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liberality and religion, neither the same trials, nor the same number of them, can be afforded for the courage of the modern Quakers, as were afforded for that of their predecessors. But as far as there are trials, the former exhibit courage proportioned to their weight. This has been already conspicuous in the bearing of their testimony, either in those cases where they run the hazard of suffering by opposing the customs of the world, or where, by refusing a compliance with legal demands, which they believe to be antichristian, they actually suffer. Nor are these sufferings often slight, when we consider that they may be made, even in these days of toleration, to consist of confinement, as the law now stands, for years, and it may happen even for life, in prison.

This feature of courage in life, which has been attached to the character of the Society, is the genuine offspring of the trait of "The bearing of their Testimony." For by their testimony it becomes their religion to suffer, rather than comply with many of the laws and customs of the land. But every time they get through their sufferings, if they suffer conscientiously, they gain a victory, which gives them courage to look other sufferings in the face, and to bid defiance to other persecutions.

This feature is generated, again, by all those circumstances, which have been enumerated, as producing the quality of independence of mind; and it is promoted again, by the peculiar customs of the Society., For a Quaker is a singular object among his countrymen. His dress, his language, and his customs mark him. One person looks at him. Another, perhaps, derides him. He must summon resolution, or he cannot stir out of doors and be comfortable. Resolution, once summoned, begets resolution again, till at length he acquires habits superior to the looks, and frowns, and ridicule of the world.' PP. 217-220.

Against almost all the imperfections which Mr. C. mentions to be charged upon the Quakers generally, including want of literary cultivation, superstition, obstinacy, money-getting spirit, insensibility, evasiveness, slyness, disregard to truth, Mr. C. successfully defends them; that of a money-getting spirit, however, must be excepted, which he partially admits to be too true.

In a section of miscellaneous particulars, Mr. C. shews the Quakers to be a happy people, and a blessing to society. It is, however, admitted, that their numbers are on the decline in this country, and that the grandchildren of the rich generally go off into the world; for which some causes are suggested, and some remedies proposed. To us Mr. C. appears incompetent to discover the disease at the vitals of the society, or prescribe the remedy. The want of sufficient evangelical instruction (which, by the bye, is a considerable deduction from the excellence of their system of education) is incontrovertibly proved; and where this evil prevails, a society can no more thrive, as a Christian church, than the fields of na ture can flourish, without the solar light. Meetings wholly silent are like the long nights of winter, which may find advocates to speculate on their utility,while at the same moment

their continuance is practically deplored. It is proposed to give the Quakers a better literary education, which, supposing other things to remain as they are, would only exchange decline for ruin. Mr. C. underrates the dangers and antichristian tendency of classical studies. We were amused with his project for a Quaker edition of the classics; for when all the war and the oaths, the vile passions, false principles, and demon gods, of the Iliad, are gone, what will be left? It may then indeed be included in a nutshell, and even the forlorn ghost of Hector will have more body, blood, and vigour. We agree with our worthy author, in his strictures on the practice of excommunicating all those who marry out of the society. Should no difference be made between the precious and the vile? Ought the same punishment to be inflicted for marrying a man of eminent piety, though of another communion, as for uniting with an open profligate or infidel? The King of Saints has imposed no other law, than "they are at liberty to marry, only in the Lord."

In estimating the moral character of the Quakers, as a criterion of the excellence of Quakerism, some difficulties arise from the circumstances of their constitution, to which we could have been pleased to find Mr. C. particularly adverting. It is difficult to say how far the exterior morality of conduct among individuals may be produced by the fear of exclusion, and how far by the tendency of the system to promote virtuous habits. Here the true value of that moral conduct is implicated. It is also difficult to say how much the society is indebted for its reputable character, to the operation of its discipline in excluding those who would disgrace it. And here the true value of the system is concerned.

A difficulty of the same kind arises in comparing this society with other religious bodies, as to the proportion of moral persons and the nature of their morality. The moral character of any society, cæteris paribus, must depend on the strictness of its terms of membership. A society which admits no persons without a credible pledge for moral conduct, and which retains none who forfeit it, must necessarily secure a very high character; and less, in proportion to its laxity. But for a fair comparison to be instituted between the systems which influence two societies, their strictness in discipline ought to be equal. Now this is not the case between the Society of Friends and other religious communities. Compared with the Church of England, and with the congregation among the separating communions, from which none are excluded on account of immoral conduct, it might be expected a priori to be, as it unquestionably is, far superior, though the mode of admission, chiefly by birth, is the same in each society. Compared with those members who form the

church, among the dissenters, where a profession of religious belief, as well as a reputable character, is essential to admission, as well as to continuance, it might be expected to prove inferior in a just estimate of comparative excellence. The superiority of the system in any of these cases, cannot be definitely ascertained by the superiority of moral excellence in the body, unless the terms of membership be similar.

As we deem piety essential to genuine excellence of character, it must be observed, that, supposing the conduct of every quaker (which no one pretends) to be strictly regular, there may be, and doubtless is, a strong distinction of the society into two classes, however apparently homogeneous ;-those who do possess true religion, and those who do not. The terms of membership render it easy, and the want of due religious instruction renders it likely, that many persons of the latter class should remain undiscovered among them. When a deficiency of scriptural knowledge has been found in this class, they have been deemed deistical; and when the same deficiency has been found in the other, combined with sincere and cordial piety, they have been thought mystical. Hence it is, we conceive, that two characters have been on different occasions applied to the whole body, when either was only applicable, perhaps, to some individuals. It is believed that the Society is taking measures for supplying this defect. We embrace this opportunity to remark, however, that in charging the Friends with mysticism, on account of their concern to watch the operations, and preserve the tranquility, of their minds, there is danger of falling into the extreme of neglecting both. The evils to be avoided in regard to impressions and feelings, are, on one side, superseding the authority and mistaking the purport of scripture; on the other, a disregard and practical denial of divine influence.


Mr. C.'s talents as a writer are well known. The plan of his interesting work is regular and perspicuous, though somewhat too extended; and his style, though deficient in strength and compactness, has that air of amenity, yet of earnestness, which, we are persuaded, is the character of his mind. he often appears confused between darkness and light, and influenced by contradictory principles. His philosophy, is sometimes derived from Greece, and sometimes from Judea. Now he speaks of mankind as if he were aware of the fall, and then he reasons as if that awful event had never reached his ears. From just views of God, as a moral governor, he often draws inconsequent principles. A warin admirer of Christian morals, he enforces their adoption by men, who yet are supposed not to become Christians; forgetful of the Saviour's simile, "" no man can put a piece of new cloth on

an old garment." With professions, and we believe principles, liberal and catholic, he has given to his work a sectarian tinge, by uniformly representing the Quakers as the engrossers of all true Christianity. While he has, to the satisfaction of the candid, repelled the charge of crafty evasion which has been urged against the Quakers, a penetrating eye cannot but perceive the studious adroitness with which he has given prominence to their excellences, and softened down their defects; producing, with apparent frankness, the trivial objections which he was eager to answer, and passing by in prudent silence, several which are more serious and stubborn. He confesses, indeed, that he is enamoured of the people, who have so nobly co-operated in the benevolent efforts for the abolition of the Slave Trade; and while we own the charms which have fixed his heart, and express our admiration for many parts of their character, we ask, who would give implicit credit to the portrait of a lover?

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Art. V. Bibliographical Dictionary; containing a Chronological Account, alphabetically arranged, of the most Curious, Scarce, Useful, and Important Books, in all Departments of Literature, which have been published in Latin, Greek, Coptic, Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac, Chaldee, Ethiopic, Arabic, Persian, Armenian, &c. from the Infancy of Printing to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century. With Biographical Anecdotes of Authors, Printers, and Publishers; a distinct Notation of the Editiones Principes, and Optima : &c. &c. 6 vols. 12mo. pp. 1876. 17. 16s. large paper, 27. 14s. Baynes. 1102-1804.

Art. VI. The Bibliographical Miscellany; or Supplement to the. Bibliographical Dictionary. 2 vols. 12mo. pp. 667. price 12s. L. P. 18s. Baynes. 1806.

Vol. I. containing, 1. An Account of the English Translations, of all the Greek and Roman, Classick and Ecclesiastical Writers; the Authors alphabetically, and the Translations chronologically arranged, with the Time as near as it could be ascertained in which each Writer flourished, and critical Judgements on the Merit of the principal Translations, extracted from the best Authorities. 2. An extensive List of Arabic and Persian Grammars, Lexicons, and elementary Treatises, with a particular Description of the principal Works of the best Arabic and Persian prose and poetic Writers, whether printed or in Manuscript; and such English Translations of them as have already appeared before the British Public.

Vol. II. containing 1. Remarks on the Origin of Language, and Alphabetical Characters. 2. A short History of the Origin of Printing, and Inventors of the Typographic Art. 3. The Introduction and Perfection of the Art in Italy. 4. A Catalogue of Authors and their Works on Eibliography and Typography, divided into four Classes. 5. An alphabetical List of all the Towns and Cities where Printing was carried on in the fifteenth Century, with the Title, &c. of the first Book printed in

each Place. 6. An Essay on Bibliography, or Treatise on the Knowledge and Love of Books. 7. Several Bibliographical Systems, teaching the proper Method of arranging Books in a large Library. 8.A complete Table of the Olympiads, from their Commencement, B. C. 776, to A. D. 220. 9. The Roman Calendar at large. 10. The Hijrah or Mohammedan Era, connected with the Christian; from its Commencement, A. D. 622. to A. D. 2200; by which any corresponding Year in each may be seen at one View. 11. Tables of the Khalise, Kings of Persia, &c. from the Death of Mohammed to the present Time. THESE volumes, of whose ample, but faithful, title-pages,. we have given almost a complete transcript, are evidently intended to form one connected work. The very nature of such a work precludes analytical description, or any other mode of review, except remarks on its general merits and on select


That Bibliography is an interesting, and even a fascinating, study, needs not to be remarked. Its importance, in relation to all the objects of human knowledge, and its absolute necessity to every man of letters who would avoid endless perplexities and disappointments, are equally obvious. But, though our country has always produced scholars of the first eminence, possessing the knowledge and love of books by a legitimate title, the actual use of them; and not a few virtuosi, whose insatiable avidity in collecting, per fas atque nefas, rare and valuable copies of works to themselves perhaps unintelligible, has originated in no motive but folly and absurd pride; the present publication is, we believe, the first attempt made in Britain, toward a comprehensive view of the chief departments in bibliographical science. Germany, France, and Italy, have produced several works of great research and labour in those studies. Yet, if we except the valuable notices from Maittaire, Psalmanazar, and Bowyer, which were confined to the early printed editions, we had no guide to Classical Bibliography, till the publication of Harwood's View in 1778. The design of that book was excellent, its plan was good, and its execution, at least in the first edition, such as merited praise. But its defects were numerous, its commendations often ridiculously extravagant, its censures sometimes vulgar and abusive, and frequently unjust, its egotism insufferable, and, in the last and amplest edition, its inaccuracies truly shameful. A much more respectable work, Mr. Dibdin's Introduction to the knowledge of rare and valuable editions of the classics*', has been given to the world while the dictionary before us was in a course of publication. Mr. D. professed to comprise, in his arrangement, only "the most popular Greek and Latin Classics;" and from his idea of this description he has * Ecl. Rev. Vol. I. p. 852. Ii.


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