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deviations. From Fort Augustus, instead of proceeding (as Pennant, Johnson, and many others had done) to Fort William, he turned back to Cromarty; and after following the first mentioned Traveller to Dungsby Head, went to Cape Wrath; and returning, crossed to Kirkwall; and thence to Stornaway in Lewis; whence, after touching at Barra, he came by water to Fort William. Of the Orkneys, and the Western Islands, Mr. H. saw almost nothing: but an account of the Shetland Islands, with which he was favoured by a minister resident in them, though brief, contains the most valuable information included in these volumes. We cannot, therefore, easily account for Mr. H.'s circuitous route in this part of his travels, otherwise than from the alarm and disgust, with which he was evidently impressed, by an occurrence at the General's hut, near Fort Augustus. (p. 468.) Hence, apparently, he avoided the interior Highlands, more carefully than other travellers have examined them. We congratulate him on having thus narrowly escaped an infection pretty common in that quarter of our island; while at the same time, we heartily lament that he should have contracted a more dangerous disorder, the cacoethes scribendi. This, we fear, he may find to be incurable and scarcely can we flatter ourselves or the public with the hope, that the pains which we have taken for his benefit, may preserve him against any future relapse.

Art IX. Lectures on the Liturgy; delivered in the Parish Church of St. Antholin, Watling Street. By the Rev. Henry Draper, D. D. &c. royal 8vo. pp. 574. Price 10s. 6d. Williams. 1806.

WHAT devout and benevolent mind can reflect on the im

mense multitudes who repeat habitually the language of our established liturgy, without an ardent wish that they may understand its import, and imbibe is spirit! For, whatever difference of opinion may exist, concerning the scriptural propriety of a form of prayer, or the particular merits of that which prevails in England under the authority of law, none will deny that it conveys many excellent principles, expresses many holy desires, and pleads many important promises of scripture, in appropriate language. But it is evident that the expression of the inspired apostle is too often applicable to this formula of worship," thou prayest and givest thanks; well, but the mind of the hearer is not edified." That the liturgy needs some explication, the attempt of Dr. Draper and others clearly presupposes; and that it is much misapprehended by a great majority of those who use it, we must certainly conclude, if we adopt these lectures as a faithful exposition of the text. For few, comparatively, among its professed admirers, agree with Dr. D. in all the religious doctrines which he has pointed out as its foundation. Yet we are

satisfied that he has for the most part truly explained, as well as warmly enforced, the principles of the Common Prayer; and we should heartily rejoice if all who read it were animated with the same piety, and could display the same intimate acquaintance with the scriptures of truth.

Dr. Draper has no other plan than the Liturgy itself supplies; and objections might easily be raised to the manner in which he has followed that plan. Three lectures, for example, out of twenty one, are devoted to an exposition of the Lord's Prayer; however excellent and useful these discourses may be, their extent is very disproportionate. We are satisfied that the work would be read with much greater pleasure, if more attention had been paid to the article of method. The passages of the Common Prayer, to which the several Lectures refer, would have been more obvious; and in some instances our worthy author would have been struck with the expediency of altering his divisions. At present, it is not easy, in opening the book casually, to discover what part of the subject he is discussing; as every needful indication is omitted. There is no title to the lectures, no headline to the pages, and no table of contents to the work. We mention this defect with the more freedom, because Dr. D. will doubtless have an opportunity of supplying it, in a second edition. We would suggest the propriety of printing the quotations from the Liturgy uniformly in the Italic character. The texts of scripture prefixed to the several Lectures, are for the most part suitably selected.

The following extract furnishes a favourable specimen of the author's catholicism.


• Christian assemblies constitute the various branches of the "holy Catholic," or universal" Church," of which our Creed speaks; and in these we enjoy " the communion of saints." Stones and timber, however exquisitely they may be wrought, and put together, do not constitute the Church of CHRIST. Our pious Reformers have taught us that "the visible Church of CHRIST is a congregation of faithful men, in which the pure word of God is preached, and the sacraments duly ministered, according to CHRIST's ordinance in all things that are requisite to the same.' When, therefore, we say " I believe in the holy Catholic Church," this appears to be the meaning of our assertion-I am verily persuaded that there exists, dispersed among the nations, a number of faithful people who are reconciled unto God by the precious blood of his dear Son; and these persons, however they may be distinguished by various names and denominations among men, constitute the true universal Church of our LORD JESUS CHRIST. The propriety of this description is apparent from the subsequent language of St. Peter"To whom coming as unto a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, ́ but chosen of GoD, and precious; ye also, as lively stones, are built spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifice acceptable to GOD by CHRIST JESUS."-It will be recollected that these words are not addressed unto a society of professors, joined together in what is called church communion and fellowship; but




by Peter, an Apostle of JESUS CHRIST, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontius, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia." These, however dispersed, constituted that " spiritual house," of whic sacred writer here speaks. No society of Christians, however spiritual and pure its government and mode of worship may be thought, is endowed with any exclusive right to that dignified appellation-the holy Catholic Church of CHRIST. Such assemblies are branches of that Church, while they hold the truth as it is in JESUS: but there may be others, whose administrations and ceremonies are very different from those which they have thought fit to adopt, who, as they hold the same truth, do nevertheless form parts of the same universal Church. An attempt to establish this claim, to the exclusion of others, savours more of Popery. than of Protestantism; and is more worthy "the synagogue of Satan," than a congregation professing to believe in that SAVIOUR, whose religion breathes nothing but universal love and good-will towards men. This Church is described as "" holy." We may illustrate this by the language of St. Paul-" CHRIST also loved the Church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it, with the washing of water by the word; that he might present it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy, and without blemish."-It is worthy our observation, that the inspired writers seldom use the word we have translated Church, with reference to the places in which believers were accustomed to meet; but almost invariably to the assembly of the saints itself, wherever it might be convened. Heathen authors employ the same expression, to denote those assemblies of the people which were held by order of the magistrates. Wherever, therefore, the people of GOD meet, there we behold a branch of the Catholic Church. In times of persecution, such have been found in the wilderness, among the rocks, or in the dens and caverns of the earth. In the present day, each of these, through the divine goodness, may sing-" The lines have fallen unto me in a fair place, yea I have a goodly heritage."-Of the universal Church, a part now surrounds the throne of GOD in heaven, employed in singing

the song of Moses and of the LAMB;" a part, dispersed among the nations, is now glorifying the REDEEMER upon earth. At the appointed time, these will be united; then "there shall be one fold, under one shepherd," even JESUS CHRIST the righteous. Such is the holy Catholic Church. I pray God that each of us may be numbered among its members!pp. 277–279.

We could have wished this spirit had so far prevailed, as to expunge a sentence or two, in which an angry stroke is levelled at separatists; these persons would, perhaps, ask why they should be accused of separating from a church, to which they

were never united.

One passage in the sixth Lecture appears to depart from the wise and profitable style of reflection, which generally pervades the volumes.

A child of God knows this by his own experience. He finds, even in the most solemn acts of religious adoration, that his heart is prone to wander; evil thoughts trouble him: his mind is distracted by the cares of this world; he is reflecting upon the transactions of yesterday, or contem. plating the business of to-morrow, even while his unconscious lips utter


the words of prayer and praise in the LORD's temple. Hence we re mark so many wandering eyes and such obvious inattention to the divine service, in our religious assemblies.' p. 186.

Obvious inattention to the divine service should not be termed one of the infirmities of the children of God; for, on the contrary, it is the most striking mark by which those may be known, whose hearts are going after their idols.. It is of pernicious tendency to represent the characteristics of the hypocrite, as the failings of the sincere.

We are afraid, also, that an observation, p. 253, may be misconstrued; it laments the evil, that "the understandings of many are enlightened by the variety of religious tracts which have been dispersed, who, if the voice of conduct may be credited, still continue the servants of sin." We need not remark, that the depravity of the human heart is the evil to be lamented, and not the diffusion of religious knowledge, which, in some, serves only to manifest that depravity, while to many others it is the dayspring from on high, and a light unto their feet which guides them in the way of life. This objection is by no means applicable to the dispersion of tracts, more than to preaching, reading, and all the means of grace; nor do we imagine that it was the preacher's design to urge any such objection; we only regret that his meaning, through want of care, was expressed in a manner that is liable to misconception.

At the conclusion of the Lord's Prayer, we find this remark:

The word Amen, which in our lips has only the voice of prayer, should the Lord condescend to adopt it, has all the force and energy of an absolute conimand. With us, it amounts to no more than this— Let it be !—with Him, this is the language thereof It shall be !—If He speak the word it is done; if He command, it shall stand fast for ever. Oh, if it be his will, may the LORD be graciously pleased to crown our imperfect petitions with his almighty fiat!-Then shall we receive the things that we have asked, to the relief of our necessities, and to the setting forth of his glory.' p. 169.

The following paragraph illustrating one of the responses in the Litany, will shew how Dr. D. establishes the scriptural propriety of the expressions, and applies them to his hearers.

"Remember not, LORD, our offences, nor the offences of our forefathers, neither take thou vengeance of our sins; spare us, good LORD! spare thy people, whom thou hast redeemed with thy most precious blood, and be not angry with us for ever! Spare us, good LORD!"-GOD is said to remember sin, when He takes vengeance for it, and pours out his wrath upon the transgressors. Thus we read "Great Babylon came into remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath." In this short sentence, we acknowledge our offences against God, deprecate his judgements, and pray that we may be spared according to the riches of his grace. This petition is

addressed unto the LORD JESUS CHRIST, and presented before Him, by those who are interested in his love. He alone shed his blood for sinners; and none but believers can call themselves his "people, whom He hath redeemed with his most precious blood." What, then are believers also transgressors? Do they need the sparing mercy of God? The beloved disciple shall answer this question:" If we say then that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us; but if we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness."-The request that God would spare us, is established upon this declaration of his mercy to penitent, contrite offenders; and, blessed be his name, we know that "He retaineth not his anger for ever, because He delighteth in mercy." But we are here taught to pray against the offences of our forefathers." The reason of this prayer is found in the subsequent extract from the Holy Scripture:-"I, the LORD thy GOD, am a jealous GOD, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me." If children walk in the steps of their parents' wickedness, they must expect to be partakers of their punishment. We, who are so guilty, have the most abundant cause to deprecate the divine wrath, even upon this account.' pp. 348, 349.

The style of writing and thinking which Dr. D. pursues, is in general intitled to the solid praise of being appropriate to the subject, and profitable to the reader. Sometimes, however, an eagerness to work into the language a number of scriptural figures places them in an aukward position, and produces a kind of embroidery, that is offensive to a correct taste. As, when the effects of divine grace on the soul are described, it is said, "the feet and ankle bones receive strength to run in the way of God's commands." Trifling faults of this kind might be avoided, without affecting that plain and useful manner which Dr. Draper has adopted, with far higher views than that of producing a work of classical elegance. In the same spirit, and with the same good wishes for its usefulness, that he has expressed, we cordially recommend this perspicuous, sensible, evangelical exposition, to all those who love the Liturgy, and the principles on which it was compiled.

Art. X. An Introduction to the Study of Moral Evidence; or, of that Species of Reasoning which relates to Matters of Fact and Practice. With an Appendix, on debating for Victory, and not for Truth. By James Edward Gambier, M. A. 12mo. pp. 163, Price 3s. 6d. Rivington, Hatchard. 1806.

THE province of demonstration is a very exalted, but a contracted and secluded region. Its votary finds himself in a situation somewhat like the narrow ridge of the summit of Mont Blanc, where the atmosphere is refined to ethereal subtilty, where the stars appear with a lustre unknown to the people of the world beneath, where the man of science apprehends

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