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3. Madai. Vide in the map Media, lat. 35 to 40, 6. Casluhim. Vide map, lat 20 to 30, long. 50 10 long. 70.

60. 4. Javan, or Jaun, or lönes. Vide in the map 7. Caphtorim. Greece, Asia Minor, lat. 40, long. 40 to 50.

SONS OF SHEM. 5. Tubal. Vide in the map, lat. 50 to 60, long. 60. 6. Meshech. Vide in the map, Moscovy, lat. 50, , 1. Elam. Vide map, lat. 30, long. 70 to 80. long. 60 to 70.

2. Ashur. Vide map, Babylonia, lat. 30, long. 60 7. Tiras. Vide in the map, lat. 44, long. 40 to 50. to 70.

3. Arphaxad. Vide map.

4. Lud, Lydia. Vide Asia Minor. . 1. Ashkenaz. Vide in the map, lat. 40, long. 40 to 5. Aram. Syria.

N.B. These longitudes are east from Ferro, not 50.

from London, 2. Riphath. Vide in the map, lat. 40, long. 50. 3. Togarmah. Vide in the map, lat. 40, long. 50 to


And mankind journied from the East, DP keTHE SONS OF JAVAN.


Under the articles East and KEDEM, in 1. Elisha. Vide in the map, lat. 40, long. 40 to 50.

Dictionary, may be seen the embarrassment which

this word has given to those who suppose mount Ar2. Tarshish. Vide in the map, lat. 37, long. 50 to

arat of Armenia, to be where the ark rested after the 60. 3. Kittim. Vide in the map, lat. 40, long. 30 to 50. deluge; for Armenia is direct north of Babylonia, so

that the writer, if he meant that mountain, should 4. Dodanim. Vide in the map, lat. 37, long. 40 to 50.

rather have said, Mankind journied from the north.

But, if we accept the idea, that the ark lodged on the THE SONS OF HAM. 1. Cush. Vide in the map, 1. in Armenia, lat. 40, vide our Map of Paradise ; then it will appear, that

mountains of Caucasus of captain Wilford; for which long. 70. 2. In Arabia, lat. 20 to 30, long. 50 to they journied strictly from the east ; and this ex60. 3. In Ethiopia, lat. 10 to 20, long. 50 to 60. N.B. It is probable a tribe of Cuskites were orig- rived by the captain from the Hindoo Puranas.

pression will contribute to confirm the statement deinally situated still more easterly than the above

There is, however, another acceptation of the word countries; perhaps even in eastern Bactria.

east; that it signifies a specific country, or province ; 2. Mizraim. Vide in the map, lat. 20 to 30, long. 40 and this sense, in effect, will coincide with the other, to 50, Egypt.

since the present Bahkter signifies “the east,” and 3. Phut. Vide in the map, lat. 30, long. 20 to 30.

since Bactria, or Bactriana, was the easternmost 4. Canaap. Vide in the map, lat. 30 to 40, long. 50 province of the Persian empire; but we must not to 60.

consider this province as having been the same at all THE SONS OF CUSH.

times : in our map of the world it is marked accord1. Saba. Meroë in Lower Egypt; or Saba in Ara- ing to another division, east of the Caspian sea, but

north-east of Babylon. This province originally inbia. 2. Havilah.

cluded parts much more south and east; so that the Vide in the map, lat. 20 to 30, long. city Balk or Bactria, was a part of it, perhaps even 60 to 70.

might give name to it; q.d. Balktria, Balktriana. 3. Sabtah. Arabia Felix.

Now it reigns as an uncontradicted tradition in the 4. Raamah. Arabia Felix.

East, that Abraham originally dwelt at Balk; and 5. Sabtechah. Arabia Felix.

if this be the proper import of the word kedem,

“east,” then Scripture seems to say the same. In THE SONS OF RAAMAH.

Isaiah, xli. 2. we have an allusion to the original coun1, Shaba. Probably Arabia Felix.

try of this patriarch, “who raised up the righteous 2. Dadan. Probably Arabia Felix,

man, Abraham, from the east,"[where, however, the word is not Kedem, but Metsrah, which denotes the

sunrising] and the same is said of Cyrus's coming 1. Ludim. Vide map, lat. 10 to 20, long. 40 to 50. against Babylon, “calling a ravenous bird from the 2. Anamim.

east,Isai. xlvi. 11. Now the east here cannot pos3. Lehabim. Vide map, lat. 30, long. 30 to 40. sibly mean Mesopotamia, since that lies north-west 4. Naphtuhim. Vide map, lat. 30, long. 40 to 50. of Babylon, whereas Media, Cyrus was a Mede, lies 5. Pathrusim. Vide map, Pathros, lat. 20 to 30, east; and it appears by major Rennel's map in his long. 50.

Herodotus, that not only Media but Bactriana also,


lies east of Babylon; and we know that Cyrus sub- the ass is not so gray in colour as among ourselves, dued these provinces before he attacked Babylon, but is redder; the Arabic chamara signifies to be and he advanced to attack that city direct from these red: but the word rendered she-asses is nins ATOparts, where he had conducted the war in person; so NOTH, which in my opinion signifies fiery, these must that he flew, as it were, as straight as a ravenous bird have been of a different species from the former to be flies, from the east to Babylou. If it be supposable described by a word so different. Were they so that the provinces known in very early ages by the called from any line of descent? from being pye-ballname of Kedem, “the east,” were afterward known ed? from being painted? or were their ancestors of a by another word denoting “ the east,” as they now race dedicated to the deity Fire? Though the word are by the name Bactria, which also denotes “the is feminine, they could hardly be females only ; nor east;" then the idea that this very country is the could the sex of these animals merely be meant by the place from whence this portion of mankind journied, word. Niebuhr says, French Edit. 2to. p. 144. would be rendered still more probable. The scholar “two kinds of asses are found in Arabia. The small who recollects the use of the Greek word Anatolia, and lazy are as little esteemed in the East as they are will perhaps find a parallel in this article.

in Europe. But there is one kind, which is large,

and full of courage, which appeared to me more conTOWER OF BABEL.

venient for travelling on than horses, and which is On the subjects of “brick instead of stone, and very dear in price." Are these the atonoth of this slime, bitumen, instead of mortar," see our plate and passage? Might the Hebrews call a horse of metal, remarks" on early writing.” It should appear, that fiery ? and so of asses, might they describe an ass though the great design of these builders was defeat- full of courage, as full of fire? whence atonoth, bold, ed, yet the tower was raised to a certain height at this hardy, spirited, fiery. time; probably it was afterward ornamented, and va The camel, soa gamel. This is the regular word rious enrichments and finishings were bestowed on it to denote this creature, of which there are several by Nebuchadnezzar; but whether it was raised in races, and several names, according to its age, &c. height, may, I think, be doubted. The height of this tower, as described by ancient authors, was about

CHAPTER XV. VERSE 9. 500 feet. The great pyramid of Egypt is about 480,

ABRAHAM'S SACRIFICE. which is 20 feet less than the tower; but allowance must be made for what is buried in the sand. The Take an heifer of three years old, and a she-goat steeple of old St. Paul's Church was 534 feet in of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and height; the height of the present St. Paul's is but 340 å turtle dove, and a young pigeon. feet; Salisbury steeple is now the highest in Britain, There are great difficulties here to determine the and is about 400 feet. These comparative measures true import of these words; some read, three heifers may serve to shew, that although the tower of Babel of one year old; others, cut into three parts each; was of great magnitude and height, yet that other others, an beifer of the third birth; i.e. the third buildings have been raised up to heaven, as the He- offspring of its parent : Lxx, dauanov Tpietil¥¢¢v, Jerbrews speak, at least equally with this famous edi- om, Vitulam triennem ; with which our version agrees, fice.

supposing, no doubt, that these animals are describ

ed as being at the prime time of life, at the most val. CHAPTER XII. VERSE 16.

uable period of their age; vide Hosea x. 11. and VirABRAHAM'S RICHES.

gil, Eccl. 3. The other words in this passage, are

such as usually denote the animals by which they are Abraham had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and translated. men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and And when the fowls came down upon the carcasses, camels.

Abraham drove them away. Others read, “ AbraThese riches, these flocks and herds, imply the ham sat down by the carcasses." This attitude of pastoral life of this patriarch; not gold and silver, the Abraham was an attitude of attendance, like a serprofits obtained by commerce, but the increase of the vant on his master; like David before the Lord, herd, and of the fold.

[vide plate of EASTERN ATTITUDES, fig. H.] 2 Sam. The word '83 TJAAN, rendered sheep, includes both vii. 13. So that Abraham waited in this reverential the goat kind, and the sheep kind; we shall find this manner till evening, and as the shades of evening obfrequently as we proceed. 'It denotes also a flock of scured all around, the light which visited these sacrieither kind.

fices became more observable, more clear and shinThe word pa Bakar, rendered oxen, has also an ing. extended signification, and implies solnetimes a herd To an agreement of importance, the passing of the of cattle; so calves are called “sons of the herd,” parties between the parts of a sacrifice, was the beni bakar, 1 Sam. xiv. 32.

ancient way of confirming a covenant. [Vide FRAGThe word for ass is ion CHAMOR. In the East MENT, No. 129.] And, probably, as Abraham had VOL. IV.


this passage.

put no fire to his sacrifices to consume them, they sources of the lake Asphaltites, the lava, the pumice were consumed by this flame, which was to him an stones, thrown on its banks, and the hot bath of Ta. unequivocal token of supernatural interference on baria, demonstrate that this valley has been the seat this occasion, [vide the instance of Elijah,] since they of a subterraneous fire, which is not yet extinguished, would not naturally have generated flame.

[compare Jude 7.] Clouds of smoke are often obWe are to consider Abraham as first sitting rev- served to issue from the lake, and new crevices to bo erentially beside his sacrifice; then as falling down formed on its banks. Strabo expressly says, lib. xvi. in a kind of prophetic trance : for which vide Adam, that the tradition of the inhabitants of the country Gen. ii. 21. During this trance the future circum- was, that formerly the valley of the lake was peopled stances of his posterity were revealed to him. by thirteen flourishing cities, and that they were swal.

lowed up by a volcano. Earthquakes which usually CHAPTER XIX. VERSE 24.

succeed these eruptions are still selt in this country: DESTRUCTION OF SODOM.

VERSES 25, 26. The Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah

LOT'S WIFE. brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven.

Every thing no doubt is directed by the Divine She looked back behind him, says the Hebrew, Author of all things, and is originally from him; but and our version; others read, behind her : both may I can by no means admit, that fire, in this instance, be true. It should even seem, that she was punishwas rained from the Lord, from the celestial heaven. ed in the very act of returning; whence the caution, We know that the word heaven often means the air, Luke xvii. 32. “Let him not return back. Remem or atmosphere, and such I presume is its import in ber Lot's wife."

Of what nature was the salt into which Lot's wife Lightning may be called fire from heaven with ev was changed? Salt is taken sometimes symbolically, ident propriety, as it is in Scripture; but lightning sometimes metaphorically ;. so for incorruptibility; can hardly be said to be rained. It might, however, a covenant of salt," Numb. xviii, 19. so for sterilibe the beginning of those meteors which overthrew ty, Deut. xxix. 23; Psalm cvii. 34., these cities; but it should seem from all present ap Of what nature was the pillar into which Lot's wife pearances, that a volcano was the immediate cause was changed? This is full as interesting a question as of their destruction. This would naturally be at- the other; and indeed the answer to this may lead us tended with prodigious lightnings, with earthquakes, to answer the other. and such violent risings of the earth, as would de The word, 3'3) netjib, rendered pillar, is used to stroy all the dwellings and their inhabitants. As we signify an erect attitude; a standing still; a fixure. do not know exactly whereabouts this volcano burst So, Gen. xviii. 2.“ Abraham lifted up his eyes, and forth, we shall suppose that the previous state of this lo three men stood, they were fixed in the place country was that of a number of islands, for we read where they were, as is in deep conversation, &c. they. that it was extremely well watered, chap. xiii. 10. In were so engaged as to be immoveable, therefore the central island suppose this phenomenon to appear, Abraham ran to them.” So, Gen. xxxvii. 7. My and to discharge its masses of melted minerals, of sheaf arose, and stood upright, like a man of fiery cinders and ashes around it; these would fall, quality, receiving homage, inflexible, immoveable. strictly speaking, in a rain of fire; and having been And what is more to our purpose, Exod. xv, 8. first thrown up to an incalculable height in the air, “the flood stood upright as u heap :" the word they might be said to be rained from heaven ; i.e. then does not signify a regular, well finished statue, the atmosphere, without even employing the ampli- but a heap, an upright stock, a motionless fixture ; as tude of Eastern phraseology. This eruption of fire we say to a person, "you stand like a post.” Such first raised these islands, but when it ceased they an erection did Jacob station, when he took the stone sank below their former level; and the stream of the which had served for his pillow; and set it up for a pilJordan flowing over them, covered the whole surface lar, or monument, certainly not fashioned into the buwith a body of water, which we now call the Dead inan or any other studied form, but, rough as it was. Sea. It is a mass of water impregnated with bitumi Now, as to the cause of the privation of life from nous salts, so strongly, that nothing flourishes near it, this woman, and her conversion into an inert mass, nor can it support animal life. The volcanic matters we learn from Deut. xxix. 23. that “the whole land which are found in it, and around it, all testify that is brimstone, and salt of burning; it is not sown, nor here has been an eruption of fire, and we are behold- bears, nor any herbs grow therein: like the overthrow en to the sacred writings for informing us at what pe- of Sodom,”' &c. By the brimstone here mentioned, riod that eruption happened. All travellers agree

we understand the sulphuric and fatal vapours, which in this; but I shall quote from Volney, vol. i. p. 303. always attend volcanic eruptions, as well as brimstone “ The hollow through which the Jordan flows, is a itself; and certainly Lot's wife has not been the only country of volcanoes; the bituminous and sulphureous cne who has suffered by proximity to volcanic effú

via; witness the history of the death of the elder and their influence on the sheep, &c. is analogous to Pliny, at Vesuvius, related in the younger Pliny's some of the principles of our own breeders of animals, Letters. But Moses says, salt of burning formed

as well as to the skill of our gardeners, in blotting out, one of the agents in the overthrow of Sodom; this, &c. colours from flowers, as tulips, &c. I

presume, is what we now call asphaltum, because, being a bitumen, it might be ranged by the Hebrews

There is an art, which, in their piedness, shares

With great creating Nature,– among salts; as it is by other ancient writers : hence

Yet Nature is made better by no mean, Herodotus speaks of salt burning in a lamp. As as

But Nature makes that mean; phaltum is very inflammable, it justly bears the epi

The art itself is nature. thet of burning, or fiery. And this is the accurate

Winter's Tale. character of the place to this day, asphaltum being found on the Dead Sea, or sea of Sodom. On the But, together with a knowledge of natural causes in whole, then, we infer that Lot's wife, delaying her the patriarch, we undoubtedly unite the divine blessing; fight, and too slowly quitting the scene of devasta- and we believe, that the divine blessing in similar events tion, was surprised by a shower of bitumen, or sulphur, seldom offers violence to natural causes, which are its falling upon her and around her; amid which she own appointments. stood erect, motionless, deprived of life; and formed A third thing observable in this history is, the the centre or nucleus, for a mass which gathered species of woods employed by Jacob, which are, around her, and which becoming hard and permanent 1. Lebanah, nah, the white-poplar, as is genas it cooled, was well known as the monument and erally supposed; so the Vulgate renders; but the fixed station of this unhappy woman.

Lxx, and Aquila, deuxys, “the white,implying the

poplar: and our acquaintance with the trees of the CHAPTER XXVIII. Verses 18, 19. East is too small to controvert their renderings. JACOB'S STONE ERECTED AT BETHEL.

2. Lus, 315, the almond-tree, as is generally thought:

and whose name in Arabic is, lusah; but others say, Vide our Plate of “ GILGAL.”

the nut-tree. The Rabbins hold this stone in great veneration,

3. Ormun, joy. The Lxx read platanos ; Vuland have many stories in relation to it, sufficiently gate, plane : Onkelos reads dulb, which is the Arafantastical; but, probably, their meaning is symbolic bic name of the platanus. This

word is found in Stecal, the true religion.

The word Beth-el seems to have been the parent phens, and in the Pandects of Medicine. of the Bethulia or Bethylia among the heathen: they lators have mentioned such British trees as they

The reader will judge from hence, that our transare mentioned by Sanchoniatho, Photius, Hesychius, thought proper; we still want Eastern information. and Pliny, lib. xxxvii. cap. 9. For the idea of sanctity connected with these stones, vide the Illustra

CHAPTER XXXII. VERSE 1. tions of our plate of Gilgal.

Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met CHAPTER XXX. VERSE 14.

him, &c.

Dr. Geddes finds so much difficulty in this passage, DUDAIM, MANDRAKES.

Vide Illustrations on

as do some others, that he supposes it happened in Solomon's Song.

vision, yet even so he cannot account for it. It must VERSES 32, 32.

be owned, that we see no reason why the angels of

God met Jacob : no instance of their interference is JACOB'S MANAGEMENT OF HIS SHEEP.

mentioned. But if we take the word angels in some The first thing noticeable in this history is, the of those senses which are marked in the additions to distinction formed by the colours of these animals. the article Angels, in Dictionary, perhaps we may We have formerly remarked, that 18% TAAN, signi- have a glimpse of a sense which removes all difficulties. fies sheep and goats, as v Shem does kids and I shall mention a very different version of the passage ; lambs. Now these are described as, I NAKOD, mentioning is not recommending, but which may spotted : punctis respersa, SMALL SPOT's : but 150 assist the thoughts of some future inquirer into this Thalui, signifies LARGE SPOTS, and might well be ren- matter. It seems to be applicable to the preceding dered pye-balled ; maculis variegatæ.

and subsequent parts of the history; but the words The rods of Jacob are the second thing observable. are taken in a sense not very common, though possiSome think this thought was suggested to him mirac- bly it is just. ulously ; others think it was the offspring of his own Laban departed, and Jacob went on his way, and reflection; perhaps many thoughts may be suggested there met him, there occurred to him, there lighted to us, which we never distinguish from our own re upon him, in a bad sense, to his hurt, in this very flections : but this subject is too deep for us.

place, sundry agents sent from God, i.e. evils of The application of these rods is perfectly natural, divine providence, as, first, that of Laban recently

noticed; secondly, that of which he stood in great desirable thing ; Jarchi, a composition of aromatfear, as Esau, of whose approach, with 400 men, he ics. Bochart supports his opinion, that this word here received the news. But said Jacob, when he signifies storax, by observing, ist, that this drug perceived the approach of these difficulties, these is abundant in Syria, according to Pliny, lib. xii. evils, this, my family, my property, my concerns, cap. 25. from whence it is even now brought to Marthis is the camp of God: I am secure under divine seilles, and distributed throughout Europe. Arteprotection; and, as he here divided his family, &c. in- midorus, apud Stephanum in xapun, says, it abounds to two parties; he called the name of that placethe in Phenicia ; Josephus, lib. xv. cap. . 23. says, in Galcamps,Mahanaim.

ilee. 2dly, It is among the most famous aromatics.

3dly, Pliny says, “ The Arabs collect the storax, VERSE 15.

which they burn in their houses to correct ill smells." Jacob's present to Esau is noticeable on account 4thly, Moses joins with this necoth, resin, honey, and of the proportion he observes between the cattle, re myrrh; which agree with the nature of the storax.

The resin of the Syriac translators, and the gum of specting the individuals of the sexes. It leads us also to consider the names for cattle,

the Arabic, coincide with this sentiment. 10 par, the bull, 1779 parah, the cow: for it appears

Hillerus, who came after Bochart, rejects all the by Psalm lxix. 32. that par is more than a bull-calf,

reasons we have assigned, and affirms, that nisi neas it is described with horns. Parah, in Job xxi. 10.

cuth, is the same as necututh, which signifies pounded, is taken for a cow which suckles her calf: neverthe- pressed ; and that the word ought to be understood less, par is frequently named, “ the son of a bull;"

of olive oil pressed ; or what is called virgin oil ; and parah seems to be a heifer, which has not had “pure olive oil beaten,” Exod. xxvii. 20; Lev. xxiv. young, nor been trained in the yoke, Numb. xix. 2. 2; Numb. xxviii. 5. Virgin oil is that which is proThe she-asses of this present are the athonoth of Gen.

cured from the fresh olives, pressed in a mill conxii. 16.

structed on purpose ; it is of a beautiful yellow col.

our, sweet, and of good smell. This idea agrees with all CHAPTER XXXVI. VERSE 24.

other places where niza becuth, or nxida necualh, occur; This Anah found the mules in the wilderness, as

because Egypt stood in need of the best and purest he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. More probably made up as unguents. Now it is certain, that the

oil to compose its essences and perfumes, which were these mules were fountains of salutary streams, or hot waters, as the Vulgate reads; the Syriac says,

country of Gilead furnished the most valuable oils, waters in the desert; Diodorus of Tarsus, fountains xxxix. 2. In short, the present sent by Jacob to the

Gen. xliii. 11; Deut. viii. 8 ; 2 Kings, xx. 13; Isai. in the desert ; but others think, a people is meant whom Anah attacked and discomfited, for which val

governor of Egypt, was by no means an ordinary iant exploit he became renowned.

present, since kings shewed their liberality and mag

nificence in sending oils to each other, 1 Kings, v.11; Nevertheless, if Anah was the father of the Heneti,

2 Chron. ii. 10. [vide Ezra iji. 7; Ezek. xxvii. 17.] as several have supposed, then our version bids fair to be correct. These people first bred mules, as Strabo,

But there seems to be a text still strogger ; Hosea

xii. 1. They make a covenant with the Assyrians ; Theophrastus, and Plutarch, mention : and thus the Scholiast on Homer, Iliad ii . V. 852. says, speaking favour, with the same design as that of covenanting

and oil is carried into Egypt; no doubt to procure of the Heneti, “this is the first country where was invented and found, originally, the breed of mules ;"

with the Assyrians. Now, this was the very wish

of Jacob in sending necoth to Joseph. But still this or rather the breeding of mules, for mules do not breed. But, is the mule, the mixed offspring of a

difficulty occurs, why is this word used here to denote

what elsewhere is called oil? Might it be oil not only horse and an ass, truly meant here? we are told that Anah kept his father's asses; but not a word of horses,

of a prime kind, but impregnated with aromatics, &c. or mares, which are absolutely indispensable in pro

or, the ottar ; i.e. essential oil, of certain plants, or

flowers. This unites the sense of several of the anducing mules.

cient renderings. CHAPTER XXXVII. VERSE 25.

Balm. This drug is also mentioned, Jer. viii. 22 ;

xlvi. 11. The Targum of Onkelos, the Vulgate, and A company of Ishmaelites bearing spicery, and others, say simply resin. To consider it as the faBALM, and MYRRH, going to Egypt.

mous balsam, known in the present day as the balsam Spicery, NECOTH, this word is found also Gen. of Mecca, is to contradict Josephus, who says the xlii. 11. but its signification is uncertain. The par- first sprig of that tree, was brought to Solomon by aphrast Jonathan, the Arabic version of Erpenius, and the queen of Sheba, Antiq. lib. viii. cap. 2. but Bereshith Rabba, sect. 91. render it max. The vide Bruce's Travels, vol. v. kxx render it perfumes ; Aquila says, storax. Jer Nyrrh, or stacte, is the purest and most valuable om puts in the first place aromatics; in the second kind of myrrh ; according to Dioscorides, lib. i. cap. storax. The Syriac version puts resin ; Kimchi, a 74; Pliny, lib. xxii, cap. 15.

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