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rantie, nulle solidairte politique, ne cept its provisions, or that, accepting rattachent les destinées de l'Empire them, they would ruin his revenue. Ottoman aux stipulations réparatrices The consequences have been different. de 1814 et de 1815." Russia will The Pacha would not quarrel with never allow that the concerns and in England by refusing to accept the terests of Turkey can be discussed treaty, nor with his subjects, by fulfil. and decided on by European powers. ling its conditions. As far as Egypt is Turkey is always the East," in the concerned, the treaty of commerce is eyes of the Court of St Petersburgh; a dead letter. and the Emperors Alexander and The Czar, during the last year or Nicolas have within the last twenty two, has acted with even more than years, on several occasions, declared ordinary prudence in the affairs of the that, geographically as well as politi- East. Perceiving that the attention cally, Russia was the protectress of the of Great Britain and France was not Porte. Russia insists that the treaty wholly occupied with the affairs of of Unkiar Skelessi was a natural Western Europe, the Emperor of and necessary Oriental arrangement. Russia has contented himself with pre“ Settle the affairs of Spain as you paring fleets, organizing armies, rewill,” the present Czar is reported to fusing to make any concessions to have said to an ambassador of France, either of the powers in question, or to “ but leave the affairs of the East to the Porte as to the treaty of Unkiar the East itself." This policy, if ac- Skelessi; and has not thrown any very quiesced in, would tend to destroy the important difficulties in the way of the commercial relations of Great Britain negotiations of those powers with the and France, and would reduce those Sultan for commercial treaties, because powers to the mere secondary parts of he has felt that his relations with the watching the movements of their ter- Porte were of a very different cha. ritorial neighbours.
racter. The treaty of Unkiar Skelessi de- The conduct of Austria, during the stroyed the independence of Turkey, last six years, has been embarassed under the pretext of saving the integ- and contradictory. This is easily unrity of its territory; and the posses. derstood. Austria has no sympathy sion of the Bosphorus, with all its at- with France either as to French policy tendant advantages, has been one of or French political institutions, or as to the consequences of that treaty. The the affairs of Belgium, Holland, Spain, Governments which acquiesced in the or Italy ; but Austria owes some ob. treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, or which, if ligations to Louis-Philippe for his conthey did not acquiesce in, did not duct with reference to Switzerland, oppose, its conditions by an armed and for the expulsion of demagogues resistance, have been, for six years, and propagandists from those cantons seeking to modify or to mitigate its -and Austria has an interest in main. provisions. This has been the labour taining the status quo in Turkey. of the diplomatists of France, Great Austria thinks with Russia on all Britain, and Austria—but especially northern and on all western questions ; of Great Britain. Has it been suc- bút on the question of the East she cessful ? No. The treaty subsists. thinks with France; not that their The treaties of commerce concluded interests are similar-not that their between the Porte and the Govern- ultimate views have the least resem. ments of St James's and the Tuileries, blance; but for the moment Austria have in no respect changed the poli- would prefer a total inaction on the tical relations of Constantinople and part of the more immediate combaSt Petersburgh ; and the Czar is as tants, Mahmoud and Mehemet Ali; much as ever the “protector of the and is one of the loudest in demanding Sultan" and the master of the Bos. the status quo. The recent commerphorus. These are hard truths to be cial treaty between Great Britain and told and sad verities be recorded ; Austria, is said to have dified the but truth cannot gain from conceal. views of the court of Vienna as to ment. The commercial treaty of Lord Eastern affairs, and that she is more Ponsonby was not without its merits; disposed than ever to think and to act but it has not produced the results with England. We are not disposed which the Sultan anticipated. He to place much confidence in this report. believed that the Pacha would not ac- Austria possesses a wise and prudent
government, which acts on fixed and preoccupied by other more pressing conservative principles, and the events interests. Turkey feels that her exof recent years have not been of a cba istence depends on the annulling of racter, either in England or Ireland, the treaty of Kutahia. Egypt is preto afford her satisfaction or encourage- pared to risk all her future hopes and ment. But as a prudent and wise go- present greatness in the defence of vernment, Austria has felt that the that treaty, and in the retention of moment had not arrived for making Syria. The English Government any hostile demonstration on the sub- wishes to secure to itself the favour ject of the Russian influence at Con- of Mehemet Ali, and his friendship stantinople; and although she would in our overland arrangements for Inhave no objection to find Bosnia and dia, by promising him that the throne Albania in her possession, yet shé of Egypt shall be hereditary in his would not purchase that possession at family. As the price of this negotiathe price of the capture by Russia of tion, it has obtained a treaty of comthe capital of the Ottoman empire. merce, which will be a dead letter, and To her, indeed, the neutrality of the has the adjournment, for the moment Bosphorus is of the last importance, at least, of the Pacha's intention of as the Bosphorus is the issue of the declaring Egypt and Syria independ. Danube ; and on the liberty of that ent of the Porte. But this adjourn. mighty stream depends the future ment is only momentary; and Mehemet commercial and political prosperity of Ali, since his return to Alexandria Austria. But the Court of Vienna from the gold mines of Fachiangora, deliberates before it acts, and reflects has declared, “ that from the day that long and deeply before it negotiates. the Porte shall attack his power in It is fully convinced what are its inte. Syria, he will proclaim the independrests, and it will steadily maintain ence of Egypt." France has acquithem. Still its maritime interests in esced in the hereditary demand of the Eastern question are, for the time, Mehemet Ali, but has protested against of less importance than the gradual the notion of the independence of the and general tranquillizing of its Po: Pacha from the suzeraineté of the jish, and its Italian and Tyrolean Sultan ; and even at the price of her states; and, unless in the event of a support to the hereditary question of general war, Austria will not take any Egypt, she has insisted on a treaty of very important part in the Eastern commerce, and on the payment by question. The future government of the Pacha of the khazneh or tribute France, the settlement of the Hanove. to the Porte. The payment of the rian question, the gradual calming khazneh bas, however, been refused down of the Germanic states, the ques- by the Pacha within the last few tion of Spain and Portugal, and the weeks—and Mehemet Ali replied to progress of democracy in some of the the Consul-General of Russia, when Swiss cantons, are of much more im- charged to press this payment upon portance to Austria than the destinies him, “ That under present circumof Syria, or the hereditary govern- stances, the Sultan might wait for the ment of the Pacha of Egypt. The payment of the tribute, since, as the day will come, and that perhaps Porte had manifested its hostile intensooner than Austria desires, when the tions towards Egypt, it would be imincreasing power of Russia in the east politic on his part to supply him with and south of Europe, as well as in the means of realizing more promptly Asia, must attract the attention, and his inimical designs.' engage the mind, of the Court of But what were these hostile inten: Vienna ; but, we repeat, for the pre- tions of the Porte towards the Pacha, sent she is more alive to the events in which have led the latter to make Western and Central Europe, than to this declaration ? Let us see. those of the East or of the South. strip of all its verbiage and repetitions
The present state of the Eastern the intelligence we have received for question now opens broadly to our some weeks past from Alexandria, view. Russia requires that the treaty Aleppo, Beyruth, and Constantiof Unkiar Skelessi shall remain in- nople, it amounts to this, that a large tact. England and France desire its body of the Turkish army, without modification, Austria looks on, not any apparent or_satisfactory motive, with indifference, but with a mind has crossed the Euphrates at Byr, on
the confines of the Syrian frontiers, lyze the points at isste, and the proand has, by this unaccounted-for act, posed modes of resolving the various demonstrated the well-known desire difficulties in this Eastern question, we of the Ottoman Porte to regain pos- must be allowed to approach with session of Syria. The Pacha of Bag- sacred awe and lioly veneration the dad is thought to act in concert with pages of prophecy, and the declarathe Sultan ; and Ibrahim Pacha is so tions of holy writ. The most clear satisfied of the hostile designs of the and indubitable prophecy relating to Turkish Government, that he has con- the decay and gradual downfal of the centrated all his Syrian troops in the Turkish empire, and admitted as such environs of Aleppo, and is preparing by all Christian theologians of all for the attack which he expects will Christian countries, isúto be found in be made upon him. Thus Turkey, the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th ranged in battle along the Euphrates, verses of the 16th chapter of the Revefrom the Persian Gulf to Asia Minor, lation of St John the Divine. After is presumed to have the design of at having, in the 10th and 11th verses, tacking Egypt by her Eastern flank. announced that the 5th vial is poured It is a promised renewal of the old out-in which the votaries of Papacy conflict between the Arab tribes and are represented in a distressed and those of Upper Asia-between Cam- agonized condition_(under which vial byses and Egypt-between Bagdad we are now living)—and after having and Cairo in the middle ages; only emblematically described the hatred that, in this immemorial contlict be. of Papal Rome to that increasing and tween the Euphrates and the Nile—in irresistible progress of knowledge, this dispute for the possession of Syria which demonstrates the absurdities and Lebanon, when the Euphrates and errors of the Papal religion, has seen ranged on her banks the without producing reformation, and tribes from Upper Asia, savage and repentance, the inspired writer prouncivilized as they have been, the ceeds as follows:Euphrates has ordinarily triumphed. 66 And the sixth angel poured out But when these Turkish, Median, or his vial upon the great river EuphraScythian tribes, or by whatever other tes; and the water thereof was dried name history has called them, have up, that the way of the kings of the East passed too long time at Bagdad, at Per- might be prepared. And I saw three sepolis, or at Babylon, where they have unclean spirits like frogs come out of lost their mountain and active rude. the mouth of the dragon, and out of ness, and their primitive energy, vic. the mouth of the beast, and out of tory has been uncertain--and they the mouth of the false prophet. For have been often defeated. To-day, they are the spirits of devils, working in the divided state of the Turkish miracles which go forth unto the kings empire, the influence of Russia in the of the earth, and of the whole world, Ottoman army, and when that army to gather them to the battle of that is half-civilized and half-barbarous, great day of God Almighty. Behold, all the chances of success are in favour I come as a thief. Blessed is he that of Egypt. Mehemet Ali and his son watcheth, and keepeth his ground, Ibrahim are aware of this — fully lest he walk naked, and they see his aware; and although, in obedience to shame. And he gathered them toRussia, France, and Great Britain, gether into a place called in the Hethey have promised not to commence brew tongue Armageddon.” the attack on the Turkish troops so Had any doubts been entertained, assembled on the extreme frontiers of by the learned and pious members of the dominions ceded to Egypt by the the orthodox and protestant churches treaty of Kutahia, still Egyptian as to the meaning of this prophecy, forces continue to concentrate in the we should have more than hesitated environs of Aleppo, and the cry of as to introducing it into this political Ibrahim in Syria is, “ To arms !” investigation ; but as its applicability “ To arms !” And what do the Sy- to the decay of the Turkish empire rians reply to the demand? They fly has been universally admitted, we from Aleppo-rush from Ibrahim— have not dared to banish from our and sigh for any deliverance from contemplations this prediction of satheir Egyptian task-masters.
cred writ. Before we proceed finally to ana- The learned and profound Towns:
end, whose " New Testament arranged facts and coming realities. Africa and in chronological and historical order," the East was still lying prostrate before is at once a magnificent present made the altars of the dark idolatries of to the Church of England, by one of their fathers; but the voice of Engher most enlightened and devoted land was heard in the recesses of sons, and an offering of no mean their groves_it has resounded through value made to the whole of Christen- their temples—their gods are tremdom, thus entitles the five verses we bling in their shrines--and Dagon is have just cited;
falling before the ark of Jehovah, and • The sixth vial is poured out. By the crescent is waning as the cross adthis time the end of the 1260 years
The eventual conversion of approaches—the emblems under this the Jews--the final overthrow of the vial represent the nearer, though still Mohammedan power in the East--the gradual downfal of the Turkish em- subversion of Popery, the apostasy of pire, the preparations for the restora. the West, and of idolatry and infidelity tion of the Jews, and the commence. over the whole world, must be antici. ment of the great confederacy of the pated by every believer in the revelaanti-christian powers against the tion of God to man. But it is not for Church of Christ in Palestine, under man weakly, feeble, ignorant man, the influence of evil principles or false to attempt to lift the veil which his religions."
Maker has placed before the future; It would lead us too far from our nor can we know through what vaimmediate subject of contemplation, to riety of untried ways it may please relate at any length the causes of the the author of our faith that the visible origin, progress, and suspension of Church
shall pass, in its way to heathe conquests of Mahomet; its subse- The Millennium, or universal quent temporary revival, the entire reign of virtue, is the most rational loss of its political power, as the dans' opinion which a man can form who begerous rival of its neighbours, and its lieves in a Providence, and is satisfied present increasing weakness, by the of the true Christian doctrine of the gradual separation and independence original dignity and present degra: of its fairest provinces. But the facts dation of man as a spiritual though are indubitable, and some of them fallen being. The blood of the atonehave often been referred to in the pre- ment cannot have been shed in vain. ceding observations. Our writers on The revolted province of Earth must prophecy have shown the great pro- be recovered from the prince of darkbability, that as these two masses of ness to the dominion of the King of
arose together, their power kings. The time must arrive, when the will also be destroyed at the same progress of knowledge shall have batime, when the prophetic period of nished ignorance; and the influence 1260 years, which commenced in the of holiness and virtue be more prevayear 606, will have elapsed. We are lent than that of wickedness and vice. not desirous, however, in this treatise, Then will the perfection of the human of resting any argument on these race be completed, and evil be overinterpretations. The wise and the ruled by good. Then the human good have been unanimous in their race shall have attained to the highest verdict, and we bow to their decision, state of good which this lower existe Time and history, however, are the ence can afford them; and after the only certain interpreters of prophecy; object of man's creation shall have and though the declining power of the thus been answered, and the tree of Mohammedan apostasy undoubtedly life bloom again in this paradise, sanctions this hypothesis, yet the where it was first planted, the fulness reviving influence of the unscriptural of time will have come, when the enerrors and political power of Papacy larged and purified faculties of man excites at once our sorrow and surprise, shall be prepared for a higher state of and compels us, if not to hesitate as to existence; and the heaven and the the desired interpretation, still to with. earth shall pass away, but the word of hold our full assent, until the veil is yet these prophecies shall last for ever, more withdrawn from the future, and though clouds and darkness and thick until the passage we have cited shall darkness may veil his glory from both
more clearly exposed, by opening the reason and the curiosity of man, VOL, XLVI, NO. CCLXXXV.
We shall abstain from adding another of the Porte, subject to his orders and line to the prophetic portion of this to his control. Eastern question.
Fifth, Is the Pacha of Egypt to We approach the ermination of be allowed to proclaim the indepenour review of the past and present dence of that country, and to found state of the Eastern question. We with that and Syria an independent will resumei t rapidly: and look at and powerful empire? This question the prospects of the future.
is wholly unconnected with that of the First, Is there now to be immediate hereditary succession to the throne of war between the Pacha of Egypt and Egypt being vested in his family. The Syria and the Sultan Mahmoud ? This Porte is opposed to both. So is Rusis doubtful. The Turkish troops are sia. England, France, and Austria on neutral ground, or on territory oppose the independence of Egypt, considered as such for a long period but not the hereditary succession. of time. Turkey is only kept in check They look only at the question of the by the fear of Russia ; Russia is khazneh or tribute money. A nominal not anxious to press an immediate dé suzeraineté on the part of the Porte, nouement, as she always prefers to be and a real tribute money annually occupied with the affairs of the East, paid to it by the Pacha and his des when western Europe is engaged with scendants, would for the moment saher own affairs.
tisfy these powers.
Yet what would Second, is the Pacha of Egypt to that settlement amount to? To nothing be allowed to retain the advantages more than the adjournment of the insecured to him by the treaty of Kuta- dependence, with all the advantage in hia ? Is Syria to continue to be a favour of the Pacha of his hereditary portion of his dominions ? Russia is rights having been first recognised by opposed to this arrangement. So is Europe. But will the Ottoman Porte the Porte. But France, England, acknowledge the hereditary throne of and Austria, insist on the status quo. Egypt, vested in the family of the The Pacha, far from consenting to Pacha? Never--unless Syria should abandon Syria, is perpetually ex- be restored, and unless a treaty should tending hi conquests; and as Russia be entered into between the Pacha indulges hope that eventually she and the Porte, under the guarantees shall ca' se dissensions and jealousies of the allied powers of Europe, inbetween the British and Egyptian eluding Russia, by which any attempt governments respecting the overland at an invasion of Syria by Egypt route to India and the Red Sea, she should be declared to amount to a de regards the progress of the Pacha in claration of war against the guaranSyria as an interested, but not an teeing powers. But would the Pacha angry spectator.
submit to those conditions ? Never. Third, Is the demand of the Pacha " I was a Pacha without Syria,” said of Egypt to secure to his children, Mehemet ; " but with Syria I am a and his children's children, the throne sovereign.” Nor would Russia adof that country and of Syria, to be here to such a guarantee. She will conceded by the powers of Europe, do nothing, sign nothing, agree to and by the Ottoman Porte? This is, nothing, which shall bind her to the after all, the most pressing and im- policy of other governments in the portant question to be decided. If affairs of the East. She assented to in the affirmative, then subject to an expedition in favour of Greece, what conditions ? If in the negative, and joined that expedition, because its then a war between Mehemet and tendency was to weaken the Porte, Mahmoud is inevitable.
and to increase the influence of the Fourth, Is the Pacha of Egypt to Czar in the north of Europe. But she be suffered to continue to refuse the will not sign any other treaty, or payment of the khazneh, or tribute guarantee the fulfilment of any other to the Porte ? If the payment shall arrangement, which shall diminish be withheld much longer, the Russian her influence over the Porte, and her Government will aid the Sultan in an independent and isolated position. attempt to recover it. If it shall be
Sixth, Is the Treaty of Unkiar paid, by that payment Mehemet will Skelessi to remain the bond of amity still admit himself to be only the Pacha or of alliance between the Czar and