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66 works in the hearts of men to incline their 6 wills whithersoever he will, whether it be " to good or to evil u?" Surely whatever gloss the supporters of these positions may attempt to put upon their deformity, when we connect them with the resolution of every thing into the “ certain, immutable, and most efficacious “ will of God," and with the position, “ that “ whatever comes to pass, comes to pass by “ virtue of the absolute omnipotent will of “ God, which is the primary and fupreme

cause of all things y;" to affirm, that God willeth the being and commission of fin, is to affirm that his will, his certain, immutable, and most efficacious will, bis absolute and omnipotent will, is the primary and fupreme cause of it.

Shall I be called upon to disprove such positions; and to show, tow God can be omnipotent, if sin be not the result of his will? I anfwer, that such inquiries are much better shut up

in the general declarations of Scripture, which teach us, that “God tempteth not any “ man,” that she is not a God that hath plea“ fure in wickedness?," and that “this is the “ will of God, even our fanctification *;" and in

u De Grat. et lib. Arb. cap. xxi.
y Toplady, p. 43.
a i Thell, iv. 3.

* Enchir. C. xxvii,
z Pl. v.4.

those general representations, which refer us no farther for the cause of fin, than to the feductions of our fpiritual enemy, and to the depraved appetites of our own sinful nature. For, as to that paffage in Isaiah, (and if there be

any others of the same tendency,) “I make

peace and create evil; I the Lord do all « these things b;" that is a wise and pious diftinction, which Melanchon infifts

between fin and the punishment of fin; rightly maintaining, that it is of the latter that the Prophet (peaks, for that he ascribes, not moral evil, but penal fufferings to the creation of God, who ordained them in righteous vengeance for the fins of his people.


• If. xlv. 7. See Toplady, p. 60.

< Amos iii. Non eft malum in civitate, quod non fecit Dominus. Hujusmodi dicta cumulantur ab iis, qui vociferantur, Deum effe caufam peccati. Hic autem nota fit omnibus vetus et neceffaria distinctio. Differunt peccatum et pæna. Ac ufitate peccatum nominatur malum culpæ, quod eft averfio a Deo et odium Dei, quod nequaquam vult Deus, et nequaquam efficit. Sed pænæ funt deftructiones rerum aut corporum, ut incendia, diluvia, morbi, fames ; aut in anima pavor aut dolor, horribiliter puniens eam : talis pæna eft opus justitiæ Dei, et nominatur malum pænæ : fæpe igitur Prophetæ fic loquuntur, Deum hæc mala efficere, id eft, has pænas velle ordine juftitiæ. Sic Jerem. inquit in Threnis, cap. iii. Quis dixit, ex

ore altiffimi nec bona nec mala veniunt. Ubi objurgat Epicureos, qui fomuiant, res fecundas et adverfas casu accidere. Sic et apud Jesa. cap. xlv. Ego Deus faciens pacem et creans malum, de rebus secundis et pænis intelligatur. De Causa Peccati, Op. vol. ii. p. 239.

In the mean time, that these doctrines of Calvinism are essentially different from those of the fatalifts of old, which Juftin Martyr represents as diametrically opposite to such as were taught by the Apostles and embraced by the primitive Church", it is for their abettors, if possible, to prore; and to exonerate themfelves from the charge alleged against the patrons of necessity by Eusebius, that “ their

opinions abfolve finners from guilt, as doing

nothing of their own accords which is evil, " and would cast all the blame of all the wick• edness committed in the world upon God " and upon his providence; whether he bim“ self impel them to wickedness against their “ will, or order matters so that they be con« ftrained to do it by fome other caufe.”

« Ούτω γαρ ημεις την εκπυρωσιν φαμεν γενήσεσθαι, αλλ' εχ' ως οι Στωικοι κατα τον της εις αλληλα παντων μεταβολης λογον και αισχισον εφανη· αλλ' εδε καθ' ειμαρμένην πραττειν της ανθρωπος η πασχειν τα γινομενα, αλλα κατα μεν προαιρεσιν έκαςον κατορθαν η αμαρτάνειν. Juft. Mart. Apol. i. Op. p. 45. edit. Ρar. 1615.

Ειτ' αν αυτος καθ' εαυτον, ειτ' εν σαλιν αυτος δια τινος αλλης προς αυτου μεμηχανημένης αναγκης, τους εκ εθελοντας τοις δε τοις κακους περιβαλλοι, αυτος αν ειη, και εκ αλλος, και παντων κακων σοιητικος και εκ ετ' αν εν δικη ημαρτηκως λεγοιτ' αν ο ανθρωπος, αλλ' ο τοτε ποιητης θεος. και τις αν τοτε γενοιτ' αν έτερος λογων ασεβεσατος ; Εufebii Prep. Evang. lib. vi. c. 6. p. 251. Par


4. Again; He is a God of wisdom: when " he founded the earth and established the hea“ rens," wisdom was his companion and his delight, the partner of his councils, and the inseparable affeffor of the everlasting throne f. But much as the Calvinist would attribute to the divine Omniscience, he circumscribes it within the limits of certain fancied decrees. “ He foreknew," says Austin, “ because he “ predestinated :" “ He therefore foreknows “ the end of man,” says Calvin,

fays Calvin, “ because he 66 has ordained and decreed ith.” Nor can he discover any method for promoting God's honour more suitable to his wisdom, than that of pretending to impose laws whom he has previously disabled from obeying them; of treating men in the work of redemption as mere machines, whom he had created free and reafonable agents; and of

appointing, by an absolute and irrevocable decree, that those things, which he most hates and abhors, should be most practised, and that those, wbich he most loyes and approves of, should be omitted.

upon his

his creatures,

f Prov. iii. 19. viii. 22-30.

9 Hoc eft ergo prædeftinavit: fine dubio enim præscivit, a præcleftinavil. Auguft. de Dono Perfev. cap. xviii.

Inficiari nemo poterit, quin præsciverit Deus quem exitum habiturus effet homo, antequam ipsum conderet; et ideo præfciverit, quia decreto fuo fic ordinarat. Culo. Inf. IIl. xxiii. 7.

5. Again; He is “ a God of truth." He is not a man that he should lie; and falsehood is the object of his hatred and disgust. “Faith“ ful in his promises,” saith St. Clement, “and

just in his judgments, he who hath com“ manded men not to lie, much less shall he “ be a liar himself; for nothing, but a lie, " is impossible with God k.”

But where, we humbly alk, is his truth, if, as will presently be more fully argued, his covenant be broken, and his promises rendered null? Where is his truth, if it be properly attributed to him by Calvin, that “God hath two wills, the one “ outward and revealed, whereby he most tenderly invites sinners to his

and “ most graciously calls them to repentance, “ seeming as though he were earnestly defir• pus of their salvation; whereas his other 66 will is inward and secret, which is irresisti66 ble, and takes effect infallibly; and by this “ he brings men through ways unavoidable “ to an estate and course of fin here, and then


to eternal damnation and punishment here“ after'?” “ Let us not pretend that there are

1 Deut. xxxi. 4.

* Ταυτη εν τη ελπιδι προσδεδεσθωσαν αι ψυχαι ημων τω πισω εν ταις επαγγέλιαις, και το δικαιω εν τοις κριμασιν. “Ο παραγξειλας μη ψευδεσθαι πολλα μαλλον αυτος και ψευσεται. Ουδεν γαρ aduyatov 5W €w, es un to tevraode.. Epift. i. ad Cor. cap.

? Hoc verum eft, quia neminem ex peccatoribus, qui

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