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than in Ethiopia, and where the natives are accustomed ing two horns, by the name of monoceros, i.e. one to tame elephants, he is regarded as an irreclaim- horned; or whether they designed the double horned able animal, of which no domestic use can be made," rhinoceros : but, when we consider that a wild bull Buffon's note, art. Rhinoceros.
having only one horn, would be contrary to the nature Let us now attend to modern information in relation of the beeve kind, and indeed would be a monster; to the rhinoceros. The first correct intelligence we whereas a unicorn, or single horned rhinoceros, would had of this creature, was from Dr. Parsons, in Phil. suit some passages of Scripture, and be perfectly well Trans. vol. xlii. p. 523. who gave drawings, &c. of a known to their readers; while another species of rhiyoung one, supposed to be only two years old: with noceros having two horns, would suit other passages of this paper
he gives the delineations of a double born, Scripture, where a similar animal was meant, and this then in sir Hans Sloane's collection. The Dr. resum also was not unknown to their readers; we cannot but ed the subject in vol. Ivi. p. 32. on occasion of a double approve of the choice they made in preferring the horn, then recently received by Dr. Mead. Mr. rhinoceros to the urus, as the proper animal meant by Bruce mentions the animal as found in Abyssinia ; and the Hebrew reem: we consider also this choice, and Dr. Sparrman mentions him in south Africa. We find this opinion, of the Egyptian translators, who cerhim also in the East Indies; and have a description and tainly knew the animal most likely to be meant by the delineation of him, in Phil. Trans. vol. Ixxxiii. p. 3. sacred poet, as no despicable authority on this side by Mr. Bell, surgeon to the East India company. I omit of the question. Buffon and other naturalists, who give figures of the single horned rhinoceros only ; but I cannot help
PLATE II. DOUBLE HORN OF THE RHINOCEROS, wishing that men of learning and talents, would exer The DOUBLE horn of this creature, being that part cise toward each other that liberality to which they of his figure which has been most called in question, are respectively entitled : when I read the reflections and which stands most in need of authorities, we have of Sparrman on Buffon, or those of Bruce on Sparr. collected on this Plate several delineations of this man, I am ashamed of reading what those authors particular article. should have been ashamed of writing: because ani No. 1. This is a copy of the Domitian medal, in mals differ in different countries, therefore their de- which the double horn of this creature is distinctly scribers are not worthy of credit!! &c. To me it apparent; it is said to be apparent also on the Preappears that the north African species of folding skin nestine pavement, made in the time, and perhaps by rhinoceros has usually a single horn; but that in this the order, of Sylla the dictator. country some are found with two horns; then I ob No. 2. The head of the double horned rhinoceros, serve the rhinoceros of Bencoolen, East India, has from Mr. Bruce; who tells us, that this species in much less of those folding skins, but has two horns; Abyssinia differs little, or nothing, in any other rethen, that the south African rhinoceros has no folding spect from the single horned kind. Mr. Bruce's figskins, yet has two horns. Now, in this gradual diminu ure is a close resemblance to Buffon's ; for which this tion and disappearance of the folding skin, what is there observation may account. contrary to nature? It is true, this may distinguish No.3. The head of the double horned rhinoceros different species; but if so, why should naturalists from Mr. Bell's account, in the Philosophical Transblame each other? Why not accept each other's in actions. This figure differs essentially from Buffon's formation with gratitude ? If nature has this variety, and Mr. Bruce's; in nothing more than in the almost where is the crime of reporting it?
total absence of the folding skins : but we have cop
ied the head only. PLATE 1. RHINOCEROS, REEM, UNICORN.
No. 4. Is a double horned rhinoceros, in which the The upper figure shows the urus, or wild bull, of folding skins are by no means obliterated, though they the forests of Poland. This animal is of great force are very much diminished from those of Mr. Bruce. and magnitude, and of long life. “It grows to a size This is from Harris's Voyages, vol. i. p. 465. He that scarce any other animal but the elephant is found ranks it as an East Indian kind; though he quotes to equal. The female exceeds the largest of our bulls Kolben, who was among the first who mentioned the in size.” It is very wild, irritable, and violent; but double horned species as native of south Africa. We whether any of the beeve kind may be truly said to have given this figure at full length, because, by combe untameable, may, I think, be doubted, since this paring it with the second figure in the former Plate, kind seems to be peculiarly designed by Providence, the diminution of the folding skin is very discernible. as the companion of man, in all his states of civiliza The figure agrees sufficiently with that given by Mr. tion; and in all parts of the world.
Bell ; which is yet considerably smoother, and has, The under figure shows the rhinoceros, of the ordi in fact, very slight traces, that any folding skin appernary, or at least, the best known species, having but tains to the genus; of which characteristic appearone horn. The contradiction is equally great in the ance it would never have raised any suspicion, had LXX, whether they designed to describe a bull, hav. this species only been known.
No. 5. Double horn delineated by Dr. Parsons, Transactions, vol. lxxxiii. “Both horns were firmly from sir Hans Sloane's collection. "Whether they attached to the skull, nor was there any appearance crossed each other on the animal, is uncertain. It is of joint, or muscles to move them.” most likely they did not, but that by drying they were No. 9. The figure of one of those horns which are crossed by the corrugations of the skin that joins them worn in Abyssinia by the soldiery, in triumph after together. However, I have drawn them as they ap a victory. If there be any probability in the idea peared to me. The straight horn is twenty-five inches that when the horn is mentioned in Scripture, it may long; the curved one somewhat shorter, and the two allude to the wearing of such a token of exultation, diameters of the bases thirteen inches." From this or, indeed, on merely common ideas, without such a account both horns appear to be nearly equal in reference, is it more likely the allusion should be to strength, power, magnitude, &c. The Dr. mentions the two horns of a bull, which project one on each a horn in sir Hans's collection thirty-seven inches side of the head, or to a single horn erect in the midlong, above three feet! another, thirty-two inches dle of the forehead? If the Psalmist had said, my long: and Buffon mentions one three feet eight inches horns, plural, shalt thou project sideways, the phrase in length: what formidable weapons are these! equal might have alluded to a bull; but, when he says, my in length to the horns of bulls !
horn, singular, shalt thou exalt, or cause to stand No. 6. Horn delineated by Dr. Parsons, from Dr. erect, we must seek some other animal as the subject Mead's collection. “The length of the anterior horn, of comparison : because a bull, and the whole beere measuring with a string along the convex fore part, is kind is out of the question, as their horns do not twenty inches; perpendicular height, eighteen : cir stand erect, nor are, in that sense, exalted. cumference at the base, twenty one and a half. The series of double horns here offered deserves The posterior horn is in perpendicular height nine notice, as indicating several varieties: in No. 7. they inches and a quarter; circumference round the base, are strongly united : in No. 6. they are pretty closely eighteen inches; length of both bases together on the united at bottom, but not quite : in No. 5. they are nasal bones, fourteen inches; and the weight of both somewhat wider asunder: and in No. 8. the distance together, fourteen pounds ten ounces.” Brought from between them is considerable. . Angola, in Africa.
N.B. This inquiry has proceeded on the principle No. 7. A double horn from Buffon, the tips not that the reem, or rim, and the raam, are the same perfect, but the union at bottom very compact. animal, though the name be differently spelled: but,
No. 8. The skull of a double horned rhinoceros; does one denote the unicornis, the other the bicor. showing the connection of the horns with the os nis ? or are they different animals? frontis, from Mr. Bell's figure in the Philosophical
OF THE JACKALL, THE FOX OF SCRIPTURE.
We have elsewhere given our reasons for suppos- is made of leather; loves grapes, yet can live loug ing that the true fox was extremely rare in Judea, on food, of which farinaceous vegetables and bread is and is scarcely, if at all, mentioned in Scripture. The the principal part. jackall is the creature meant by the Hebrew word The ears of the jackall are brown not black : shuol ; and having an opportunity, we translate from which distinguishes it from the fox. The jackall Rozier, a few extracts from the natural history of the hardly exceeds the fox in size ; in his general appearjackall, by M. Guldenstadt, Nov. Comment. Acad. ance he holds a middle station between the wolf and Petrop. vol. xx. 1775.
the fox. Gmelin mentions some three feet in length: “ The country of the jackall is Asia Minor, and but rarely do jackalls attain such dimensions. the regions around it. ... The instinct of this crea I do not think the colour of this animal is so beautiture leads it to mountainous or hilly parts, rather than ful as authors have described it: and certainly, I see to open countries." Yet its boldness is so great, that not in it the brilliancy of gold, The upper part of the it not only prowls into inhabited places, but ap- animal is a dirty yellow, deeper on the back, lighter proaches travellers, whether during the daytime, or on the sides : whitish yellow on the belly. The feet when they repose at night under their tents; it even are of one colour, a reddish brown. The tail is of accompanies them sometimes, in their journey, for a the same colour as the back, black at the tip. Each considerable length of time.
hair of the back is marked with four bands, white at The jackall is less dangerous than the wolf; he is the base, then black, then foxy and black at the carnivorous, kills smaller animals, devours carcasses, point. The bairs of the tail are white at the base, even those of mankind ; swallows greedily whatever the rest is black.
the rest is black. The length of a jackall is about
We have remarked, on the subject of the words dish, full of heated viands, recently taken off the fire, rendered cruise by our translators, that one of them upon which he has put a cover, in order that those seems to be totally different from that which bids viands may retain their heat and flavour. His being fairest to explain the story of the widow's cruise of a confectioner, makes me think they are delicacies oil, or king Saul's cruise of water: that word we now which he carries : to this agrees his desire of preservmean to examine, and to endeavour to direct its ap- ing their heat: and the shape of the vessel is evidentplication.
ly calculated for standing, &c. over a fire. Moreover, Tselachit, numby, is used to denote a vessel of it is capable of being rested on its side, for the pursome capacity, a vessel to be turned upside down, in pose of being thoroughly wiped ; and a dish whose order that the inside may be thoroughly wiped, use was to contain delicacies, is most likely to receive 2 Kings, xxi. 13. This implies at least, that the such attention ; for the comparison evidently implies opening of such a dish be not narrow, but capacious; some assiduity and exertion to wipe from the dish that the dish be of a certain depth, yet that the hand every particle inconsistent with complete cleanliness : may readily reach to the bottom of it, and there may i.e. the entire removal of offensive matters. This freely move, so as to wipe it thoroughly, &c. dish, I suppose, is of earth or china, rather than of
This vessel was capable also of bearing the fire, metal. and of standing conveniently on a fire; for so we read, We are now prepared to see the import of Elisha's 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. “The priests, &c. boiled parts of direction to the men of Jericho, 2 Kings, ii. 20. the holy offerings in pans, tjelachut, and distributed “ Bring me a new tjelachit," one of the vessels used them speedily among the people.”. Meaning, per- in your cookery, in those parts of your cookery which haps, that this was not the very kind of boiler which you esteem the most delicate: a culinary vessel, but they would have chosen, had time permitted a choice; of the superior kind; “and put salt therein,” what but that haste, and multiplicity of business, made them you constantly use in your food; what will readily use whatever first came to hand, that was capable of mix with the water : and this shall be a sign to you, the service. This application of these vessels, how- that in your future use of this stream, you shall find ever, shows that they must have been of some capac. it salubrious, and fit for daily service in preparing, or ity and some depth; as a very narrow, or a very accompanying, daily food. small dish, would not have answered the purpose re There is a striking picture of sloth sketched out quired. [Or, was this speedy distribution of these very simply, but very strongly, by the sagacious viands, because they were best eaten hot?
olomon, Prov. xix. 24. and which is repeated almost Now I think I have found a kind of dish or pan, verbatim, chap. xxvi. 15. which answers these descriptions, in the hands of a confectioner of the grand seignior's seraglio, Es
A slothful man bideth his hand in the tjelachit ; tampes du Levant, plate xiii. who is carrying a deep
But will not re-bring it to his mouth. VOL. IV.