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and the stories there pictured and carved.Then commencement of a révolt. But of this province he follow the copied inscriptions, and an account of them, might be governor; whether native or not: and theresaid to be taken at Nocturestand, and Chahelminar, in fore sirnamed “the Arrian.”

fore sirnamed "the Arrian." The revolt of Arsaces Persia, November, 1667.

was occasioned by the ill usage his brother Tiridates “ Nos. 1, 2. l'hese two characters are engraven on

received from Agathocles regent of Persia, &c. in the the breasts of two horses, cut out of the mountain of absence of the king, Antiochus. I suppose, that

. black marble, at Nocturestand, distant a league from Tiridates was the elder brother of Arsaces. We read Chahelminar, or the ancient Persepolis; one whereof also, that at the time of this revolt of Arsaces in is said to be Alexander's, the other Rustram's, fa fa- Parthia, Theodotus revolted in Bactria. Is this Themous hero supposed to have lived about the time of odotus the same as the Theontius of our inscription? Cambyses.] No. 1. This character has some simili- If so, and if Theodotus was the father of Arsaces, we tude with the ancient Hebrew ; but the Persians see how they might act in concert. This is not cerwould have it their own, though they understand not tain; yet as Theodotus signifies “God's gift,” and a letter." So far Mr. Flower. No. 2. is a Greek Theontius signifies “God's honour,” the import of inscription, no doubt the same as the upper one in the names, which are evidently translations from the Persian characters ; it should be read thus, the native language into the Greek, might be derived smaller letters supplying the deficiencies, which are from the same Parthian title or appellation. It is true, occasioned in the original sculpture, some by the all we do not find the word papus used in an elegant apcorroding hand of time, others by the ignorance, or plication among classic Greek writers; but we have inadvertence of the sculptor.

the name of Philopapus, the Syrian, on a monument TO ITPOTO[ue] {T POCSION MAEA AXNOY

at Athens; and Theopapus seems to be perfectly ΘΕΟΥ ΑρZAκου βαCIA ε]ΩC BACΙΛΕΩΝ

synonymous with the Hebrew Abiel, “ God my faΑΡΙΑΝΩΝ 'υιοC ΘΕΩΝTΙδοΥ

ther;" being compounded of Theos God, and papas


The second inscription we are told “is written entire 6- The image of the countenance of the deity Ma on Rustram's horse." Now this inscription is clearly, lach: erected by Arsaces, king of kings; the Arrian, son of Theontius, son of Theopapus, king.” It is

ΤΟ ΠΡΟΤΟ[με] ΠΡΟCΩΠΟΝ Β[ε]LOC ΘΕΟΥ evident that this Greek is the production of a Parthi “ The image of the countenance of the god Bean, or a foreigner from the Greek language; as well by lus." its omissions of letters, as by its redundancies. It is This image being that of Belus, strengthens the not, however, worse than what we meet with else- supposition that his companion is the god Moloch, where of Arabian composition.

those two deities being represented together: and We learn from it, 1st, that this figure represents the thus we have in this sculpture the two principal deigod Moloch. 2dly, That it was executed by order ties of the country. of Arsaces, no doubt the first of that name ; and no It is impossible to determine decisively whether doubt, also, by artists who had received somewhat of these inscriptions were correctly copied by Mr. FlowGrecian instruction, and a tincture of Grecian art. er; if they were, the use of D for B in Belus, and 3dly, It informs us of the country and family of Ar- the use of the Roman L instead of the Greek A in the saces; which hitherto has been variously reported. same word, deserves notice; as does the use of T for Arsaces, say some writers, was of the family of the 11, of C for E, and for X, &c. Achæmenidæ, the royal family of Persia; others say There is no doubt but the Parthian inscription conhe was a Parthian. Strabo says he was king of the tains the same information as the Greek : I have not Dahæ ; Georgius Syncellus affirms, that he was a no however been able to satisfy myself with any lection hleman of Bactria. Now these reports are partly of it: yet I think the first word of No. 1. is MLIC; true, partly erroneous: he was, as appears by our and that the name Arsaces is written ARDSHOKTJ. inscription, a noble, because he was of royal descent, I take them to be incorrectly copied from the marbles. being a grandson of king Theopapus. He might be A question remains, whether these figures are the also a king (or perhaps a governor, a satrap) as being work of the age to which their inscription refers ? It of royal birth; but whether he exercised the office is certain they were extant before their inscriptions of royalty over a kingdom may be doubted. As to were put upon them; but they might be extant long his native province, I suppose it was Aria, or Ariana, before, yet not inscribed, till circumstances made it which was a very extensive province of Persia, necessary, in the time of Arsaces. If they are works bounded by the Indus on the east, by the Great Sea of Arsaces, do they copy accurately former, ancient, on the south, by Parapamisus north, and by the limo representations? Have we any figures of Belus and its of Media, &c. west. This province lying remote, Moloch on horseback, besides these? They are of and being so extensive, was a proper situation for the the natural size of life. The tradition of the place VOL. IV.


refers them to Alexander and Darius. Is Arbaces the of both these figures are bridled, and from the saddle Rustram of the tradition? These ideas seem coinci- of each hangs an ornament, being a chain, with a rose dent with their being the work of Arsaces: but what tassel to it. The second figure in this subject has a could induce him thus to ornament sepulchres near raised conical cap on his head; with his right band he Persepolis, if Chihelminar be Persepolis, and what grasps the ring; and he is attended by a servant, who could be the state of this city, palace, &c. at the holds over him an ensign of dignity common at Pertime of forming this monument?

sepolis. This figure I take to be that called Rustram, Upon the whole, this discovery of the author of and therefore suppose, that to this figure we may rethese works, leads to a suspicion whether he might not fer the second inscription, which shows him to be the also be author of those other ornamental figures, still deity Belus. remaining at Persepolis, whose number amounts to No. 2. Is a figure on horseback, which I take to be many thousands, and which must have employed the the same deity as the second figure of Nos. 1. and 3. labours of years; probably much beyond the reign of He holds in his left hand a sword; with his right Arsaces. Or, did Alexander not burn and destroy hand he is raising a person who has been doing him the whole palace of Persepolis? I must own, I have homage ; as a second person in a supplicating posture often wondered at this action attributed to him: is now doing. The deity on horseback has a tall condrunk as he was, why fire the whole ? how could he ical cap on his head, embellished with three leaves burn those parts constructed of stone ? Could he so at the bottom : on his thigh, under his drapery, is a far consume this edifice, as that it might not be repair. somewhat, perhaps a bow case : his horse is handed, recovered, and restored to its pristine dignity, by somely bridled ; and behind stands a servant, whose some succeeding prince, Arsaces, or any other? Is it figure is almost obliterated. Traces of an inscription unlikely that this was an ancient seat of the Persian are evident on the rock. monarchs, the palace of which was built perhaps by It is inquired in the letter, whether we have any Cyrus, partially destroyed by Alexander, restored figures of Belus and Moloch on horseback, besides by Arsaces; but at length deserted, through the ne these? to which I answer, by referring to Vaillant's cessity of events, and gradually mouldered to its Medals of the Colonies, for two, which that eminent present condition by time and accidents? We desire medalist knew not what to make of. The first is, p. materials for our information in answering these ques 111. ranked by him as uncertain : as he was unable to tions ; but, if they have an air of probability, that is ascribe it to any particular town : the second is, p. all the proposer of them wishes, at present.

146, and is ascribed by him to Olba. The inscrip

tion of both is, COL. IVL. AUG. OLBABEN, which he We shall proceed at once to explain our Plate. reads, Colonia Julia Augusta Olbabenorum. This Nos. 1, 2, 3. are delineations of the figures referred we have given below in No. 4. Olba was a city in to in the foregoing letter; copied from Le Bruyn's Pamphylia, in this medal called a colony; by Strabo, Travels, vol. ii. p. 32.

ueyo épuud,“ of great strength,” or well fortified No. 1. is No. 170 of Le Bruyn, and is, I suppose, [magna munitio : we have the same ascription given the subject of Mr. Flower's remarks, because he men to Tyre, Josh. xix. 29. “the strong city, Tyre:” tions two horses, and two heroes, Alexander and urbem munitissimum.] The names of Julius and Rustram. It is impossible to determine by Mr. Augustus show by whom it was favoured; though Flower's words, on which of the two borses either of without this testimony we should not have known that the inscriptions is cut; all we learn is, that one in Julius had thus privileged it. Vaillant also says, this scription is cut on one horse, the other inscription on coin is among the most rare and most elegant. The the other. In this dilemma, presuming that the cap, head is Gordian. On the reverse of another medal as usual in the East, distinguishes the personage, i of the same town is Bacchus. This figure is Deus take the figure on the right to be the deity Moloch; Lunus on horseback; and I think it clear from the and I support this presumption by observing, that he figure and ornaments of the cap on his head, that this holds in his hand a club, which is the same weapon as is the same deity as appears on these rocks at PersepMoloch holds in the Plate to the FRAGMENT referred olis. If the medalist had not inserted the crescent, to; also, that the cap of the other figure is that worn we could not have distinguished him; but that proves by the Baal of the other subjects. These circum- him to be of Eastern origin, and identifies him with stances determine me to refer the first inscription de the Persian deity. scribing the deity Moloch to the figure on the right. No. 3. Is Baal and Moloch under another form:

The figure represents the god Moloch as an elder. Baal indeed is much the same in appearance; having ly man, with a long beard; wearing a round cap, with a strong beard, his bair flowing on his shoulders, a tall feathers in it; holding in his left hand a club, in conical cap on his head ; in his right hand he grasps his right hand holding a ring, in conjunction with an a ring, in his left a [roll of a book, perhaps, or other figure, who is also on horseback. The horses short staff: whatever it is, he holds apparently the

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same thing, in the plate to FRAGMENT, No. 108.] 2. I have given a medal of Abgarus, king of Edessa,
Behind him is an attendant, having a conical cap, in which he is graciously extending bis hand toward
and a book, perhaps, in each hand. The other fig. his subjects. The cap on his head, and his general
ure is that of a woman; having on her head a cap, appearance shows, that the artists of antiquity delin.
with three tiers of ornaments; her hair flowing over eated their kings as representatives of deity : which
her shoulders, a necklace round her neck: a girdle indeed was their character in the East; and un-
round her waist. She grasps the ring with her right doubtedly, their early kings became their deities in
hand. This is the deity Moloch, in a female forin; later ages. This very deity Baal, had been a sov-
and though attired in a less warlike manner, yet is ereign of the country, anciently.
precisely the same as we saw her in MISCELLANIES, No. 6. Is a coin of Parthia, in which we have the
Plate II, No. 11. FRAGMENT, No. 282, [vide Nos. king's head, wearing almost precisely such a cap as
6, 7, 8.] where we have Baal and Moloch in the char the Baal of No. 2. which renders it remarkable. The
acter of warriors; and where, though a woman, she reverse is the two deities Baal and Moloch, armed,
retains her reference to the male sex, by displaying a on each side of an altar : but I am not sure that we
beard. In fact, this mixture of sexes in Moloch, is distinguish the sexes.
the origin of all the hermaphrodites, hermathenas, No. 7. Is Baal and Moloch, also, as is manifest by
bearded-fortunes, &c. in heathen mythology, and an the insignia of the star and the crescent. I think they
cient art. It is the origin of all that change of dresses are of different sexes.
by the sexes, in order to change the sex itself, were No. 8. The same deities, armed ; in this medal I
it possible, at the feast of Deus Lunus, or Dea Luna, think the sexes are meant to be distinguished ; but
vide Moon, in Dictionary, which is prohibited so Moloch has the beard of a man, together with the
early as Moses, Deut. xxii. 5. “ The woman shall not breasts of a woman.
wear that which pertaineth to a man, neither shall a No. 9. The figure of Venus, from the Indian zodiac :
man put on a woman's garment.” If the reader will she holds as a distinctive characteristic, a large ring,
consult the Hebrew of this passage, he will find that which seems to be precisely the same as that held by
the woman is prohibited by a phraseology stronger the figures in Nos. 1, 3, and indeed her resemblance
than appears in our translation, from wearing the dis to the female figure of No. 3. is by means of this ring
tinctions of the male sex; among which, a beard very striking: their similarity is further illustrated in
is by appointment of nature, “what pertaineth to the following remarks.
a man." The subject is too long and too recon No. 10. The first inscription in Persepolitan, and
dite for this place : as is the question, what is Greek letters ; copied from the Philosophical Trans-
the action, and reference of these figures ? Yet by actions.
way of showing, rather than dissipating, its obscurity, No. 11. The second inscription, from the same au-
I shall hint, that the Noachic family was early divid- thority.
ed into two parties ; one called “of the sun," the When considering the subject of Succoth Benoth,
other called, “of the moon.” These two parties in FRAGMENT, No. 213, we observed, that the word
boasted of their divinity, each against the other ; and benos on a medal of Hierapolis, had puzzled Vail-
to prove the superiority they vaunted, each fought lant: this however we referred, ultimately, to the god-
for its deity ; but, after their disposition for fighting dess Venus : and I cannot help querying, whether
was satisfied, they were reconciled, at least, till the the inscription, Olbaben, on the medal No. 4. should
next occasion of warfare. My notion is, that in No. not be read Olba-benos, as if benos, or Venus, was
1. we see Baal and Moloch reconciled, or united; worshipped at Olba, and as if this Deus Lunus was
(the same in No. 3. though here Moloch be a woman] Venus. The crescent leads us to Moloch ; Moloch
and this is signified, by their mutually holding a ring, is we see represented as a woman; and if as a woman,
as the symbol of one-ness, unity, omonoia. [The same why not Venus, the goddess of love and beauty? Let us
idea, precisely, I gather from our Plate of Baal and see how this will affect a passage or two of Scripture.
Moloch, FRAGMENT, No. 107. but their arms being Amos v. 26. Israel when in the wilderness set up
broken off, it is impossible to say whether these figures the temporary residences of your Moloch, and of
ever held a ring : their action is reciprocally that of that Chiun (Chiven) you set up your images ; and
concord.] Observe, that in these sculptures Baal has the star of your divinities which ye instituted to your-
an attendant; Moloch has not; from whence I gather selves. This star appears on our medals, and marks
that Baal was the deity most favoured in this country: the sun. Supposing the crescent to be Chiun, or Mo-
though generally, I suppose, they were honoured to- loch, it will denote the queen of heaven ; or, “the
gether ; whether in conjunction, or in different parts productive powers feminine," as Mr. Parkhurst ren-
of the same temple ; or in different temples adjacent ders Succoth Benoth. Now that the worship of the
to each other.

Midianite women, the seducers, and so of Israel, the
No. 5. By way of illustrating the action of Baal No. seduced, was paid to this goddess, appears in the open


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