Page images


This notion of the aiun, gives also a spirit to the which this animal could eat a handful. This greatly

of Saul, who when his father's alunuth were adds to the expression and correctness of the Hebrew bri, itas at no little pains to seek them; more naturalist. Animals which inhabit the desert, must nies, as besides being valuable they were uncommon, often be at a loss for water; and this animal, says the be night the more readily hear if they had been no professor, would often pass two whole days without rices and picked up by any one ; and possibly this drinking, kada to the true interpretation of the servant's


Besides the above, in Daniel we read, that's Nebuposed application to Samuel, verse 6. q.d. “In his chadnezzar dwelt with the orudia, wild asses.” Cervüce of magistracy this honourable man may have tainly, this monarch was not banished to the desert, the heard of these strayed rarities being found, and se open mountains, of Job's orud, but was at most kept cured by some one, peradventure he can show ug safely in an enclosure of his own park; in which park the way we should go. Tbis keeps clear, both of curious and esotic animals were also kept, for state expected fortune telling, or of the exercise of pro- and pleasure. If this be correct, then this orud was pietic prediction in Samuel on this occasion, which somewhat at least of a rarity, at Babylon, and it

apprehend is desirable. This implies the compe- might be of a kind different from the para; as it is jence, if not the wealth, of Saul's family.

denoted by another name. May it be the gicquétéi We have now to remark the allusion of the dying of professor Pallas, the of wild mule" of Mongolia, Jacob to his son Judah, Gen. xlix. 11. “Binding his which surpasses the onager in size, beauty, and perfoal

, oireh, to the vine, and his son of his atun to his haps in swiftness ? Nov. Comment. Acad. Petrop. vine of Sorek.” This idea of a capital kind of ass, vol. xix. for we remark, that the professor advises and of Judah's possessing young of the same breed, to cross this breed with that of the onager, as a mean inplies a dignity, a fertility, and a prolongation of of perfectionating the species of the ass: consequentboih, which does not appear in the usual phraseology !y, it is allied to this species, and may be alluded to of the passage.

in the passage of Job, where it is associated with the Thus we see that these atunuth are found in Scrip- para, (unless some other exotic breed of ass was betture in the occupation only of judges, patriarchs, and

ter known to Job, or in the countries connected with other great nen; insomuch, that where these are, Babylon.] It is the hemi-onos, or half ass, of Aristhere is dignity, either expressed or implied. They totle; was found in his days in Syria; and he cele. were also a present for a prince ; forJacob presented brates it for its swiftness and fecundity, a breeding Esau with twenty, Gen. xxxii

. 15. What then shall

What then shall mule being thought a prodigy. Pliny, from the rewe say to the wealth of Job, who possessed a thou- port of Theopbrastus, speaks of this species being

and! could any greater proof of unlimited prosper. found in Cappadocia. Its general description is that ity exist ?

of a mule: its colour light yellowish gray, growing But we must proceed to notice another word which paler toward the sides; length from the tip of the is rendered wild ass, by translators, Job xxxix. 5. nose to the base of the tail, 6 feet 7 inches; height, 3 orud, and which seems to be the same as in the feet 9 inches. Inhabits the south of Siberia, the vast Chaldee of Dan. v. 21. is called oredia, or orudia, plains and deserts of western Tartary, and sandy desthe plural of the former. Mr. Parkhurst supposes

erts. Lives in small herds ; each male having four, ibat this word denotes “ the brayer ;and that the five, or more females. Is absolutely untameable by animal is spoken of as one only; which proves para

the Tartars; eren those taken young: is proverdorud to be only two names for the same animal,” bial for swiftness; exceeds even the antelope. The in this place; but, these names may perhaps refer to history already given of the manners of the onager different races, though of the same animal; so that a may supply the rest of the description: as it greatly description of the properties of one may apply to both, resembles that animal. though not without some variation.

Thus we have proposed those authorities which in.

duce us to adopt a distinction of breeds, or races, if Who hath sent out the, para, wild ass, free?

not of kinds, in the species of ass; and the reader Or, who hath loosed the bands of the orud, wild ass ? Whose house I have made the wilderness, solitude,

will agree with us in the propriety of maintaining such And the barren land, salt c!eserts, his dwellings ;

a distinction, as countenanced by Scripture, and by The range of open mountains are his pasture,

natural history also. And he scarcketli after every green thing.

As to the oirim, rendered “young asses," Isai.

Xxxvi. 24. we need not suppose that they were a disThe reader has seen how fond the onager was of tinct breed, or species: but merely the ass in its state alt; and we find a reference to the saltings, in the of maturity, strength, and vigour, as they are spoken llebrew here, which is lost in our translation; wheth of as carrying loads, tilling the ground, and contribut*: these are salt marshes, or salt deserts, seems to be ing to other works of husbandry: yet we cannot belp of little consequence, as we find salt was an article of remarking a variation in the manner of spelling this


[ocr errors]

word, which is rather suspicious. In Isai. xxxvi. 6. or wild ass; the lower figures are views of the feit is spelled ourim; in verse 21. we read of oirim la- male. Copied from Rozier. bouring the earth in conjunction with oxen; this re * * I understand, that an ass of the superior quires strength, and strength seepis to be the charac- breed was brought from Egypt, by the colonel of one ter attributed to Ishmael, who was to be the oir of the of the bigbland regiments which accompanied genwild ass, i.e. in its state of power, liveliness, and met- eral Abercrombie on his expedition to that country tle, perhaps restiveness. This will allow also of a against tbe French invaders of it. The newspapers poetical climax in the words of Jacob, Gen. xlix. 11. of Edinburgh mention the arrival of the regiment in

Binding his oireh, female foal of an ass, at her best the inonth of June, 1802, and notice this creature as estate, to the vine, the common vine, in its best es being of fine proportions, and standing fourteen hands tate also; and his son of his atun, superior kind of high. As this regiment passed through part of that ass, and most highly valued, to his sorek, superior city at 6 o'clock in the morning, the corps itself was kind of grape vine, and that which he most esteem not seen by all the town; and this ass by still fewer ed. Here ihe parallelism is perfect, as well as the persons, as it was pretty much hid by the troops, climax is regular.

Report valued this apimal at 1000 guineas. The upper figure on our Plate is the male onager,



Translation of No. xlvi. of Michaelis's Questions proposed to the learned travellers in Arabia.“NotwitHSTANDING so many labours which truly is reem, which appears from the allusions to it in learned men have undertaken, such as Bochart, Lu- Scripture to be a creature of great strength, with high dolph, and Schultens, to explain the import of the and terrible horns, and of the beeve kind, Numb. Hebrew word reem or raam, o'z or Dxn) that im- xxiii. 22 ; xxiv. 8; Deut. xxxiii. 17; Psalm xxii. 13, port remains still almost entirely concealed from us. 22; xxis. 6; xcii. 11; Isai. xxxiv. 6,7. It cannot, The last mentioned writer seems to be the only one therefore, be the unicorn, which is a fish in the north who has taken the right road for the discovery of the

The land unicorn is a mere fiction. Neither truth. Without loading the Hebrew language with a can it be the rhinoceros, which has but one horn, new animal, already well known to us, he contents and that a very short one, placed just over the nose. himself with reporting whatever he has been able to We learn from Dr. Parsons, in the Philosophical collect from the Arabian writers relating to the word Transactions for the year 1743, that there is in Africa reem. He confesses, however, for himself, that after a species of rhinoceros that has always a double horn having considered what he produces, the animal re- upon the nose.

upon the nose. The Dr. produced to the inembers ferred to continues equally unascertained; because, of the Royal Society a double horn of this creature, no one of the writers has given a methodical descrip- brought from the Cape of Good Hope. But neither tion of it, nor bas mentioned those characters, where- Job nor the writer of the poem can be supposed to by it may be distinguished from other horned crea have heard of such an animal; nor will this circum. tures, and especially from our bulls, when they are stance of a double horn entitle it to the description of wild. What, however, seeins to be certain is, that the reem. Neither is it the Arabian reein, which is Golius has badly translated the Arabic reem by dor a species of roe, and a weak, timid animal. It is cas; and that the animal denoted by this term be- most probably the wild bull, bred in the Syrian and longs to the bull kind, with this difference, that it is Arabian deserts; which answers perfectly well to the absolutely impossible to tame it. We see also, that characters of the Scripture reem. The Arabian the sacred text supposes a great resemblance between poets are very copious in their descriptions of the bin and a bull, since Job is asked, whether he would hunting of this animal, and borrow many images from dare to intrust the reem with such or such labours, as its beauty, swiftness, strength, and the loftiness of its were performed by bullocks. The travellers will horns. They represent it a very fierce and unlamea deliver us from all these doubts, and from our igno- able beast, white on the back, with large shining eyes. rance, by bringing a correct figure of the reem, with The reader however ought to be informed, that one a methodical and circumstantial description. I beg of the Arabian poets joins it with the roes; perhaps them not to forget the manners, the swiftness, and because they are both wild creatures. Damir, their natural ferocity of this animal; and to compare it great naturalist, in the chapter which he entitles, of carefully with the passage, Job xxxix. 9, &c." the wild bull, describes no other than it wild sing.

The following is Mr. Scott's note on the passage of But so Cæsar, speaking of the urus of the black fure Job, where the reern is particularly described. est in Germany, calls it bos cervi figurii, a beera

The unicorn] the wild bull. The Hebrew name shaped like a stag, Schultens, in loc. Hieroz. p. i.

965, 966. Clodius, in his Lex. Select. says, that the xxii. 22. there seems no sufficient reason to think reem occurs nine times in the Hebrew Bible; and that that the rhinoceros, which is a native, see Buffon's its name is derived from on, altum esse, on account Hist. Nat. tom. viii. p. 135; tom. ix. p. 339, 340. only of the talness of its stature or the loftiness of its of the southern regions of Asia and Africa, was so horns. The reems are in effect called wild bulls by much as known to the Israelites in the days of Mothe Psalmist, Psalm xxii. For those whom he styles ses, or even of David. bulls of Bashan, i.e. of the mountains of Bashan, ver. I apprehend with the learned Bochart, and others, 13. he calls reems, ver. 21. as though they were sy that o'n, which occurs Job xxxix. 9, 10. and plur. O'nn, nonymous terms. In short, the reem must be supposed Psalm xxii. 22. denote the same kind of animal as to be of the beeve kind ; since it is represented in our DXy; and indeed in the Psalms, more than thirty of author's description as qualified by its make and Dr. Kennicott's codices read O'pk. The descripstrength for the business of agriculture like the tame tion of Job represents the bin to be a very strong, ox."

fierce, and uptameable creature, and implies him to “Or abide by thy crib.?] The original may be ren be of the beeve kind, see Scott's notes ; and the dist dered, or will he lie all night on thy threshing floor? in Psalm xxii. 22. are mentioned as having horns, and i.e. to guard it. Mr. Merrick has made it appear correspond to the bulls and strong bulls of Bashan, probable, that bulls were in the earliest ages employ verse 3. And since the orthography of these words ed, as dogs, to guard fields. Oxen are actually put o'n and any shows them inost properly to belong to to this use by the Hottentots.

on or on, they may serve to confirm the relation beMr. Parkhurst has also taken this side of the ques tween that root and oxy above noted.” tion; and he thus expresses his opinion.

The reader is now in possession of the strongest "As a noun Ort, and, Psalm xcii. 11. O'N, plur. arguments and facts known in favour of their system D'ox, the name of a horned animal, Deut. xxxiii. when these gentlemen wrote. Since that time Dr. 17; Psalm xcii. 11. remarkable for his strength, Anderson has described in his Recreations in AgriNumb. xxiii. 32. and of the beeve kind, with which he culture, a much larger creature of the beeve kind, is mentioned, Deut. xxxiii. 17; Psalm xxix. 6; Isai. than had been supposed to exist, which he calls the xxxiv. 7. In short, the name seems to denote the arnee. As the doctor's information is derived from wild bull, so called from his height and sise, in com the reports of a vessel which picked up a floating carparison with the tame. The above cited are all the cass of this immense animal in an inundation of the passages wherein this noun occurs ; and the Lxx Ganges, the habits or nature of the creature remain constantly render it uovoxepos, the unicorn, except in unknown ; his size and figure only could be deterIsai. xxxiv. 7. where they have ad por, the big, or mined ; and it is said his height was 12 to 14 feet, mighty ones. But that it cannot possibly mean an and his other dimensions answerable to so great a unicorn, if indeed there ever existed such an animal height. as that is usually described to be, it is evident from Is it possible that the forests of the East should Deut. xxxiii. 17. where it is said of Joseph, ap, his contain a creature of this prodigious bulk, which horns, are, 'p, the horns of a Oxy, oni, with them though obscurely, and but lately, known to us, was he shall push ihe people, to, the ends of the earth, Oni, well known in the days of Job, and formed an object and these (two horns namely, are) the ten thousands of comparison, and of poetical description, among Araof Ephraim, and the thousands of Manasseh, i.e. bian writers? Is he, or was he, extant in Persia, for the two tribes which sprang from Joseph. The Vul instance, so that the writer of the book of Job degate, in Psalm xxix. 6; xcii. 11; Isai. xxxiv. 7. picts one animal whose residence was to the west of renders it after the lxx, by unicornis, but in Numb. him, the leviathan, or crocodile, and another whose xxiii. 22; Deut. xxxiv. 17. by rhinocerotis, the rhi residence was east of him ? the arnee.

Several learned men, and among the rest, I have thought it was but fair to mention the pogScheuzer, embrace this latter interpretation. But sibility of this reference, before I proceed to consider first, though it is certain that some rhinoceroses have, some hints in the foregoing extracts ; and to submit see Shaw's Travels, p. 430. note 1; Buffon, tom. ix. the arguments on the other side of this inquiry. p. 334. two horns, yet many of them have but one, I observe that the Arabian description of an anteand this being placed on the nose, and bended back lope, or a deer, can never apply to the reem of Holy toward the forehead, is not formed for pushing, 72, Writ : but if the reem of the beeve kind was really but for ripping up ihe trunks or bodies of the more known to the Arabian writers, how happens it, that soft and succulent trees, and reducing them into a all their descriptions of this terrific animal terminate kind of laths, which constitute a part of the animals in a gazelle, or a stag? food. See Bruce's Travels, vol. v. p. 91.

Observe also, that though the sea unicorn cannot It is inconsistent therefore with the import of Deut. possibly be the reem of Job, yet it does not follow, xxxiii. 17. to explain on by the rhinoceros. 2dly, that the land unicorn is a fable: we have in Barrow's Notwithstanding the remarks of Scheuzer, Numb. Travels in Southern Africa, p. 313. a partial delinea


« PreviousContinue »