants of Jebus, which are not in the original of Samuel, character, that they have mouths, but speak not. are not in the Vatican copy of the Lxx, in Chronicles; But, though these deities could not denounce these but the Alexandrian translates regularly according to words, yet the Jebusites might; and it is possible, it the present Hebrew text. In Samuel there is a clause has been said, that the blind and the lame, in this latter or two in the speech of the Jebusites, which is omit- part of the sentence, may signify the Jebusites; not ted in Chronicles for brevity; as the history in Chron- any particular Jebusites, so maimed: but the Jebuicles is regular, and the sense complete without it. sites in general, called blind and lame, for putting But though the history be regular and very intelli- their trust in blind and lame idols. This seems too gible in Chronicles, yet the additional clauses in Sam- refined an interpretation; and we may safely conuel make the history there remarkably perplexed; clude, that the same expression of the blind and lame and, as Dr. Delany observes, incumber it with more means the same beings in the two different parts of the difficulties than are ordinarily to be met with. In same sentence. It has been further observed, that full proportion to the difficulties has been the num these blind and lame are here spoken of as different ber of different interpretations; and yet there seems from the Jebusites; Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites, to be very sufficient room for offering another inter- and the lame and the blind ; and if they were differ. pretation, in some material points differing from them ent, it requires no great skill at deduction to deter. all. The words in Samuel, so far as the text in Chron- mine they were not the same. icles coincides, are clear and determinate in their Perhaps then these blind and lame were, in fact, meaning ; And the inhabitants of Jebus said to Da- a few particular wretches, who laboured under these vid, Thou shall not come hither. But the succeed infirmities of blindness and lameness; and therefore ing words in Samuel are very difficult; or, at least, were different from the general body of the Jebusites. have been variously interpreted. The present En. But here it will not be demanded at once, how we can glish translation is, Except thou take away the blind then account rationally for that bitterness with which and the lame, thinking David cannot come in hither. David expresses himself here against these blind and
The chief difficulty here lies in determining who lame; and how it was possible for a man of David's are these blind und lume; whether Jebusites, or the humanity to detest men for mere unblameable, and Jebusite deities called blind and lame by way of de- indeed pitiable, infirmities ? And lastly, the authors rision. The latter opinion has been maintained by of the Universal History, in their note on this transsome considerable writers; but seems indefensible. action, mention the following, as the first plausible For however David and the Israelites might be dis- argument against the literal acceptation ; “How could posed to treat such idols with scorn and contempt, David distinguish the halt, or the lame, or the blind, it is not at all likely the Jebusites should revile their from able men, when posted upon lofty walls; since own deities; and we must remember, that these dei. those infirmities are not discernible but near at hand ?”