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the second of the eagle kind is the vulture ; since the The night hawk. That this is a voracious bird vulture could hardly be omitted in this list, and its seems clear from the import of its name; and.interproper place among its associates should seem to be preters are generally agreed to describe it as flying earlier than this.

by night. On the whole, it should seem to be the As modern naturalists, this is the proper place night owl, strix orientalis ; which Hasselquist thus where we should expect to find the hawk; and the describes : “ It is of the size of the common owl, and order is so natural, that we think we risk little in sup- lodges in the large buildings or ruins of Egypt and posing that it was adopted even in the days of Moses; Syria, and sometimes even in the dwelling houses. for, though we are well aware that we must not judge The Arabs settled in Egypt call it massasa, and the of the natural history of that ancient writer by the Syrians, banu. It is extremely voracious in Syria; Linnean system; yet where nature has appointed an to such a degree, that if great care is not taken to order, as we may safely say in this instance, what shut the windows at the coming on of night, he enters should forbid the earliest of the naturalists from ob- the houses, and kills the children: the women, thereserving it?

fore, are very much afraid of him.” In favour of the hawk are Jerom, the Arabs, Mun The cuckow. The strength of the versions is in ster, Castalio, Junius, Diodati, Buxtorff, Schindler, favour of the sea-mew; the original name may denote and others.

a slender bird; but the sea-mew, as a water bird,

seems to be very ill placed in this part of the list: I VERSE 14.

should be almost tempted to adopt the notion of Dr. The kite. This follows the hawk with propriety. Shaw, which I transcribe below, but that I do not The Hebrew name implies rapacity; and this agrees see wherefore a granivorous and gregarious bird should well with the kite. As there are several kinds of be excluded; can his want of the hinder toe be a sufthese birds, we shall not particularize any; no doubt ficient reason? I hardly think it. Travels, p. 252. but all their classes were meant to be included un fol. edit. der one name that was best known. The

person “The rhaad, or saf-saf, is a granivorous and grewho should have eaten one species of eagle, or of garious bird, which wanteth the hinder toe. There bawk, because another species was named in the text, are two species of it; the smaller whereof is of the would have found the consequences of this transgression size of an ordinary pullet, but the larger is near as big in the punishment of his prevarication.

as the hoobaara, differing also from the lesser in hayEvery RAVEN, after his kind. This genus no ing a black head, with a tuft of dark blue feathers imdoubt includes the crow, the pie, &c. and therefore, mediately below it. The belly of them both is white, coming after the hawk and kite, closes this list of the back and the wings of a buff colour, spotted with birds of prey with great propriety.

brown ; whilst the tail is lighter, marked all along with It will be observed that the foregoing birds are black transverse streaks. The beak and the legs are birds of wing, high-flyers, such as roam to great dis- stronger than in birds of the partridge kind. Rhaad, tances, and prey wherever they can. Mr. Bruce which denotes thunder, in the language of this coundescribes multitudes of birds as following the armies try, is supposed to be the name that hath been given in Abyssinia; and I should think it likely that among to this bird from the noise it maketh in springing from them would be found most, or all, of those enumerated the ground; as saf-saf, the other name, very naturally above. Perhaps they are not only birds of prey, but expresseth the beating of the air, when it got upon they feed on human carcasses; which would be a the wing:" " And is not unlike in name to the safurther cause of their pollution and unfitness.

haph, or sah-haf, which, Lev. xii. 10. we trunslate

cuckow." Note. VERSE 16.

Dr. Geddes renders, “the horn owl;" but is this We are now directed to a very different class of distinct enough from the foregoing ? birds, which commences with, the owl, say our trans The hawk, after his kind. This bird seems to be lators; but this is clearly a mistake: the word de- strangely placed here: we had kites of all sorts in scribes the daughter of screams," i.e. the ostrich. verse 14. now, after the ostrich, and owl, birds of See this confirmed in FRAGMENT, No. 144.

no kind comparatively, we have the hawks, a genus Is it not astonishing that this bird should have been much more likely to have been included before, after described as, 1st, the ostrich, by the LXX; 2dly, the eagles and vultures. sirenes, which bird is apparently a creature of fancy; I have no determinate opinion on the species of this 3dly, the owl; and 4thly, the nightingale ? What bird ; can it be the ibis ? That bird, so common in hare these birds in common, that can justify such va- Egypt, could hardly be omitted in the list. Can it riations ? The three Chaldee versions, Onkelos, Jona- be the curlen Hasselquist mentions the plover of than, and the Jerusalem Paraphrase, read naamah, Egypt, and the three toed plover. We should seem which is the Arabic name for the ostrich: Maimonides to want a wild bird. and the Talmud agree with them. FOL. IV.


I shall add further, that if Mr. Bruce's abou han- cient ibis of Egypt, but that which in later ages renes, vol. v. p. 172. be, 2. Se supposes, the ancient ceived this name. The following is Hasselquist's acibis of Egypt, perhaps the sicbrew name netj is still count of this bird. “ Ardea ibis : This bird is about appropriated to it; for abou is merely the Arabic the size of a raven-hen. It is found in lower Egypt, word for father, and ha-nes resembles the Hebrew especially in places not overflowed by the Nile: and name used in this passage, q. ha-netj.

at length in those from which the waier is withdrawn. Mr. Bruce begins his account of the abou hannes He feeds on insects and small frogs, which abound in by saying, “the ancient and true name of this bird Egypt, both before and after the inundation of the seems to be lost; the present is fancifully given to Nile; in which he is of great service to the country. it,” &c. Perhaps it is rather disguised than lost ; They assemble morning and evening, especially in but this is conjecture.

the gardens, in such great numbers, that the palmThis bird is not now found in Egypt, though an trees are covered with

them. When he reposes himciently it was worshipped there, and was very nu- self, he sits upright, so as to cover his feet with his merous; it is therefore not the ibis of Hasselquist. tail, and to straighten his neck and breast." As a I suspect that the Arabic title, father, is some re bird of this character and description suits the situamains of the ancient idolatry, of which this bird was tion assigned him in this place, I should think him the object.

preferable, at any rate, to “ the great owl.” Mr.

Parkhurst, admitting that it should be of the ibis VERSE 17.

kind, supposes it may be the bittern, from the dronThe little owl. Such is the translation of the Lxx, ing noise which that bird makes by blowing, which is Aquila, Theodotion, and Jerom; but why should the one of the significations of the root of its Hebrew name. owl be introduced here? he was named in the former The swan. This bird, in Hebrew tinschemet, is verse. Our translators seem to have thought the owl extremely doubtful : the lxx render porphyrion, or a convenient bird, as we have three owls in two verses. purple hen, which is a water bird, not unlike in form Among the Rabbins, some have thought this bird to to those which have preceded it. His name is debe the pelican, and Bochart takes pains to prove it. rived from his general colour. Dr. Geddes observes, Dr. Geddes thinks this bird is the cormorant, and that “the root signifies to breathe out, to respire. If the following the sea gull: as I rather take the fol. etymology were our guide, I would say that it points lowing for the cormorant, I should incline to render to a well known quality in the swan, that of being this the sea gull. This begins the list of water birds, able to respire a long time with its bill and neck unwhatever bird it be.

der water, and even plunged in the mud.” Mr. ParkThe cormorant. Dr. Geddes renders, the "sea hurst thinks, the conjecture of Michaelis not improbagull;" and observes, “ that this is a plunging bird ble, “that it is the goose, which every one knows is I have little doubt. Some modern critics think it is remarkable for its manner of breathing out, or hissthe pelican bassanus of Linnæus. The Chaldee and ing, when provoked.” Michaelis observes, p. 221. Syriac version, fish catcher, favours this rendering; • What makes me conjecture this is, that the same nor less the Greek cataractes, which, according to Chaldee interpreters, who, in Leviticus, render obija, Aristotle, draws for its food fishes from the bottom of do not employ this word in Deuteronomy, but substithe sea." I think this is a clear description of the tute “the white kak," which, according to Buxtorf, cormorant, which certainly is one of the best of plung. Dict. p. 2107. denotes the goosc.Perhaps Egypt ers; and which lives wholly on fish: moreover, has birds of the wild goose kind; one of which is here which in some parts of Asia is used as a fish catcher alluded to; and so I find Norden, vol. ii. p. 36. menfor its master; who, by putting a collar round its tions, “a goose of the Nile, whose plumage was exneck, prevents it from swallowing the fish it has tremely beautiful. It was of an exquisite aromatic caught, which the bird therefore brings to the boat, taste, smelled of ginger, and had a great deal of flaand is afterward fed with a part of its prey. To this vour.” Can a bird of this kind be the Hebrew tinbird also agrees the description of Aristotle. Suidas schemet? says,

“ the cataractes is a kind of sea bird ;" Aris The pelican, in Hebrew kaat, and in the Eastern totle adds, “ sinaller than a hawk.” Appian, in Ixe- versions, kik, kok, or kak. As the bird before this uticis, describes the cataractes exactly according to was called the white kak, it seems to suppose a simthe manner of the gannet on the coast of Scotland. ilarity between that and this, though a difference of At any rate this is meant for a water bird ; and there colour. The Talmud describes it as a water bird, fore demonstrates the inpropriety of the preceding with a long neck; the Lxx read palecas, and the and following bird being rendered owl!”

Vulgate, onocrotalus; on the whole, this bird is The great owl. This is strangely placed, after pretty well determined. the little owl, and among water birds. The Lxx ren The gier eagle. No eagle is a water bird; so der ibis ; and this seems to be a very proper place that, this being a list of water birds, we ought not to for the ibis ; which yet, I suppose, is not the an- expect to find an eagle in it.

expect to find an eagle in it. I perceive that most

interpreters are willing to render the Hebrew word The stork. It is pretty well agreed that the Hebrew racham by that kind of Egyptian vulture which is chusidah is either the stork or the heron; the stork now called rachami, and is abundant in the streets is by much the most probable: and indeed, as the of Cairo, vultur percnopterus. The description heron is not a bird of passage, which the stork is well which Hasselquist gives of this bird is horrible; known to be, I think we may acquiesce in this bird but, especially, it does not agree with a water bird, as the chasidah. Vide Parkhurst, Dictionary, p. which is what we want: “It is hardly ever seen in 253. 4to. the fields, or around the lakes: it is an impure bird, The heron. This bird should rather be included and a carrion eater.” Mr. Parkhurst wanis a water among the storks, as it resembles them closely. As fowl; and Dr. Geddes says, “it is not easy to con commentators are quite at a loss on this subject, inceive how this bird came by its name, rachum.But somuch that Dr. Geddes retains the original word, I think, by tracing it, we may advance some way tow "anaphas of every kind,” I shall be excused if I ard ascertaining this bird. Jonathan and the Syr- extract from Dr. Shaw the description of a bird which ian interpreter translate, serakreka ; Onkelos, je- answers to what the passage and order requires. It rakreka; the Talmud, serakrak. Meninski, in bis is probable that some bird very near akin to this is Lexicon, mentions a bird named by the Arabians what was designed by the sacred writer. sirikrak, sikirrak, &c. It is not of the pie kind, “The boo-onk, or long neck, is of the bittern kind, though so understood by Meninski. I observe Dr. somewhat less than the lapwing. The neck, the Shaw mentions, “the shrga-rag, of the bigness and breast, and the belly are of a light yellow; but the shape of a jay, though with a smaller bill, and short- back and upper part of the wings are of a jet black. er legs. The back is brownish; the head, neck, and The tail is short; the feathers of the neck long, and belly of a light green; and upon the wings and tail streaked with white, or a light yellow. The bill, there are several spots or rings of a deep blue. It which is three inches long, is green, in fashion like makes a squalling, and builds in the banks of the to the stork's; and the legs, which are short and slenShelliff, Booberak, and other rivers.” This descrip- der, are of the same colour. In walking or in searchtion approaches to that of the kingfisher or halcyon: ing for food, it throweth out its neck seven or eight the name is sufficiently near to that of the versions; inches, from whence the Arabs call it boo-onk, the and if the halcyon may be supposed to be the racham, long neck, or the father of the neck." we see at once that it is a water bird; and the histo This is reckoned by the Dr. among water birds : ries of this bird's tender affection unite in the char- it seems to be a smaller bird, but allied in form and acter of the racham. “ The kingfisher frequents manners to the kinds under prohibition. the banks of rivers, and feeds on fish. To compare The lapwing, or the upupa. This is pretty gensmall things with great, it takes its prey after the erally considered as the bird designed by the orig. manner of the ospray, balancing itself at a certain inal word dukiphath, so called from its crest. It distance over the water for a considerable space, then seems, that the Egyptians call the hoopoe, kukupha, darting below the surface, brings the prey up in its and the Syrians, kikupha ; which is near enough to feet. It makes its nest in holes in the sides of the the Hebrew dukiphath; which, therefore, we concliffs. The nest is very fætid, by reason of the re clude is the hoopoe. mains of fish brought to feed the young.Vide Pen The bat. This rendering has the authority of most nant's British Zoology, vol. ii. p. 247. See Ovid, versions and commentators. Metam. lib. xi. for the tenderness of the halcyon, and The number of birds probibited is twenty. For Theoc. Idyll. vii. 57; Virg. Georg. iii. 338; Silius the sake of shewing the correct natural order in w bich Ital. lib. xiv. 275. No doubt there are several kinds Moses has placed them, we shall range them systeof halcyons; that some are known in Egypt we are matically; as it will prove that the system of Moses informed by Hasselquist, who gives this account of was that of nature : also we have distinguished those them: Alcedo rudis, frequents the banks of the which we have tolerable authority to imagine are corNile, and takes the fish by thrusting his long bill into rectly rendered. the water like the gull. Alcedo Ægyptia, is found in lower Egypt, makes his nest on the date-trees, and the sycamores, which grow around Cairo. Feeds on Eagle,

Eagle. frogs, insects and fish, which it finds in the fields. Ossifrage,

Vulture. Its voice resembles that of the raven." Without


Black Eagle. determining on the probability of this conjecture, I Vulture,

Hawk. think we may be sure that the ruchami of Cairo is

Kite. not the racham of Moses; as a bird so well known, Raven,

Raven. and hardly capable of being lost, would certainly

BIRDS OF THE LAND. have been acquiesced in by commentators, had it been the bird designed, notwithstanding the remarks Owl,

Ostrich. of Bruce, vol. v. 163, &c.

Night Hawk,

Night Owl.





with their wings : but if they have two hind legs also, Hawk,

Ancient Ibis.

with which they leap, then, as they leap and fly, as

well as creep, they are allowed. It will follow that BIRDS OF THE WATER,

the locusts named in the following verses have six Little Owl,


legs. This principle excludes other insects, flies, Cormorant,


&c. which use their two fore feet as paws, but do not Great Owl,

Ibis Ardea.

leap with any. Swan, Wild Goose.

The locust after his kind, the bald locust after his Pelican,


kind, the beetle after his kind, the grasshopper after Gier Eagle,


his kind. Stork,


1st, The locust, 1704 arbah. This is, as Niebuhr Heron,


observes, the migratory locust. Lapwing,


2dly, Salom, or solam, Dyho, perhaps, as this Bat,


name implies a rugged or craggy form. It is clearly

a species of locust: but Golius thinks it is a locust By tracing the order and distinctions of these birds, before its wings appear; so that this, and the others, the reader will be very well able to judge of what rather describe a state than a species. nature they are, by that of their associates : we shall

3dly, Chargol 21. There is a story that this not enlarge, as we might, on this article, but merely locust fights against serpents; and such is the import express our satisfaction at explaining, and we hope of its name in the Greek, OQ.Quayns; but the founjustifying, the order and the system adopted by this dation of this in the nature of the creature is not very ancient Hebrew naturalist.


4thly, Chagab, Iin. A species of locust, says


Without being able to identify the kind of each of 6 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall these locusts, we may perceive that our translation be an abomination unto you. Yet these ye may eat errs in rendering, “the beetle.” As to rendering of, every Aying creeping thing that goeth upon all the “grasshopper," certainly that insect is the natfour, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal ural representative of the locust tribe among us. upon the earth.This passage is surely expressed Several kinds of locusts, and probably the very kinds with sufficient obscurity : fowls, going on all four, fly- mentioned above, though we are unable to appropriing, creeping, legs above their feet!

ate them, are eaten by the Arabs; who broil, boil, Observe, Ist, the word all is here taken with re fry, or stew them. They are brought to market regstrictions, since some are excepted. 2dly, The word ularly, in baskets, bags, &c. in a dried, or salted rendered fowl,should have been rendered, a state, &c. in vast quantities; as we do shrimps, or creeper, or crawler; the present expression gives us the idea of a bird. The'passage would read thus lit

VERSE 29. erally: “ All winged reptiles, or creepers, having wings, walking on four feet, are abomination to The weasel. Most versions and commentators have you : but yet, these ye may eat, from among all been content to render the Hebrew choled, by weasel; winged creepers going on four, those which have in but Bochart thought it was the mole; observing, that them JoinTS, Dynd caroim, at the upper part of their the Syriac chuleda, the Turkish chuld, the Arabic hind legs, 1989 regeli, for the purpose of leaping chold, all signify the mole : which also is called from of the earth.This means to describe the Khuld at Aleppo, Russell, vol. ii. p. 182. locust, &c. nav arbah. These parts of the locust The MOUSE, achbar. (JERBOA, Prov. XXX. 26.] had exercised the critical inquiries of Michaelis, q. This being an animal which burrows in the ground, it Xxx. which Niebuhr answered, by information, that is likely that it should be pretty much assimilated to “ arbah is the name at Bagdad, and at Maskat, the creature which precedes it. of those locusts of passage, which devour all that The tortoise. All who know the tortoise, know they meet with, and then go further. In Chagab,

Jan Chagab, that it partakes of the nature of the amphibia too is also a locust known at Maskat. Rijelin are the much to be, with propriety, placed among those two hind legs. Kirraim are the joints. By these

creatures with whom we here find it associated. Dr. terms I understand the joints of the hinder leg, those Shaw tells us, “ the 2x tjab, of this passage is a kind very conspicuous ones which unite the muscular of lisard, called in Arabic dab, or dhab; it agrees thigh with the slender leg. The distinction I pre- nearly in the shape, and in the pointed annuli, or sume is this, the locust has usually, besides his wings, scales of the tail, with the caudiverbera,or shakesix legs; four for crawling, and two for leaping : such tail. With this idea the exx agree, who call it the as may have four legs only, are forbidden; since “land crocodile ;" the Vulgate, crocodile,” simply: they only creep with such feet, though they also fly the great crocodile it certainly is not; but a lizard

prawns, &c.


only, not a tortoise, could have received this name. The MOLE, tinshemeth. This word rather denotes Bochart, Damir, and Avicenna, countenance the a lizard ; and according to the signification of the opinion of Dr. Shaw.

root, Dvi neshem, to breathe, it applies peculiarly to The ferret. Dr. Geddes renders this the newt. the chameleon, of which the story went that it lived According to the import of the Hebrew word, its on air. This, though not true, has been popular. name seems to be taken from the cry it emits; and Pliny reports, lib. viii. cap. 33. that “this is ihe only this is supposed by the generality of interpreters. animal which neither eats nor drinks. He stands

up, "The Hebrews have named it anakah, because of its his mouth always open; and the air serves him as rery sharp cries, which might be mistaken for groans aliment.” And the same says Ovid, Metam. lib. xv. and moanings. “If we examine the etymology of 411. the Hebrew name, we shall find that the anakah is a

Id quoque, quod ventis animal nutritur et aura. spotted, or starred lizard, which utters sharp cries." Pliny, lib. xxix. cap. 4. mentions the “galeoles, The chameleon, however, lives on flies and other covered with red spots, and its cries are sharp.” I insects. This lizard is so remarkable that it could think the above descriptions are precisely those of not have been omitted in this list; and our translathe gekko, for which, vide plate on Deut. xxxii. 33.

tors have accordingly introduced it before, not withand, as a lizard is clearly the kind of animal intended; out authority from LX X and Vulgate: but Dr. Geddes and as besides the gekko, few.if any lizards cry, that remarks, “ Here etymology is particularly favourable animal seems to be strongly hinted at here. I would

to the chameleon. further observe, that, as its name in the Indies, tockai,

The following is a comparative arrangement of and in Egypt, gekko, is formed from its voice, so the these forbidden creatures. Hebrew name anakah, or perhaps anakkah, seems to be formed in like manner; the double k being equally observable in all these appellations. If these remarks are admissible, this lizard is sufficiently iden


Mole, tified.


Jerboa, the lesser. The chameleon. The rendering of coach by chameleon has the sanction of the Lxx and Vulgate. Bo

LIZARDS. chart prefers the guaril of the Arabs; which is a


The dhab, strong lizard; and this quality is denoted both by


The gekko the Arabic and the Hebrew word. It is said that


Warral this lizard fights against serpents, and even kills them


Red lizard, sometimes; from whence the Greeks have given it a


Sand lizard, name. Its flesh is hot, and is reckoned very fatten


Chameleon. ing, especially by the women; and, together with its blood, skin, &c. is used in medicine. Dr. Shaw names

VERSE 11. it" the warral, or guaral, which, according to Leo, Afric. lib. ix. is sometimes thirty inches in length; And every creeping thing that creepeth on the being usually of a bright reddish colour, with darkish earth shall be an abomination : that is to say, creepspots.

ing insects of all kinds : whatsoever goeth upon the The lisard. As the companions of this creature belly, i.e. serpents; whatsoever goeth on all four, i.e. are lizards also, this should have some mark of dis- locusts, &c. and lizards; whatsoever hath more feet tinction. Bochart has made it very probable that than four, i.e. scolopendras, scorpions, &c. this is a species of red lizard, called by the Arabs In this verse the law is made general; yet there machra. Some take it to be the salamander; to are, undoubtedly, serpents which are good to eat; which, perhaps, it has some resemblance, in shape even the rattlesnake is reckoned a dainty by some and size, though not in colour.

persons in America; and many people in Egypt, &c. The Snail, chomet. This is the rendering of in a manner live on serpents. Lizards also are good; many commentators, including the Rabbins; but the the guano is hunted for its flesh, which is esteemed lax and St. Jerom read lisard ; and indeed the extremely delicate. And among insects, the palmplace rather requires a lizard than a snail. The Ara- tree worms of Martinico are considered as exquisite; bic versions have the chameleon or stellio. Accord- their flavour being exceedingly aromatic. These, howing to the Talmudists, chometon means sand; and ever, are not sufficient to justify the character of the Bochart seeks, to answer the name, for a lizard which rest of their tribe. This general prohibition is foundlives in the sand, which he finds in the Arabian liz- ed on the most correct views of propriety, and on ard chulca; whose colour is azure, and which is the general unfitness by nature of the creatures promentioned hy Arab writers.


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