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whom no one can have better means of information, their progress in this respect is still rapidly retrograde.

To counteract, as far as possible, this state of things, in the city of Westrainster, where the numerous children of the soldiery add to the mass of infantine population, the author has instituted a free school in which he has availed himself of those improvements in teaching, which we have just referred to, and of which the detail is given in the pamphlet before us. The plan consists in dividing the scholars into several classes, and com mitting the instruction of these classes to tutors, selected from the scholars themselves, over whom another order of superintendants is placed, called monitors, who secure the diligence of both tutors and scholars. Thus the executive departments are filled by the best qualified from among the instructed, while the duty of the master or mistress is reduced to such an attention to the general movements of the machine, as will keep its parts in regular motion and order. Other improvements are introduced in the process of teaching, such as impressing the knowledge of the letters on the mind of the pupil, by his forming them on coarse slates, and thus combining his attainment of writing, with that of reading; and advancing also his proficiency in both. To these elementary parts of learning. is added a very becoming attention to instruct the scholars in the principles of religion and morality; on which subject, it only remains for us to hope, that due care is taken to point out the true nature and place of the duties inculcated upon them, in the divine economy of human salvation. Without caution, in this particular, they will be apt to be misled, when informed that an attention to the advice given them will "not only add to their comfort in this world, but insure their happiness" in that which is to come. This, it will be recollected, is not the doctrine of the church of England. We cannot, however, approve of that part of the plan, even as a temporary measure, which keeps the children from public worship on the Sabbath, for the benefit of private instruction.

Fully convinced, with the worthy magistrate, that "the prosperity of every state depends on the good habits, and the religious and moral instruction of the labouring people," we regard, with the greatest delight, both as Christians and as Patriots, the increase of such benevolent institutions; and it gratifies us exceedingly to see such a list of eminent names, given in the appendix, as its conductors.

We earnestly hope that these improvements in the art of instruction may be extensively adopted in our charity,schools; by which means, the benefits of those institutions may be vastly enlarged. By this system, Mr. C.. asserts that 120,000 children may be educated at no greater expense, than the 6000 annually assembled at St. Paul's.

An advertisement, however, from Joseph Lancaster, states that, by his system, 1000 children may be taught, governed by one master only, for 5s. per ann. each child, and which expense is presumed to be capable of still further reduction.

Art. XX. Essay on the Origin of what is called Methodism, and its Moral and Political Advantages. Addressed to Men of Reason and Religion; in reply to a Sermon preached and published by a Clergyman of Liverpool. By J. Fernell, 12mo. pp. 36. Price 6d. Baynes. MR. Fernell uses the term Methodism in the same general sense which

obtains among profane scoffers at divine grace, both in and out of

the pulpit; but as his eyes do not seem too weak to behold its value, nor his heart too hard to feel its influence, we find him the advocate, instead of the enemy, of vital godliness.

He has given a summary of his essay, in the "Argument."

The necessity of divine influences to produce supernatural effects, or moral rectitude.

• The loss of this influence the cause of the decay of churches and states. The revival of it the origin of Protestantism, Puritanism, Quakerism, and Methodism.

Vital religion always persecuted, and why.

The zeal of the sects a great means of preventing the total decline of religion in established churches.

Morality the main pillar of the State; and Methodism the best means of producing it where it was not, and promoting it where it is.

National churches most endangered by men taking holy orders for the sake of its emoluments, having neither the spirit of their office nor a corresponding conduct.'

These positions are forcibly though not methodically supported; his views of religious parties are cordial and catholic; he evidently ascribes so much importance to the actual renovation of heart and life, which is common to all pious men, that he is in a great measure regardless of their few and inconsiderable differences in opinion. Hence he is not ashamed to extol a Whitfield in company with a Wesley; and in reference to the success of both these eminent saints and their successors, he exclaims,

'Ye thousands of colliers, miners, labourers, mechanics, and manufacturers, &c. how have your hearts rejoiced at the sound of the feet of a Metho dist preacher,bringing the tidings of salvation to your heathenish neighbourhood! how beautiful on the mountains were those who told you, in your \own tongue, Christ came into the world to save sinners. You felt his power to save you shook off the galling fetters of sin and all kind of immorali ty-no longer slaves to drunkenness and debauchery, idleness and profanation. You became what nothing but the power of God could make you the astonishment of your ungodly neighbours-sober, clean, and indus trious; meek, affectionate, and godly; good husbands, sons, brothers, servants, and what not; and the most loyal and useful subjects in the British dominions, who were before not much better than incarnate fiends, or the pests of society-you, even you, became Christians !'

The sermon by the Rev. Mr. Gildart, which he reviews, appears from the extracts given to have been a very remarkable one: so remarkable indeed, that we excuse Mr. G. from all blame in preaching or printing it, and charge the infamy of the slander which it contains,to the father of lies, the impure spirit, by whom he was unquestionably possessed. One of his maniacal extravagancies is that of supposing that the piety and good morals of the Methodists tend, not only to promote insanity, but to subvert the ecclesiastical and political establishment. Mr. F. with great reason retorts the stupid charge.

'Oh ye, who have already so grievously and openly revolted from the pure principles of the established church-ye preachers of Epictetus instead of Jesus Christ-ye who, by your lukewarm or ungedly lives, have brought religion into so much contempt, and, like the clergy of France, have made more infidels than you have made Christians-tis your conduct that has endangered the subversion of the monarchy, by hosts of sceptics and unbelievers, the very tools of anarchy; and I am

verily persuaded, that this country is much indebted to Methodism that we have not been in the situation of our French neighbours. Alas for them! the sects were not tolerated there; the established church had its own will and its own way, and at last produced a nation of infidels !'

This Essay is printed in a very cheap style from the most commendable reasons; the ability which it discovers inclines us to augur favourably of the Essays which Mr. Fernell announced some time ago in our Literary Intelligence, but in which notice his name was inadvertently omitted. ART. XXI. Two Tracts; 1st. Thoughts concerning the Uses of Clay Marl, as Manure; 2nd. Thoughts or Queries concerning the Uses of Agricultural Salts in the Manufacture of Manure; and also, concerning the proper Modes of decompounding (decomposing) Pit. Coal, Wood, Peat, Sods, and Weeds, &c. By the Hon. and Rev. James Cochrane. Mawman. 8vo. PP: 65. Price 2s.

IT appears, that the first of these tracts owed its rise to a denial by Mr. Luke, the author of the View of the Agriculture of the North riding of Yorkshire, of marl being either found or used in that riding: Mr. C. proves, that there is very good marl, in many parts of that riding, and likewise in the counties of Durham and Northumberland: the marl of some places in these counties even proves to be richer in calcareous matter than that of Lancashire. Marl is stated to be found in great abundance on each side of the river Coquet, between Warkworth and Rothbury, Northumberland. Cubic rods of 64 yards are mentioned p. 15; this we do not understand; a cubic rod is fixed by English Statute at 166 cubic yards. We agree with the remark, that marl may remain two or three years upon the land without discovering any improvement, if it is not intimately mixed with the soil. The course of crops recommended by Mr. Holt is very good; but he must be a poor farmer, who does not know how to vary his crops to the soil and circumstances; one fixed course may do for the closet, but will not do for the field. The practice of saturating marl with the drainings of a farmyard, is, we trust, what would be followed by every good farmer within the reach of marl.

In the quotation at p. 9. from Dr. Home, respecting the distinguishing characteristic of clay marl, there is a mistake, either by our author or the Dr. in omitting to mention that marl and all argillaceous substances require to be dried to a certain point, before they will fall down into a powder on being wetted or put into water: this remark applies to fuller's-earth and several other substances, which are not sensibly affected by immersion for any length of time in water, if they are not previously dried, although this essential circumstance has been so generally omitted in describing their properties.

The chief object of the second essay before us, is to recommend the manufacture of Agricultural Salts, as the author denominates them, consisting of sea-water, salt-brine, or a solution of rock-salt, boiled up with fresh peat from a bog; by which process Mr. C. imagines, that the peat will be partly decomposed; and that when double-distilled volatile alkali of coal, wood or peat, or inspissated or condensed urine of men, horses, or cattle, are added thereto, together with common mould or clay-marl, a compost of extraordinary fertilizing qualities will be formed. At p. 45, the author remarks, that when pit-coal, wood, peat, or sod, is decomposed, in the Vol. III.


kind of kilns used by Lord Dundonald for extracting coal-tar, the carbon— aceous principle, under the denomination of thick and essential oil, is made soluble as to vegetation, by the volatile alkaline solution formed in the refrigeratory and condenser, when mixed with mould or clay; and thus Mr. C. supposes, that he can accomplish the grand desideratum of chemistry as applied to agriculture, in rendering carbon soluble in water for the purposes of vegetation. On the propriety of mixing alkaline plants, salt, or its solu tion, with clay-marl, we are much inclined to doubt; and we are not altogether satisfied of the good to be expected, from mixing coal-tar or oils with dried clay-marl: these, in small quantities as a top-dressing, may perhaps prevent the ravages of insects on young turnips and other crops.

A further object of the tracts under our review is, to recommend the puncturing of wood-work, that is to be exposed to the weather, by means of a tool with a number of steel points in it (of which a drawing is given) and afterwards heating the wood to expel part of the air, from the punctures, before applying a coat of mineral or coal-tar: our author recommends this preservative for the timbers and planks of ships and barges, as also for wood-work in general, or, that the same should be boiled in coal-tar before it is used in recommending the latter process for the posts and rails used in inclosures, we are apprehensive that he has never duly considered or calculated the great expence of boiling in this, and the processes which he recommends for the manufacture of agricultural salts, even in the most favourable situations our author's remarks on the rotting of the sods or paring of coarse lands, instead of burning the same, are entitled to the attention of practical agriculturists; to these may be added his Directions for Marling upon Ley, rather than upon ploughed Ground. We wish also to express our hearty approbation of the proposal for feeding horses as much as possible upon cut-clover, in open sheds, during the summer, for the purpose of making manure, instead of suffering their dung to be dropped in the fields, where the grass is destroyed or rendered patchy, a great part of the manure is dissipated by evaporation, and the remainder engenders swarms of noxious flies and insects.

AKT. XXII. Hints on the Education of Children .By John Fawcett, A. M. 12mo. pp. 46. Price 4d. Button and Son, Crosby and Co.


HIS is a serious exhortation to parents to be indefatigable in the performance of what is their highest duty, next to the care of their own eternal welfare. And the author expresses his just astonishment that many who profess a concern for the latter, should so miserably and criminally neglect the former: We think that no small degree of blame attaches to the great majority of Christian ministers, for omitting, as we fear, a very frequent inculcation of this duty in the detail. Slight occasional references to it in general terms are of little use, since they neither impress its importance, nor explain its method, nor even give any precise notion of the ends to be attained. An illustration of particulars is absolutely necessary, especially for the humbler classes, for whose use this tract was particularly intended, and is judiciously adapted. The sacred precept to train up a child in the way in which he should go, is enforced with relation to the following series of articles: the knowledge and service of God-justice and honesty toward fellow-creatures-kindness and compassion-speaking truth—

abhorrence of profane language--obedience to just authority-habits of industry-self-government-good manners-the influence of example.

A benevolent earnestness pervades the whole, the duty is delineated in a very plain and practicable form, and the tract indicates much experience and observation. We hope no parent can read it without being prompted to a more zealous application to his important task. The short additional piece addressed to "returning prodigals," in a letter actually sent to several reclaimed young persons of a particular neighbourhood, is in a very interesting strain of pious congratulation and persuasion.

ART. XXIII. Authentic Narrative of the Death of Lord Nelson: with the circumstances preceding, attending, and subsequent to that event; the professional report of his Lordship's wound; and several interesting Anecdotes. By William Beatty, M. D. Surgeon to the Victory, &c. 8vo. pp. 100. with two Plates. Price 4s. Cadell and Co. 1807.

WE E are obliged to Dr. Beatty for this authentic account of perhaps the most interesting event of the present century, though it does not contain many particulars that had not been previously communicated to the public. One circumstance, however, in the narrative, is not generally known; it is an expression of this illustrious chief, which must be important to all who consider the hour which snatched him from the service and the gratitude of his country, as that in which he entered on a new and interminable state of existence, and appeared before a scrutiny which is liable to no prejudice or error. Almost the last words he used were, to Dr. Scott the chaplain, "Doctor, I have not been a great sinner;" this we suppose to have been uttered as an interrogation, but no answer is recorded. lt agrees with very many of the expressions recorded of Lord Nelson, in rendering it probable, that with great ignorance of the nature of Christianity, there was combined in him a strong disposition to serious piety. His last expression, which he repeated frequently, till utterance failed him, was "Thank God, I have done my duty.' Dr. B. states that the body was in a very sound state when landed at Greenwich, and refutes an idea that Lord Nelson's constitution was previously impaired, by describing the healthy condition of the viscera.

The direction of the fatal bullet is accurately described; and an interesting representation is given of its present state, with the lace and pad of the epaulette firmly attached to it; it did not strike any of his Lordship's ornamental insignia, and his Lordship had not been requested to lay aside or conceal those dangerous distinctions. His general instructions previous to the battle, and extracts from his private journal, commencing with his departure from Portsmouth, are subjoined.

The book is handsomely printed, and ornamented with a fine likeness, engraved by Scriven, from a painting by Devis.

ART. XXIV. The Poet's Day, or Imagination's Ramble; a Poem, in four Books, with an Eulogy on Britain, its Religion, Laws, and Liberties. By E. Warren, 8vo. pp. 160. price 4s. Hatchard, 1804.


HE Poet's Day is a poem in blank verse, divided into four parts, which are distinguished by the titles Morning, or a Contemplative Survey

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