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the extract in FRAGMENT, No. 328, as they were vis very strongly, whether any part of this image should ited by the writer of that journey. The reader will be extended out of the empire of Nebuchadnezzar; see by the situation of the Isle of Patmos, how well for if so, why add the vision of the four beasts? and it was placed for corresponding with these cities. why reveal to Nebuchadnezzar, what in no wise con

1st, Snyrna, in this city, is the principal factory of cerned him, or his kingdom? I presume, therefore, to European commerce. 2dly, Bergameh, the ancient think, that the first vision, that of the image, referred Pergamos. 3dly, Thyatira, now Ak-hissar, “the to the political person, realm, of Nebuchadnezzar; white castle.” Athly, Sart, the ancient Sardis. 5thly, and should be restricted to that empire of which BabPhiladelphia, now Alacheher, “the fair city." Co- ylon was the head: that the second vision of this losse, is the present Konos, 6thly, Laodicea “is now king, that of the tree, referred to the human person utterly desolated, without any inhabitants, except of Nebuchadnezzar, and to events accomplished in wolves, jackalls and foxes; it stands about the place himself: and that the vision of the four beasts was a marked *. 7thly, Ephesus, formerly a city of great revelation to the prophet, not to the statesman; not dignity and consequence.

to the king's attendant, but to a person commissioned Thus have we connected many Scripture occur to write for general instruction and general advantage. rences, we hope with correctness, certainly not with. I think too, the prophet seems to be transported from out labour, and here we terminate this division of our Shushan, or from Babylon, from his customary resisubject.

dence, to “ the great sea," the Mediterranean, where

he was much about mid way between the eastern We take this opportunity of suggesting the further beast, Babylon, and the western, Rome, so that he utility of Maps, when prophecy relating to the coun- might readily be supposed to refer to both, as he was tries they represent is in question, no less than on so situated as to observe them both; independent of matters of fact, of which they have been the scenes. the circumstance of his seeming to himself to be hereWe hinted on Gen. xli. 5. EXPOSITORY INDEX, on by stationed in his native country, the Holy Land of the resemblance in form between the seven eared Israel, which I think he is not in any other of his wheat of Egypt, and a map of the Nile; that the sev visions. en mouths of that river corresponded to the seven If this principle may be admitted, it will correct ears of the wheat, as the seven bullocks did to seven the representation of bishop Newton on the propheploughing seasons, which came up out of the river, i.e. cies, who has indeed herein followed the opinions of from its annual inundations : and wherein, even the others, that the toes of the image are the kingdoms trefoil on which these bullocks fed, might have its im- into which the western, Roman empire was broken, port, whether implying a fattening on the natural pro vol. i. p. 385. I agree, that Babylon is the golden ductions of the land, during three years; or, on stored head, (crown? or rather, casque, if we suppose this supplies, as trefoil is three years in coming to per- figure to have been in armour; like certain statues of fection.

the god Bel, which is not improbable, vide FRAGIt is well known too, that the pious and learned MENT, No. 108,] the breast and arms, i.e. the pieces Mr. King, has lately proposed to explain the passage, of armour which covered the belly, and hung down Isai. xviii. of the land shadowing with wings," by over the thighs; and which in the Roman armour was means of a map of a country whose geographical form formed into labels, of brass, is the empire of Alexanshould correspond to the figure of wings. One would der; who made Babylon the seat of it, himself, and suppose, that some commentators had had the same whose successors maintained their power in these fancy on the subject of Nebuchadnezzar's dream, of countries : but, I would not go out of Asia for the two the image whose head was of gold, bis arms of silver, thigbs of brass, as is usually done, taking Egypt for his belly and thighs of brass, his legs of iron, and his one, I would rather take the Grecian empire of Babylon toes of mingled iron and clay, Dan. ii. 36, &c. for they under Seleucus for one, and the Syrian under Antigoconsider Babylon as the head; Media and Persia as nus, for the other. Theodorus, and the Parthians onthe shoulders; Greece as the body, which is far west ; der Arsaces, established themselves in the eastern Rome as the legs, further still west ; and the ten toes part of the dominions of Nebuchadnezzar; as, after as the ten kingdoms of the Roman, western, empire; a time, did the Romans in western Asia. To the including even France; and the western islands of Parthian empire the Persian has succeeded, east of Britain. It is true, that we have lately seen the Babylon : and the Turkish, to the Roman, west of map of England crumpled into the shape of a woman Babylon; so that no power rules, or bas for a long riding on a fish; and that of France, in the form of a time ruled, at the same time over both these districts ship in distress ; published during the revolution in of the ancient Babylonish dominion. Moreover, we that country. Such anamorphoses might be known are assured by every traveller who passes through to Daniel; but, I take this opportunity of doubting these countries, that the governing power is felt by

the inhabitants as iron which tramples on, themselves, LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES CONTAINED IN THE the clay; under pretence of protecting it ; much as

MAP OF GEOGRAPHICAL ILLUSTRATIONS. the armour on the feet, vide the Plate of ARMOUR, No. II. in FRAGMENT, No. 218, of a soldier may be It may be remarked, that the present names of made of iron; yet does not combine with the foot it these towns, and cities, are inserted in this Map, rather covers; or as iron plates may have clay between than what is adopted in reference to the same places, them, yet these substances do not coalesce; and that by our public version ; partly, to counteract the efthere exists no more union between the inhabitants offect of certain errors in our pronunciation, as Gericho, these parts of the Turkish dominion, and those who for Yericho, Eriha in our Map, &c. and partly, begovern them, than between iron and clay is notorious, cause, by means of these names, an idea may be obfroin the general disposition of the country to revolt, tained of the pronunciation of the ancient Hebrew in case the late bold attempt of Bonaparte to overset language : most of these appellations being the same, the Turkish power had not been stopped by the Prov. and spelled in the same manner, as tbey were in the idential repulse he received from sir Sidney Smith days of Old Testament writers. Many towns are at Acre.

inserted, only because they bear the name of some I conceive, therefore, that the state of the Turkish person mentioned in Scripture, and may conduce to power in these countries cannot be better, metaphori- point out his residence, or that of bis posterity, cally, expressed than by the words of the prophet, In considering this Map, the reader will divide it, And as the toes of the feet were part of iron and by his eye, into portions : fixing his attention well part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong on, 1st, the Eastern division, Persia and Babylon; and partly broken. And whereas thou sawest iron 2dly, the Central division, Mosul, or Nineveh, and mixed with miry clay, they, the governors, shall min its dependencies, the passage from thence; 3dly, the gle themselves, by connections, marriages, &c. AMONG Syrian division, including Palestine : and 4thly, the the seed of, Anusha, Low men, as the inhabitants Peninsular division, or Anatolia ; which might indeed shall be esteemed; but they the governors and gov be called the Apostolic division. The Scripture erned shall not cleave one to another, shall not coa history of events will thus contribute to confirm the lesce, even as iron is not mixed with clay.” How ideas received by the Map. exactly this is the case wherever the Arabs are under the yoke of the Turks (the same in Egypt, and

A. in Greece) is too notorious to require a word in proof of it: and could we obtain equal information in re Abel, lat. 33, 40. spect to Persia, we should discover precisely the Acre, lat. 33. long. formerly Acco, a seaport on same in that country, as appears from the relation of the Mediterranean : famous for the repulse of Hanway, who, unhappily for himself, found the Per Bonaparte hy sir Sidney Smith. sian peasants too ready to revolt against their then Aintab, lat. 36, 35. despot, the famous Nadir Shah.

Antakia, Antioch, in Syria, N. lat. 36, 30. long. E. The reader will understand then, that I refer, as 36, 40. the seat of a very flourishing Christian is usual, to the Roman empire as a part of this figure, church under the apostle Paul, and others, Acts but only to the eastern part of the Roman power, ex

xiii. cluding the western, and excluding too all western do Antioketa, or lesser Antioch, a port in Cilicia Traminion whatever; so that this principle is supported chea, on the Mediterranean. no less than others appear to be, by those ancient in- Antalia, formerly Attalia, in Pamphylia, lat. 36, 50. terpretations which refer to the Romans, as Jerom long visited by St. Paul, Acts xiv. 25. and others, but does not allow that comparison be Anah, on the Euphrates, lat. 34, 10. long.

, might tween the ten toes of this image, and the ten horns of this be founded by Anab, Gen. xxxvi. 24? the fourth beast in chap. vii. to which commentators Aio-so-luk, the ancient Ephesus in Lydia, lat. N. have usually had recourse : but I consider them as 38, long. E. 27, 30. on the western coast of Asia subjects entirely independent of each other, and to Minor: famous for being visited by St. Paul, for a be explained by independent history accordingly. letter from him, and for being the latter residence

The present state of the countries which compose of the apostle John : from whom its present name our Map would be a very fruitful source of remark, is derived, though strangely disfigured. and many corroborations of the truth of Scripture Akrad, lat. 34, 20. prophecies would arise from the consideration of it: Arka, lat. 34, 30. but it is not our present intention to enter on that Amman, in Syria, north of Maab, probably an ancient subject: we conclude these remarks by submitting residence of the children of Ammon, Gen. xix. 38. them to the candour of the reader. We have added Akcheher, lat. 33, 30. a list of most of the places inserted in our Map, with Alacheher, the white castle, lat, 38, 20. slight hints on their principal distinctions.

Anatolia, a peninsula, otherwise called Asia Minor.

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Arabia, an extensive country between Syria and Dumar, q. the ancient Duma ? Isai. xxi. 11. It is Irak, or Chaldea.

probable that the Duma of Isaiah is Edom, under Ars-roum, on the Euphrates, lat. N. 39, 56. long. a provincial pronunciation : but the possibility

E. 42. a conjecture that the prophet Ezekiel re that it might be this city is suggested, as learned sided here : for some account of the scarcity of men have been at a loss to find it.

wood here, vide FRAGMENT, No. 106. Ashdod, vide Esdud.

E. Asia Minor, 1st, Anatolia : 2dly, the provinces of Eriha, formerly Jericho in Judea, west of the Jordan,

Lydia, Caria, and Lycia, lat. N. 35 to 40. long. E. lat. N. 32. long. E. 35, 30. famous as the city of 45, 46. Another Asia seated near Galatia and palm-trees, 2 Chron. xxviii. 15. Pontus : east of the former.

El Arish, or la Rissa, in Dictionary, on the coast Askalan, lat. N. 31, 50. long.

, a seaport on the

between Judea and Egypt, lat. 31. long. Mediterranean.

supposed to be the southern limit of the kingdom Azotus, vide Esdud.

of Judah.

El Bir, on the Euphrates, lat. N. 36, 36. long.
B.

the customary passage of this river. Baalbec, in Syria, lat. N. 33, 30. long. E. 37. sup El Der.

posed to be the ancient Heliopolis, or city of the El Ersi. sun.

Ephesus, vide Aio-so-luk. Babil, formerly Babylon, on the Euphrates, lat. N. Ervad, supposed the Arpad of 2 Kings, xviii. 34. et

32, 30. long. E. This city is ruined ; but its un al. usually associated with Hamath, a port on the der ground constructions testify its ancient great Mediterranean, lat. N. 34, 55. long. E. Sen

nacherib boasts of having taken this city. Baffo, the ancient Paphos in Cyprus, lat. N. 34,50. Esdud, the ancient Hebrew Ashdod, thé Azotus of long. E.

the Greek Scriptures in Judea, lat. N. 31, 50. Bagdad, on the Tigris, lat. N. 33. long.

in some sense a successor of the ancient Babylon. Banias, not far distant stood the town of Dan : this

F. is the ancient Paneas on the Jordan, lat. 33, 10. Fars, otherwise Persia, the Pers, or Peres of the HeBasra, in Babylonia, on the Euphrates, lat. N. 30, brew

Scriptures. A province, or kingdom east of 45. long. E. 47. Probably famous for its manu the Tigris.

factures of dyed garments, Isai. Ixiii. 1. Bergameh, the ancient Pergamos, in Asia Minor, lat.

G. N. 39, 40. long. E. . To the church bere, a let. Gebileh, q. whether the ancient city from whence ter, Rev. ii. 12.

came the Giblim? Ezek. xxvii, lat. N. 35, 20. long. Berut, anciently Berith, or Berytus, a seaport on

It is probably too far north, and the Giblim the Mediterranean, lat. N. 33, 40. long. E. 36. may be sought at Jibeil, nearer to Tyre and Sidon, Bethlehem, in Judea, south of Jerusalem, lat. N. 31, both towns being ports on the Mediterranean.

30. long. E. 35, 25. famous for being the birthplace of the Messiah.

H. Bozra, in Arabia, near Syria, lat. N. 32, 20. long. Halep, or Aleppo, supposed to be the ancient Zobah,

probably referred to in some of the prophets, as lat. N. 35, 45. long. E. 37, 25. one of the most conJer. xlviii. 24, and elsewhere.

siderable cities of this country, at present.

Hamadan, the ancient Ecbatana, to which city the C.

Jews were carried captive, lat. N. 35, 5. long. E. Carchemish, vide Kerkisia.

It was a royal city. Catieh, or Catjeh, the mount Cassius of Cant. iv. 2. Hamah, the entering in, i.e. to Syria, lat. N. 34, 50. on the coast between Judea and Egypt.

long. E.

. The northern boundary of the land Choara, in Media, supposed the Hara to which the of promise.

Jews were carried captive, 2 Kings, xvii. 35, 40. Halah, in Media, vide Kalar. Colosse, vide Konos.

Hara, vide Choara. Chau Pelerin.

Haran, in Mesopotamia, lat. N. 36, 40. long. . In

the road from Nineveh to an. D.

Hebron, in Judea, south of Jerusalem, lat. N. 31, 43. Demesk, formerly Damascus, in Syria, lat. N. 33, 15. long. E.

long. E. 37. This city claims Abraham for its foun- Hit, on the Euphrates, lat. N. 33, 20. long. E. der. Vide Gen. xv. 2.

here are the bitumen pits, from whence was supDerbe, in Pisidia, in Anatolia, mentioned Acts iv. 6. plied that used in constructing the walls of Babylon.

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30. long. . for-still more ancient Nineveh, vide Jaffa, formerly Joppa, a port in Judea, on the Medi

Bel-ad. For an account of the heat of this city, terranean, lat. N. 32, 5. long. E. famous for

&c. vide FRAGMENT, No. 3. the escape of Jonah, and the visit of Peter. Iconium, vide Konia.

N. Jebeil, whether the Giblim from hence ? Ezek. xxviii. Nabolos, or Naplouse, in Syria, the ancient Samaria, more probable than froin Gebileh, further north.

lat. N. 32, 20. long. , a colony of Samaritans, Its inhabitants were excellent mariners, lat. N. 34,

descendants of those anciently settled here, is still 20. long. E. 36, 13.

extant in this town. Jericho, now Eriha; which see.

Nesibin, in Mesopotamia, lat. N. 37. long. ,in Jerusalem, the capital of Judea, lat. N. 31, 40. long.

the direct road from Nineveh to Syria. E. 35, 25. probably a very ancient city, famous as

Nineveh, vide Mosul. the capital of the kingdom of the Hebrews; and as the scene of the sufferings and death of the Mes

R. siah.

Racca, lat. 36. Ispahan, lat. N. 32, 25. long. E. 52, 55. the capital Rages, the modern Rey, in Media, lat. 35, 35. long. of Persia, one of the towns to which the Jews were

best known by the history of the journey of carried captive.

Tobias, as one of those cities which contained capJundi Sapor, in Khozistan, or Chuzestan, probably tive Israelites. the ancient Shushan royal, of Esther and Daniel.

Ras-ain, the ancient Resen, in Mesopotamia, on a K.

branch of the Euphrates, lat. N.36, 35. long.

It is remarked as a very great city, Gen. x. Kalar, in Media, lat. N. 36, 20. long. probably Ramla, the ancient Rama, in Judea, lat. N. 32. one of the towns to which the Jews were carried

long. captive, 2 Kings, xvii.

Refah.
Karahissar.
Kerkisia, the ancient Carchemish, on the Euphra Roho

Resapha. tes, lat. N. 35, 20. long. E.

Rhodes, an island on the coast of Asia Minor, in the Kerkouk.

Mediterranean, lat. N. 36, 20. long. E. 28. This Keisariah, in Syria, a seaport on the Mediterranean, lat. N. 32, 20. long.

city is famous for its Colossus, and its defence the seat of the Roman

against the Turks by the Knights Hospitaller, now governors of Judea.

knights of Malta. Khozistan, or Chuzestan, i.e. the province of Shusa, in Persia, lat. N. 30 to 33. long. E. 47 to 49.

S. Kilis. Kir, or Kyrus, river, runs into the Caspian sea, most Salamis, in Cyprus, on the eastern shore of that probably a province of the same name, adjacent.

island, lat. 35, 30. long. Kocab, or Cocab, “the star;" the place where St. Safet.

Paul is supposed to have been converted, in his Sart, the ancient Sardis in Lydia, lat. 38, 30. long. journey to Damascus, Acts ix.

. A letter to this church, Rev. iii. 1. Konos, formerly Colosse, to the converts of which Seide, the ancient Sidon, on the coast of the Mediter

city St. Paul wrote an epistle, lat. N. 38. long. ranean, lat. 33, 15. long. Konia, formerly Iconium, in Phrygia, lat. 38. long. Seleucia, a small town near Antakia; being a port on Korna, the horn, i.e. the junction of the two rivers the Mediterranean, lat. 36, 10. long. Tigris and Euphrates.

From hence Paul and Barnabas sailed for Cyprus,

Acts xiii. 4.
M.

Selefkeh, formerly Seleucia, a seaport on the coast of Maab, or El Rabba, in Arabia, lat. N. 31, 20. long. Cilicia, in the Mediterranean, lat. 36, 40. long.

This city appears still to retain the two It gave name to the sea of Seleucia, Acts xxvii. pames by which it is known in Scripture : 1st, and must be distinguished from the Seleucia near Moab. 2d, Rabbah of the Moabites. This was the Antakia, Acts xix. 4. royal city, taken by David, 2 Sam. xi.

Serug. Membigs, capt. Wilford supposes this to be a cor Smyrne, a seaport on the western shore of Anatolia,

ruption of Maha-baga, the great goddess : and lat. N. 38, 28. long. E. 27, 24. famous for a letter thinks it might be anciently called Nineveh.

addressed to it, Rev. ii. 8. and for preserving a small Hosul, formerly Nineveh, on the Tigris, lat. N. 36, remnant of a Christian church.

Sour, the ancient Tzur, or Tyre ; a famous port on between them is called Mesopotamia : “ between the Mediterranean, lat. N. 33, long. E. 36.

the rivers." Its present name, its ancient name also Susum,

probably, is Digel.

Toster,
T.

Tyre, vide Sour.
Tabaria, formerly Tiberias, on the sea of Tiberias in

Y.
Syria.
Tadmor, or Palmyra, in the desert of Syria, lat. N. Yabne, lat. 31, 50.

Z. 34. long. E. 39. said to be built by Solomon. This city, once the famous mart, and a royal city ; it Zan, in Egypt, lat. 30, 50. long. is the Zoad has now some superb edifices in witness of its for of Numb. xiii. 22. probably : at which time it was mer grandeur.

watered by numerous canals. These bave since Tarsous, in Cilicia, a port on the Mediterranean, lat. proved its ruin, as the waters of the lakes, &c. ad

36, 50. long. famous for being the birthplace jacent, have inundated all around it. of the apostle Paul.

Zoar, a small town at the southern extremity of the Tigris river, the eastern branch of that stream of Dead Sea, in Judea, lat. 30, 50. long.

, perwhich the Euphrates is the western; the province haps the Zoar of Gen. xiv. 2.

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THE DRAGON, SEA SERPENTS, AND FLYING SERPENTS. It appears, from several places in this work, that ges, near seventy cubits in length. Alexander and if we have not annihilated those numerous dragons his army saw one of this size in a cave, to their great which occur in our public translation, yet, we have terror, Elian, lib. xv. cap. 21. changed them for creatures of very different kinds; Three kinds of dragons were formerly distinguishit is therefore, in some degree, incumbent on us to ed in India. 1st, T'hose of the bills and mountains ; clear up, so far as our information reaches, the true 2dly, those of the vallies and caves ; 3dly, those of creature which Scripture intends by the term drag- the fens and marshes. The first is the largest, and on : and that we may be certain of our instance on covered with scales, as resplendent as burnished this subject, we select that of the great red dragon of gold. They bave a kind of beard hanging from their the Revelations, which also is expressly called a lower jaw, their aspect is frightful, their cry loud and serpent. Chap. xii. 3. “Behold, 1st, a great, 2dly, shrill, their crest bright yellow, and they have a proa red dragon, dpaxwv, having, 3dly, seven heads, and, tuberance on their heads, the colour of a burning coal. 4thly, ten horns, his tail drew the third part of The reader will turn to what we have related of the the stars of heaven, the dragon stood before the naja, or spectacle serpent, on Isai. xi. in loc. and woman to devour her child, and the, oQis, serpent plate.] 2dly, Those of the flat country are of a silcast out of his mouth water as a stream [flood] after ver colour, and frequent rivers, to which the former the woman, that he might cause her to be knocked never come. 3dly, Those of the marshes are black, down, carried away, by the stream of water.” The slow, and have no crest.

The slow, and have no crest. Strabo says, the painting description and manners of this dragon have greatly serpents with wings is contrary to truth ; but other embarrassed commentators. Dr. Doddridge observes naturalists and travellers, ancient and modern, affirm on the passage, “I suppose most of my readers well that some species are winged.

that some species are winged. [There is much conknow, that a dragon is a vast serpent of enormous fusion on this subject. Some have mistaken the hood bulk. Job, the celebrated African, assured me, that of the naja for wings; others for a crest; others have one of them carried away a live cow in its mouth, be- confounded the innocent lizard-dragon with flying serfore his face.” But, on this serpent's ejection of wa. pents; and therefore report, as Pliny does, that their ter, he professes his “ignorance of any fact to illus- bite is not venomous, though the creatures be dreadful,

I shall observe on the particulars of this which indeed is true of the boa, or proper dragon.] dragon in their order.

The following is mostly translated, or abstracted, 1st, The dimensions of this dragon,“great.” We from count de la Cepede: The boa is among serpents, may, I presume, seek the counterparts of this reptile what the lion or the elephant is among quadrupeds ; among serpents of the largest size, for which we shall he usually reaches twenty feet in length, and to this look to that class called by naturalists, boa.

species we must refer those described by travellers, The dragon is frequently mentioned by ancient as lengthened to forty or fifty feet, as related by naturalists: by Aristotle, lib. ix. Diod. Sicul. lib. iii. Owen, Nat. Hist. Serp. p. 15. Kircher mentions a &c. St. Ambrose, de Mor. Brach. p. 63. says, there serpent forty palms in length; and such a serpent is were dragons seen in the neighbourhood of the Gan- referred to by Job Ludolph, p. 166. as extant in

trate it."

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