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as relates to their feet; their rumination is a distinct and gristly nature, and are not supported by bones op character ; but a character absolutely unavailing other permanent connections, whereby they might without the more obvious and evident marks deriv- become parts of the solid structure of the animal. able from tbe construction of their members.
The general properties and services of this creature, We may, I think, consider the animals mentioned its adaptation to the sands of the desert, its capabilin this passage, as instances of a rule designed for ity of carrying great weights, its long endurance of general application, which excludes, 1st, All whose thirst, its docility and its irascibility, are very well feet are not, by one cleft, thoroughly divided into known. two parts, as the CAMEL. 2dly, All whose feet, though No. 3. Is the upper part of the foot of a camel, thoroughly divided by one cleft into two parts exter- shewing á sulcus, or kind of groove like division, runpally, yet internally by the construction of their bones ning down it, but not entirely dividing it. differ from the character of the permitted kinds, as the No. 4. Is the under part of the same foot, shewing SWINE. 3dly, All whose feet are thoroughly divided that there is a corresponding line on the sole of the by two clefts into three toes, as the SAPHAN. 4thly, foot to the line above; but it is partial and feebly All whose feet are thoroughly divided by three clefts marked ; so that the foot can by no means be said to into four toes, as the HARE; and therefore à fortiori, be divided or cloven: and this want of entire diviif there be any animals whose feet are divided into sion is a character which renders it unclean. five toes, they are so much further removed from No. 5. If the camel is unclean, by reason of the the character requisite to permission. [Vide the want of entire division in its hoofs, in this number we Bat, and Plate.]
find the hare is unclean, by reason of too many diviIt is proper to recollect, that the quality of rumi- sions in its feet. We have no need to enlarge on an nation is one character necessary to lawfulness, yet animal so well known; but we have given, in the sapban, though it ruminates, is proscribed; and No. 6. The bones of the foot of a hare, shewing the hare, though in some of its varieties it may rumi- the entire division of this member into four parts, nate, yet is the whole species unclean by reason of which, being more than the law ascribes to clean anthe construction of its feet. This, then, seems to be imals, renders this animal unclean by too much sepathe legislative naturalist's most obvious distinction; ration, as the camel was unclean by too little. a distinction which the
of the unlearned can ap- No. 7. This is a figure of the wild boar, which is propriate at sight, and therefore it is adapted to pub- usually thought to be the parent of the swine kind. lic information
It inhabits Asia as well as Europe, and retains its For the history and plate of the saphan, and the characters and manners in almost every climate. On construction of its feet especially, vide Prov. xx. the feet we remark, that though their outward ap26. We have not thought necessary to repeat it pearance be like that of a cloven footed animal, yet on the Plate before us ; neither shall we enlarge on that internally they have the same number of bones creatures whose general habits and history are known: and joints as animals which have fingers and toes; merely to identify and delineate them may be suffi. so that the arrangement of their feet bones is into cient.
first, and second, and third phalanges, or knuckles, Nos. 1, 2. The CAMEL and DROMEDARY. These no less than that of the human hand. Besides, are, probably, only varieties of the same species; not. therefore, the absence of rumination in the hog kind, withstanding one has two humps, while the other has its feet are not accordant with those of such beasts only one. These fleshy excrescences are of a soft as are clean, according to the Levitical regulations.
OF UNCLEAN BIRDS. LEVITICUS XI. 13, &e.
When considering in its place the passage before and we have no hesitation in desiring that it may be Us, which refers to birds whose nature renders them substituted for the owl, wherever the “ daughter of unclean, we divided them, as we presumed was the screams" is mentioned by the sacred writers. That intention of the sacred writer, into three distinctions: this is a bird of the desert, a bird in some respects 1st, Those of the land ; 2dly, those of the air ; 3dly, inconsiderate and stupid, is well known. those of the water. This distribution appears to be No. 2. The night owl, or SCREECH OWL. We are founded in reason and propriety, and on this occasion not without difficulty in determining this bird, which also we shall conform to it. [Vide EXPOSITORY IN- is the second of the Hebrew writer. It is usually DEX, on Levit. xi. 13, &c.]
understood to be a night bird ; there are, therefore,
few birds to be set against it: the goat sucker, or BXPLANATION OF THE PLATE OF UNCLEAN LAND
night swallow, might be thought of; but the story of
its sucking goats is a fable: and yet we want a No. 1. The Ostrich. This bird has heretofore been voracious land bird, by consent of all versions and the subject of our inquiries, [FRAGMENT, No. 144;] interpreters. The genus of owls is sufficiently
numerous, important, and generally distributed, to ren- No. 2. The VULTURE. It will be seen, in loc. that der it very likely to be noticed on a legislative occa- there is some hesitation in taking the second bird of sion like the present; and upon the whole, an owl of the Hebrew writer's list for the vulture. The usual some kind may safely be taken for the bird designed idea of the Hebrew name peres is that of breaking, by the sacred writer. We presume, therefore, that separating into bits : and besides what is said of the our figure of the screech owl may be accepted as a ossifrage, or bone breaker ; of its prey, we are infair representation of the genus.
formed, that "the ospray, or bone breaker, procellaNo. 3. The rhaad, or saf-saf, from Dr. Shaw. We ria maxima, has a very remarkable beak, which aphave nothing to add to the extract given, in loc. from pears as if it was fractured, or composed of several the Dr. but to wish for more satisfactory informa- pieces, like joints: I suppose it to be a bird of prey, tion on the subject of this bird.
as we found the legs, wings, and other parts of small No. 4. The ABOU-HANNES of Bruce, which he birds in its stomach," Cox's Voyage to the South supposes to be the ancient ibis of Egypt. Many cir- Sea, p. 9. It was but fair to insert this remark, becumstances concur to support this opinion; and we cause this conformation of its beak seems to strengthen suppose that its plumage may differ a little in Ethio- the propriety of its name; and if this be adopted, we pia from what it might be in Egypt. For ancient must then say the vulture is included among the representations of the ibis from Egyptian pictures, eagles of the former number: which seems indeed vide plate to FRAGMENT, No. 128.
plausible from the expression of Micah, i. 16. “ En. large thy baldness as the eagle ;” (nesher,] if the
nakedness of the neck of the vulture be here referred EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE OF UNCLEAN AIR
to. Against this we reply, that baldness is a priva
tion of hair from the pate, or upper part of the head; No. 1. The EAGLE. This is usually placed first by whereas the vulture, though bare of feathers, is not naturalists in the order of rapacious birds : it pos- absolutely without a downy kind of covering ; and sesses immense powers of fight, and strength of that his neck is bare, not his head, which is the proper limbs. It has a strong hooked bill, the base of it cov- seat of baldness. And as the prophet directs to a ered by a cere, or naked skin. The golden eagle, which token of mourning, to have made the neck bare like is the kind given in our print, weighs about twelve that of a vulture would not have answered bis idea. pounds: is in length three feet; extent of wings Moreover, in justification of the prophet, we should seven feet four inches; bill three inches long, of a inquire whether a proper baldness may not be found deep blue colour; cere, yellow; irides, hazel ; sight among genuine eagles ; and this indeed is fact. and smell, very acute ; her eyes behold afar off, as is Mr. Bruce, in bis Travels, vol. v. p. 155. has givremarked, Job xxxix. 27. in which passage the natural en us an account of an eagle, known in Ethiopia only history of the eagle is finely drawn up.
by the name nisser, eagle; but by him called “the
golden eagle ;' by the vulgar, abou duch'n, father Is it at thy voice the eagle rises ?
long beard, from the tuft of hair under his chin : And therefore maketh he his nest on high?
he is a very large bird. « A forked brush of strong The rock he inhabits ; And he abides on the crag of the rock, and on the place of strength: the cavity of his lower jaw at the beginning of his
hair, divided at the point into two, proceeded from From hence he pounces on the prey ; His eyes inspect afar off ;
throat. He had the smallest eye I ever remember Even his young suck down blood ;
to have seen in a large bird, the aperture being And wherever is slaughter there is he.
scarcely half an inch. The CROWN OF HIS HEAD
WAS BARE OR BALD, so was the front where the bill This description almost supersedes the necessity and skull joined.” This then is the eagle of the of further information. Eagles are very destructive prophet, who advises to extend the baldness of mournto fawns, lambs, kids, and all kinds of game, particu- ing over the whole head, as this bird's baldness oclarly in their breeding season. It is very unsafe to cupies not only the crown of his head, but his foreleave infants in places frequented by these birds, bead also. there being instances of eagles carrying them away. It may be said likewise, that the habits of the vulIt is a long lived bird ; Keysler mentions an eagle ture may answer the import of the name peres, as which had lived in confinement at Vienne one hun- some vultures carry away pieces of Aesh from the dred and four years; but when the Psalmist says, carcass of a large animal to separate places, and there “thy youth is renewed like the eagle's,” he probably devour in security. All the Eastern versions render refers to the revival experienced by this bird after this word in allusion to strength of body, or strength moulting its feathers.
of claws, or rapacity. All which ideas coincide There are many kinds of eagles; we presume this perfectly with the vulture ; it is even probable that very name nisser includes several.
this class yields birds, in size and rapacity superior