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myself, that they will not have appeared irres levant : but that they may be considered to fupply an important collateral evidence in fupport of the truth ; by showing, that the fancied diftinction, which this great Apostle is fo often represented to make between Chriftian faith, and Christian works, to the great difparagement of the latter, does in reality not exist in his writings ; bụt is founded on a milconception of his argument, and a consequent mifrepresentation of his doctrines. Such a misrepresentation was probably of very early date, and gave occasion to “ the false and perW tilent conceits of some persons, who, misW taking St. Paul's expressions and doctrine, “ perverted them to the maintenance of Soli" fidian, Eunomian, and Antinomian princi“ ples, greatly prejudicial to good practice 9." And it appears to have been a sense of its fal. lacy and danger, which, in the judgment of Austin and of many of the ancients, prompted the rest of the Apostles to be more assiduous and earneft in the recommendation of Chriftian holiness'; and more especially induced

Barrow's Works, vol. ii. p. 57.

Illud etiam notatu haud indignum eft, quod veterum multi (eofque inter Augustinus) çensent, epistolam Jacobi, et Johannis primam, et Judæ, et eam quæ Petri secunda dicitur, fcriptas adversus eos, qui Paulinas Epiftolas prave interpretantes, fidem dicebant line bonis operibus

St. James to insist fo strongly on the necefsity of a lively operative faith ; to contend that « by works a man is justified, and not by faith onlyą;" to represent “ faith as made per.

fect by works';” and to assert, and to reite rate his assertion, not without an appearance of contempt for the “

vanity” of the opinions he was correcting, “ that faith, if it hath not ¢ works, is dead, being alone".

Having thus endeavoured to clear our way by removing, what appear to me, certain ere roneous and unscriptural notions, by which it was obstructed, I am at liberty to take a more general furvey of the subject; and to prove from an enlarged view of the facred writings, that good works are a condition, indifpenfably necellary for those, who would derive any ube timate benefit from their participation in the Gofpel covenant, and be finally justified in the fight of God. I say “ finally justified.;" for, inasmuch as the justification noticed by St. Paul, which we have confidered to be (as the learned Barrow reprefents the Apostle's doen trine) “ the immediate consequent or special “ adjunct of baptísm*,” avowedly takes 'effect

ad falatem fufficere. See Bifhop Bull's Harmonia Apoft. Diff. JI. cap. v. sect. 2. and Bishop Horne's Sixteen Ser? mons, p. 65. James ii. 24.

t Ibid. 22. • Ibid. 17, 20, 26. * Works, vol. i. p. 59.7

in this world ; and as our Saviour no less in disputably speaks of our justification " in the

day of judgmenty,” we hold ourselves warranted in distinguishing, with Cranmer and his brethren in the reformation”, between our first and our final justification; and in maintaining with the homily, after Chryfoftom, that justification or falvation once had, may be “ loft again':” notwithstanding the supercilious rejection of the doctrine by our opponents as "a Popilh and a Socinian notion,” “ of the

very essence of Popery,”: " the offspring of “ pride opposing the word of truth b.” For we are not to be deterred from our adherence to what we efteem the truth of Scripture, by the stratagem, rather ingenious than creditable, of an invidious appellation ; conceiving it to have been piously and wisely answered by a Sovereign of our own, “ To say that an

argument is naught, because the Papists “ make use of it, or that a thing is good, be“ cause it is practised by some of the reform“ ed churches, does not carry any conviction

y Matt. xii. 37.
? See the Necessary Doctrine, &c. as above.

• See Homily on Good Works, part i. page 40. Oxford edit.

Overton, p. 179, 209. Sir Richard Hill's Reforma. tion Truth restored, pref. p. xii. Venn's Duty of Man, pref.

and 6

“ at all with it in my mind; nor will it ever, « until you can demonstrate, either that the “ latter are infallible, or that the former main6 tain no truths at all.” The fact

appears to be correctly stated by the remark of a zealous opposer of Antinomianism; and the remark deserves the serious attention of those, who think to disparage our cause by such invidious

railing accusations ;" that " in our well“ meant zeal against Popery we have been & driven to an extreme, and have not done

good works justice."

With these notions of jųftification, which I trust I neither value myself, nor wish to be adopted by others, farther than as they correspond with the representations of Scripture, I cannot enter into the objection of a very respectable and temperate advocate, in the present day, of justification by faith alone ; who, allowing the expression of conditions of falvation,

" when used in reference to the final re“ fult of religion,” steadily excepts againft the notion of " conditions of justification. As the fubject presents itself to my mind, surveyed through the medium of holy writ, there is a salvation, as well as a juftification, which we

• Charles the First. See Brandt's History of the Reformation in the Low Countries, Dedication, p. 11.

Fletcher's First Check to Antinomianism, p. 72.
See Zeal without lopovation, p. 84.

regard as " a perfectly gratuitous act of God," conferred on us by faith alone ; faith, not distinguished from good works, but in the sense, wherein it has now been explained: there is also a justification, as well as a falvation, no less referred “ to the final result of religion," and no less depending on certain conditions. In other words I would be understood to say, that we shall not be justified in the fight of God at the last day, without the concurrence of Christian works, co-operating with Christian faith.

It would however be a waste of and an insult upon your patience, were I to fet myself formally and fully to demonstrate, what is delivered with fuch plainnefs, and at the fame time with fuch variety of expresfions throughout the New Testament, that as without faith it is impossible to please God'," fo also “ without holiness no man shall see the Lord 8:"-that if, in the language of King Edward's Catechism, “ faith, or rather truft « alone, doth lay hand upon, understand, and « perceive our righteous making to be given us « of God freely, that is to say, by no \ deserts of our own, but by the free grace

of “ the Almighty Father ";" in the language of

your time,


Heb. xj. 6.

& Ibid. xii. 14. Encliiridion Theologicum, vol. i. p. 43.

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