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with sticks, which was performed by two soldiers,

with such severity, as if they meant to kill him. The I will plant in the wilderness, 1st, the CEDAR, 2d,

soldiers were then ordered to spit in his face, an inthe shirtAh-tree, 3d, the MYRTLE-tree, 4th, the oil

dignity of great antiquity in the East. This, and the free: I will set in the desert, 5th, the fir-tree, 6th, cutting off of beards, which I shall have occasion to the PINE, and 7th, the box-tree together.

mention, brought to my mind the sufferings recorded 1st, The cedar, arets.

in the prophetical history of our Saviour: “He gave 2dly, The shittah, vide Exod. xxv. 5.

his back to the smiters, and his cheeks to thein that 3dly, The myrtle, hadas, vide on Nehem. viij.

plucked off his hair : he hid not his face from shape Athly, The olive, or oil-wood.

and spitting," Hanway, vol. i. p. 203. 5thly, The fir-tree, berush.

“ Sadoc Aga, sent prisoner to Astrabad, bis beard 6thly, The pine, tidaher ; a tree so called from the

was cut off; his face was rubbed with dirt, and his springiness or elasticity of its wood, says Parkhurst. This would lead us to the yew, whose use in the

eyes cut out; upon his speaking in pathetic terms,

with that emotion natural to a daring spirit, the genmaking of bows should not be forgot by Englishmen. eral ordered him to be struck across the mouth to But no interpreter, that I recollect, has thought of silence him ; which

was done with such violence, that this tree. One of the kinds of oak, which is most

the blood issued forth," p. 204. famous for bearing the galls produced by means of

This extract not only illustrates the treatntent of the puncture of insects, has authorities in its favour.

Jesus Christ, who was struck on the mouth, in punLuther thought it was the elm, which is a lofty and

ishment, and to silence him, but that of the soldiers spreading tree. The fir having been mentioned, we

who were about to examine, by beating, the apostle should not expect another of the same kind, which

Paul, and who only desisted on his claiming the exopposes the sapinus of the Lxx, and in some degree emption belonging to a Roman citizen, Acts xxü. 25. our pine. I would observe further, that we should be cau

CHAPTER LI. VERSE 20. tious of choosing trees for this situation in the wilderness, which inhabit very far north. It is probably As a WILD BULL in a net. Tau or thau, See a tree which grows on mount Lebanon.

Vide chap

on Deut. xiv. 5. Ixi. 13.

We know that the Hebrew word bekar signifies 7thly, The box-tree, tashur; so called from its the beeve kind; the Arabic has also bukre, as the Nourishing, or perpetual viridity, an evergreen. This generic name, and thaur, which is applied only to might lead us to look for evergreens among the fore, the bull: this is certainly a resemblance of the Hegoing trees; and perhaps by tracing this idea we brew tau or thau, also to the Latin taurus : might not might attain to something like satisfaction respecting the Hebrews have a similar duplication of name? If them, which at present we cannot. A plantation of this may be, then the figure of this wild bull may evergreens in the wilderness is not inlikely to be the possibly be seen with that of the rhinoceros, plate, import of this passage. The contrast between a per- Job xxxix. But some have supposed the buffalo to petual verdure, and a sometimes universal brownness, 'be the theu of this place. Are these, when wild, not enlivened by variety of tints, must be very caught in nets ? The buffalo is certainly allied to the great: nevertheless, we must take care not to group beeve kind, if not indeed a species of it. Bochart wanaturally associated vegetation,

thinks it is of Persian origin, and not known in Judea

so early as this prophet. CHAPTER L. VERSE 6.

CHAPTER LX. VERSES 6, 7. I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheek to them that plucked off the hair. I hid not my face A multitude of CAMELS and DROMEDARIES. from shame and spitting. Observations of actual 1st, Camel, gimel. occurrences, made on the spot, are certainly most 2dly, Dromedaries, bichri; a species of camel, effective and confident illustrations. Mr. Hanway of a lighter make, and of speed superior to others. having expressly recorded his remarks on a scene For its figure, vide plate of Unclean Animals. For differing little, if at all, from that alluded to by the its speed, vide FRAGMENT, No. 122. prophet, the reader will doubtless be pleased to pe “The dromedary, from all that I was able to learn, ruse an extract from his description.

is only a high breed of the Arabian camel. It is of “ A prisoner was brought, who had two large logs slighter make, more cleanly limbed, its bunch smaller, of wood fitted to the small of his leg, and rivetted to and, on the whole, a less ugly animal. Instead of the gether; there was also a heavy triangular collar of solemn walk of the others, it ambles with more agility, *ood about his neck. The general asked me if that and is capable, as it is said, of going as far in one day man had taken my goods ? I told him, I did not re as the ordinary camels usually go in three or four," member to have seen bim before. He was question- Russell's Aleppo, vol. ii. p. 169. ed some time, and at length ordered to be beaten The camel with two bunches is of Persian breed, ib. VOL. IV.





2dly, a wolf from the desert. The Greek interTHOUGH thou washest thyself with Nitre and preters translate oreb, Arabia, from the Arabian des

Vide what is said on the sheeb, which name, much soAP.

by the by, is not very distant from sahab, or mad1st, Nitre, not the common nitre, but the salt, na. dening wolf of the desert, plate of hyæna, Jer. ii. 9. tron; for which vide Prov. xxv. 20.

3dly, A leopard, nimmer, vide on Isai. xi. 6. 2dly, Soap, or fuller's soap, is named in Hebrew, berith or borith, signifying the cleanser. It is by

CHAPTER VIII. VERSE 7. some supposed to be a salt, extracted from the earth in India, &c. called by the Arabs bora : this name Even, 1st, the STORK in the heavens knoweth her resembles borax, which is a salt used as a solder to appointed times, and, 2d, the TURTLE, and, 3d, the metals. But others prefer a vegetable ; the Lxx CRANE, and, 4th, the SWALLOW observe the time of render mod, or Tod, an herb. The ancients certainly their coming. employed vegetables, and the salt extracted from Few subjects in natural history are more interthem, for the purpose of washing linen. Dioscorides esting, than the periodical removals and returns of and Pliny mention the struthion as so employed. creatures, and among them of birds. Animals miThe Persians use this plant as soap. But others are grate, to what degree they are able ; fishes migrate, for the kali or soda, which, in Syria, is used as soap. through great extent of sea; but birds, by reason of The Turks use this plant, or its ashes, to cleanse their powers of flight, and the liberty they enjoy in garments; and it imparts to them a great degree of their actions, traverse countries and distances, to softness.

which other creatures are incompetent. We cannot The kali, soda, salsola kali,or barilla, is called in here enlarge on the migration of birds; but must conthe London Pharmacopoeia, natron; and there seems tent ourselves with determining to what birds the to be sufficient reason to consider it as the borith plant prophet alludes. of Jeremiah : at least it is the best known to us of 1st, The stork, chasidah, vide on Levit. xi. and those plants which possess the property of cleans- plate of Unclean Birds. ing, either by themselves or their salts. In its wild 2dly, The turtle, tur. There is no difficulty state it rises about a foot in height; the leaves are understood to occur on this word. The spouse in long, narrow, and prickly, the flowers whitish or rose the Canticles is called by this name. That this bird colour. It affects the sea shore, and indeed is con visits the garden when spring appears, is evident, sidered as a sea weed. The best, burned into an from its being one of the marks of that season: “ the hard mass of salt, comes from Alicant in Spain. Com- voice of the turtle is beard in our land,” Cant. ii. 12. bined with fat, it forms soap, the cleansing virtues 3dly, The crane, sus, vide on Isai. xxxviii. 14. of which are well known in every family.

4thly, The swallon, ogur, vide ib.

It is certain, by this passage, that the two latter

birds are migratory; so that if we should change them VERSE 23.

for each other, as Bochart proposes, we should nothA swift DROMEDARY traversing her way. Vide ing vary the sense of this passage. on Isai. Ixvi. 20.

I think, however, we want information whether the A WILD AB8, used to the wilderness, parah. Vide turtle be a migrating bird. Among ourselves, I do on the wild ass, plate, Job xxxix.

not know that the wood pigeon migrates, and do not

perceive any reason why the turtle should quit its CHAPTER V. VERSE 6,

residence in the much milder regions of the East.

Perhaps this word, as here used, includes a whole geA lion out of the forest shall slay them: a WOLF nus, of which some may migrate. An English writer of the evenings shall spoil them: à LEOPARD shall would certainly have mentioned the cuckoo among watch over their cities.

migrating birds, not the least remarkable. The fol1st, A lion, ariah, vide Gen. xlix.

lowing information determines the time of the cranes. 2dly, A wolf, sahah, vide ib. The prophet seems Do the turtles follow them? to distinguish a species of wolf here which deserves “ The Turkish governor of Athens is called the our notice, orebuth, either a wolf of the evening Vaivode. He is either changed or renewed in his glooms, darknesses ; or, a wolf of the desert glooms, office every year, the beginning of March. The darknesses, caverns; either of these agrees with the Athenians say he brings the cranes with him; for wolf: but may not the latter be preferable in re- these birds likewise make their first appearance here spect to parallelism? 1st, A lion from the forest; about that time : they breed ; and when their


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have acquired sufficient strength, which is some time which it had when first falling-from the tree. It has in August, they all fly away together, and are seen then the colour of honey, and appears more fixed and no more till the March following," Stuart, Antiq. heavy than at first. After being kept for years, it grows Athens, vol. i. p. 10.

of a much deeper yellow, and of the colour of gold. Hasselquist tells us, “The Arabs call the common The smell at first is violent, and strongly pungent, pigeon, haram; the turtle, jamara : and the stock giving a sensation to the brain like that of volatile dove, josie. The last is a bird of passage. It salts, when rashly inhaled by an incautious person. makes its abode in the holes of the houses around This lasts in proportion to its freshness ; for being nego Cairo, from the time that the water is admitted into lected, it loses this quality, as it probably also does the canal of Trajan, till the time when that canal is by extreme old age,” Bruce, vol. v. p. 16. quite dry ; and it is seen no more during the remain The quantity procurable from one tree is very small, der of the year," French edit. p. 30. If this be three or four drops from some trees, from others sixcorrect, then the Hebrew tur is not the turtle, or at ty drops ; and these are the most fertile. The colleast not the turtle only, but the stock dove.

lecting it is consequently tedious and troublesome ;

and it is very rarely to be met with in purity. Lady VERSE 17.

Wortley Montague could procure but little, and that SERPENTS, cockatrices, which will not be charmed.

with difficulty, at Constantinople ; and the experi

ment made by that lady on the skin of her face is not Vide on the naja, plate, Isai. xi.

what, perhaps, many English ladies would wish to re

peat. It had the effect of taking off the skin ; and VERSE 22.

though the Turkish ladies said the succeeding was Is there no BALM IN GILEAD ? no physician there?

finer than the former, yet her ladyship was hardly Why then is not the health of the daughter of my persuaded into that opinion : nor does she seem to people recovered?

have been overpleased with the trouble it gave her, According to Mr. Bruce, the balessan, balsam, or

or the pleasure of the experiment. We must, bowbalm, grows to the height of fourteen feet; its branches ever, make allowances for her ignorance of the best are numerous, spreading, crooked; the wood white, mander of using it; as that may be a sovereign balsoft; the bark ash coloured. The leaves are small, sam under good management, and for some disorders, few; the flowers white, scattered on the branches, which is injurious when improperly applied, or ill di. It is a native of Abyssinia, growing behind Azzab, rected. along the coast to the straits of Babelmandel; and,

The antiquity of the commerce in this balsam, and says Mr. Bruce, it was transported into Judea a consequently of its reputation, appears, Gen. xxxvii. thousand years before the queen of Sheba made 25. and the high opiniou entertained of its salutary presents of this tree to Solomon, as Josephus relates. virtues, is evident in the passage before us. In TurMany of the ancient physicians supposed this tree te key it is in great esteem as a medicine, and no less be the production of Judea only ; and hence they

as an odoriferous perfume, unguent, and cosmetic. named 'it Balsam Judaicum, or balm of Gilead. Its reputation among ourselves is not superior to that Professor Forskal discovered this tree to belong to

of other balsams, as that of Canada, or that of Copathe genus amyris. He found his specimen in Arabia. iba ; but this may be partly owing to the adultera

This balsam issues spontaneously from the bark of tion it has undergone, and partly to keeping, or the the tree; but is more commonly obtained by inci effects of voyaging, &c. this at least seems to be sions. The Xylobalsamum, as its name imports, is countenanced by the virtues and uses attributed prepared from the wood, and the Carpobalsamum,

to it by eastern nations, to enumerate which would from the fruit. “The bark,” Mr. Bruce says, “is be outraging the bounds of all rational credibility. cat by an ax, when the juice is in its strongest circulation, in July, August, and September. It is then

CHAPTER XIV. VERSES 6, 7. received into a small earthen bottle, and every day's produce is gathered and poured into a larger Yea, the hind, female stag, ailuth, also calted in the boitle, which is kept closely corked. The opobal. field, and forsook her calf, because there was no green samum, or juice flowing from the balsam-tree, at first grass, desha. And the wild asses, paraim, did stand when it is received into the bottle or vase, from the in the high places ; they snuffed up the wind like wound whence it issues, is of a light yellow colour, dragons, tanim. apparently turbid, in which there is a whitish cast, 1st, The Hind, ailuth. Vide on Gen. xlix. Napbwhich, I apprehend, are the globules of air that per tali, plate. Fade the whole of it in its first state of fermentation ; 2dly, Wild asses, paraim. Vide on Job xxxix. it then appears very light on shaking it. As it set- plate. tles and cools, it turns clear, and loses the milkiness, 3dly, Dragons, tanim. Vide on Lam. iv. plate.

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ROUGH CATERPILLARS, ialek. Vide Psalmo cv. 27.

where we have thought this insect might be the chaHe shall be like the heath in the desert : he shall fer, if not the rough caterpillar : Scheuzer adds, not see when good cometh ; but shall inhabit the

“ We should not be far from the truth, perhaps, if, porched places in the wilderness, a salt land.

with the ancient interpreters of Scripture, we underWhat piant is this heuth ? llebrew, oror, aur uur, stand this ialek of a kind of locust. Several kinds of or gnoror; the tamarisk, say some, as lxx and Vul.

locusts have hair, principally on the head, and some gate; others, "a leafless tree;' and Parkhurst quotes

are found which have prickly points standing out, from Taylor, a blasted tree, stripped of its foliage." Perhaps there is an allusion to such a kind in Rev. “ If it be a particular plant, the tamarisk is as likely as any ; .. the branches of these trees are produced of a woman.” The Arabs call this kind of locust or

ix. 8. where we read of locusts “having hair like hair in so straggling a manner, as not by any art to be

phau, al-phantapho. trained up regularly, and their leaves are commonly thin on their branches, and fall away in winter." But, the question returns, can the tamarisk live in a

VERSES 84, 37. salt land ? in parched places? I would rather, therefore, seek this oror among the lichens, a species of

Nebuchadnessar hath swallowed me, as a dragon, plants which are the last productions of vegetation,

tanin, swallows water, or inhales air, when swimming. under the severe cold of the frozen zone, under the Babylon shall become a dwelling place for drugons, glowing heats of equatorial deserts : so that it seems

tanim. Vide on Lam. iv. plate. best qualified to endure parched places, and a salt land. Hasselquist mentions several kinds seen by him

CHAPTER LII. in Egypt, Arabia, and Syria.

I would also allude to what the Arabians say of their plant murar ; which may, perhaps, be applica

The transportation of captives in great multitudes, ble to the Hebrew oror, to whose name also it bears

the confusion, and the manners of Eastern conquersome resemblance. It is of a sharp taste, astringent: following extract : we need not doubt that the trans

ors, and victorious armies, are well described in the and when brouzed by camels, contracts their gums around their teeth, and renders them bare, and causes

portation of the Jewish captives was much like that

of other nations in the same melancholy circumstanthe lips of those animals which have eaten of it, to adhere together. It grows to the height of a shrub, Michaelis, Q. xlii.

“M. Fornetti and I resolved to go over to Krim

Guerai, who had obliged the porte to nominate him CHAPTER XLVIII. VERSE 6.

in his place. We found the new khan at Kichela,

with a part of his troops, loaded with the spoils of Flee, save your lives, and be like the heath in Moldavia, which he had laid waste. It is scarcely the wilderness. The word for heath is here spelled possible to form any idea of pillage so sudden and rapfully, as it should seem, oruor ; which interpreters id; and it is difficult to conceive how an army of have usually rendered as they have done oror in eighty thousand men could, in seven days, overrun a chap. xvii. 6. But the Lxx read orud (919 niny orud, great province, and carry off forty thousand slaves, or oror ;)

“ You shall be like the wild ass in the wil and all the flocks, herds, and lents, in which they were derness. This seems to agree with the flight rec kept, besides an enormous quantity of other plunder. ommended before ; otherwise, we must refer to the We

e saw the plain of Kichela covered, as far as the despoiled, or to the solitary nature of the oror, as al eye could reach, with male and female slaves of every ready binted on the former passage. (May orud be age, oxen, camels, horses, sheep, and utensils of every the subject intended in that place, also ? If so, the in- kind, piled up at different distances,” Baron du Tott's habiting a salt land, is perfectly natural. Vide wild Travels, p. 15. ass, plate.]

We may believe, also, that the army of Nebuchad

nezzar had its plunder, besides that carried off by the CHAPTER LI. VERSES 14, 27.

king himself ; for usually the suffering party sustains

more injury from the marauders which accompany a I will fill thee with men as with CATERPILLARS, camp, than from any regular requisition commanded ialek : verse 27. cause the horses to come up as the by the general.



The Lamentations of Jeremiah, which form an any thing new in natural knowledge ; or different Appendix to the book of that prophet, do not afford from what has been already treated elsewhere.



ly determined. The actions attributed to these thorns

in chap. xxviii. 20. seem hardly coincident with those AS the colour of AmBER, out of the midst of the to which vegetables are competent: since they seem fire. The original word for amber is chasmal, which to have despised, perhaps insulted Israel, as the words the Lxx have rendered electron; not meaning amber, following express. the natural production of certain countries, a bitu But what connection have these words with the men found in the earth; but an artificial composition, third, okrabim, which clearly signifies scorpions, probably of brass (copper) and gold. Vide on Ezra and which forms a climax to the former? We should viii. 27. where we have hinted at this mixed metal. also remark the awkwardness of the phrase, “ briars Among other reasons for thinking natural amber and thorns are with thee.” Did the prophet then culcould not be intended here, is the remark, that in the tivate them? Surely not. The word hu aut, signimidst of a fire that substance would soon lose its fies a sign, or token, of what may be expected: this transparency, and instead of glowing would become is its usual import, and it may be so taken here. opaque : neither could crystal be the substance

Though serebim and selunim are instances, signs, meant, as that would gather soot: nevertheless, both similarities to what thou mayest expect, and with these articles were called by the name electrum scorpions even, thou shouldst dwell, yet fear not." among the ancients. The Arabic version varies, On considering this connection, I would inquire reading in verse 4. al-karabe, amber ; in verse 27. whether these three subjects are not all animals ? and maha, crystal. Scheuzer is determinate for the would refer to the millepedes, or scolopendra, or galmixed metal, as Bochart was before bim. There ley worm, or great iülus, for the first two. We know are several kinds and degrees of it; but these we that the bite of the scolopendra is both painful and have no need to enumerate, as we cannot ascertain dangerous. They are common in hot countries; wbat kind the prophet intended.

grow six inches long; consist of many joints, and an

equal number of legs.” “Of this animal there are CHAPTER II. VERSE 6.

different kinds : some living like worms in holes in

the earth, others under stones and rotten wood; so Son of man, be not afraid though, 1st, BRIARS, that nothing is more dangerous than removing these and, 2dly, thorns be with thee, and thou dost dwell substances, in places where they breed." Their among, Sdly, SCORPIONS. We hare here two words legs have much ibe appearance of prickles or thorns. which I suspect have been misunderstood: the first If the second word, also, signifies an insect, of a is 'n serehim. Parkhurst inclines to render it like nature or form, whether or not what I bave named nettles, a plant which causes by its prickles a sensa- above, then we see the uniformity of this passage ; tion of burning; as if this word, which occurs no and the transition is easy from these to the scorpion, where else, was related to 99 tjerb, to scorch. whose qualities are greatly like those of the former Perhaps this word may rather indicate somewhat re insects; but he is certainly more irascible in his disferrible to prickles.

position, if not more powerful in his venom ; which The second word is Buiso selunim, which Park- appears to form the, climax intended by the sacred hurst supposes to be a kind of thorn, overspreading writer. For the scorpion, vide plate, Rev. ix. [Vide a large surface of ground, as the dewbriar; and it Hosea iv. 16.) must be owned that this word is used chap. xxviii. 24. in connection with kutj, which in Gen. iii. 18. is

CHAPTER XIII. VERSE 11. rendered thorns; and this is the strongest argument against what I am about to propose. We have al Say unto them who daub with UNTEMPERED MORready seen that the thorny plants, from their num TAR, that it shall fall. Not to pass this subject enbers, elude our appropriation : but whether this tirely without notice, though we have offered some place may be taken as decisive, is not, perhaps, easi- remarks on it elsewhere, vide FRAGMENT, No. 190,

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