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he was enabled to present the subjects which he handled in the most vivid and attractive manner, so as to carry conviction and to excite admiration. For a time he was Professor, and afterwards President, of the College of Columbia, South Carolina. He was afterwards pastor for short periods in several important charges, and, during the last seven years of his life, Professor in the Theological Seminary. At different times he edited several periodicals, and had a chief part in originating and conducting the Southern Presbyterian Review, which yet maintains a deservedly high position among the ablest theological quarterlies of our day. Dr. Thornwell's articles, in many of the leading periodicals of his time, display singular fulness of research, and force of expression, aud cogent reasoning, and had no small influence in forming and directing public opinion. His admirable Collected Writings ” issued from the Southern press since bis decease, in four massy volumes, contain expositions and defences of the Calvinistic system, Lectures, and Sermons, characterized by profound thought and moving eloquence, and controversial pieces which exhibit much critical acumen, rare candour, and fervent love of the truth. These memorials of a truly distinguished man cannot fail to impress every one who peruses them, whether he agrees with all the author's views or not, that Dr. Thornwell was no ordinary man, and to inspire the feeling of regret that he was removed by death so early, while his mental powers were in full vigour, and the work which he contemplated was yet unfinished. But thus it frequently happens in the dispensations of an all-wise Providence, that we may be impressively taught not to glory in man, and that God may be seen as in no wise indebted to human instrumentality for carrying on His own work in the earth.

In the venerable Dr. Palmer of New Orleans-his friend, fellowstudent, and at one time colleague, as a professor in the Theological Seminary, Dr. Thornwell has found an eminently suitable biographer. In all respects this full sketch of the life, character, and literary labours of this distinguished man is admirably written. Though we are not prepared to endorse every sentiment, either of the author or of the subject of the memoir, yet we are constrained to accord to the work the meed of high regard, and unaffected praise. The sketch of Dr. Thornwell's life, work, and character, is highly appreciative and laudatory, but certainly not more so than the subject requires. The Letters, of wbich a large number are contained in this volume—whether relating to important doctrines, or public questions, or the tokens of friendship and sympathy—form an admirable portrait of the mental and moral features of the writer. They are truly Cardiphonia” letters—utterances of the heart, giving throughout clear evidence of vigorous thinking, sound judgment, and of a tender, genial, devoted Christian spirit. The general review contained in the concluding chapter, of the life and character of Dr. Thornwell, in which he is regarded as an Editor, a Professor of Theology, a Philosopher, a Theologian, a Preacher, a Presbyter, a Christian, and a man, is in all respects admirable. It is not only a high tribute to the memory of rare departed worth, but it presents much that

is calculated to be of lasting benefit to ministers and others who are engaged in the public work of the Church. The closing paragraph of this review may be quoted as a specimen of the fine style of the memoir :

“Dr. Thornwell's affections were warm and endearing. Lifted by his own greatness above temptation to jealousy, he rejoiced in the promotion of others. Generous in all his instincts, there was no sacrifice he would not make for his friends. Indulgent to his own household, he sought to make life's path less rugged to their feet, by smoothing over every disappointment, not permitting them to be annoyed by the anxieties of earth. Cherishing in his own soul the utmost loyalty to truth, and certain of her ultimate triumph, he was not soured when thwarted in his plans. In this way, the dew of his youth was never exhaled. He remained elastic and fresh to the last-no generous sentiment or instinct of his nature being withered by age. With such attributes, he had the power of all truly great men, of magnetizing those brought under his influence; and it must have been a very strong, or a very feeble nature, that did not yield to his attraction. He bound his friends to him by cords of love, which death itself has been unequal to break.

“He was one
The truest mannered : such a holy witch
That he enchants societies unto him ;

Half all men's hearts were his.” Such was the man whom the Church of God has not yet ceased to mourn ; such a man as Mr. Carlyle describes—"a great thinker who taught other men his way of thought, and spread the shadow of his own likeness over sections of the world's history. One so brave, so generous, so true, that admiration for his genius was lost in affection for the man. Alas! that death should have power to crush out such a life.”


SPLENDID BOOK ON BAPTISM, in Four Vols. By James W. Dale, D.D., Delaware, Pennsylvania. I. Classic Baptism; II. Judaic Baptism; III. Johannic Baptism ; IV. Cbristic and Patristic

Baptism. It would be difficult, even in a lengthened review, to convey to the readers of this Magazine any adequate idea of the immense labour and research which these volumes display, and of the singular ability with which the author successfully grapples with and overturns the principal arguments of Baptist writers in reference to their grand position that Baptism relates only to the mode and is alone performed by immersion. In perusing any of these volumes, one is altogether amazed at the thorough acquaintance which the author discovers with the exact meaning and application of the original termswhether verbs, nouns, particles, or phrases--at the full knowledge which he manifests of the writings of antiquity, whether Classic, Jewish, or Patristic-of scriptural expressions and usages, and of whatever Baptist theologians have brought forward in support of their favourite dogma. There is, indeed, no pbilological treatise on the subject in our language to be compared with it; it displays a complete mastery of the subject, and is most convincing and exhaustive. With scholarly fidelity, and great diligence, the author has investigated the radical import of the term Baptizo, with its derivations, and has shown its diversified applications. All candid persons who are capable of forming a judgment on the subject must admit that he has demonstrably shown that the word cannot mean, in the Baptist sense, to immerse, merge, plunge or dip. When properly understood, according to primary, and universal, ancient usage, whether Classic, Judaic, Johannic, or Christic and Patristic, it does not express mode, or a definite act of any kind, but condition or state without limitations. The book is, in all its parts, a fine specimen of scholarly, controversial writing, learned, logical, judicious and lucid, and distinguished by candour and a not infrequent sprinkling of caustic wit and good humour. The high commendations which the work has received from the most distinguished theologians and theological colleges, and from leading religious reviews in America, are justly deserved ; when duly considered, they cannot fail to lead such as desire to be fully persuaded on the subject to procure for themselves, and study these elaborate volumes, and to extend their circulation. The remarks of the Central Presbyterian on the volume on Classic Baptism may be taken as a specimen of the estimate in which Dr. Dale's “ Inquiries" on Baptism are regarded by the most competent judges of the American religious press, as well as by Theologians of acknowledged eminence. “This is by far the most important contribution to the subject which has been made during the present century. The doctrine of classic usage, propounded by Baptist writers, is fully weighed, and found wanting. The author is eminently fair in dealing with his opponents. He is always respectful, and good natured, and modest. This long controverted question has fallen into the hands of a brother who is able to explain it to the foundations. We earnestly advise all who desire to read the ablest treatise on the subject, which has yet been given in the English language (and, for aught we can tell, in any other), to purchase this book, and digest it well, as preliminary to others to come. Should they equal this, Dr. Dale

. will be entitled to the thanks of the Church, and held as facile princeps' among all Americans who have written upon the subject." A brief notice of each of the separate volumes may suffice to indicate the author's line of argument, in his full discussion of the subject.

I. Classic BAPTISM.—In the Introduction, the author presents a view of Baptist writers, and postulates—offers a number of counter propositions,—then discusses the meaning of the word baptize as given by Baptist writers, and rendered by them dip, plunge, immerse, &c., and applied to moral action. He then shows that eminent Baptist writers are strongly opposed to each other, so that in their statements they not unfrequently contradict themselves. In the renewed investigation of the subject he considers at length the meaning and usage of the Greek word Baptizo, and shows convincingly that it cannot be, as Baptist writers allege, uniformly rendered "to dip." The corner-stone of the Baptist theory, “Baptizing is dipping, and dipping is baptizing," is pure error. In its primary meaning, it denotes, as shewn by numerous Greek writers, “ interposition, with or without influence," and in its secondary, "controlling influence, general and specific.

By numerous quotations from the works of Baptist scholars of the first rank, Dr. Dale shows that they are constrained by the stress of testimony to abandon the definite art theory of “mode,



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and nothing but mode,” which Dr. Carson stoutly maintains. He then considers the views of other Baptist writers, and the proper meaning and application of the terms merse, immerse, and the act, object and end in Baptism. The inquiry is afterwards presented at length on independent evidence. In stating more fully the meaning of the term, he ably shows the inability of Baptists to find a proper representative word, which will apply in all cases, to their mode of administration, and that they involve themselves in confusion and absurdity by attempting to do so. Then we have quotations in great fulness and variety from ancient writers, Greek and Latin, and from modern literature, with remarks upon many of them by Baptist writers. These the author discusses with much critical acumen and candour, proving satisfactorily that they sustain his views of the meaning and use of Baptism, and that they are irreconcilably opposed to those of Baptist writers. After a very full induction of the literal and figurative use of the terms by classic writers of different ages and countries, the author brings out at the close a summary of the whole argument, in a final answer to the question—"Wbat is Classic Baptism.” He says, “ over against the Baptist answers

"1. 'Baptizing is dipping, and dipping is baptizing.'-Baptist Confession of Faith.

“ 2. To dip, and nothing but dip, through all Greek Literature.'Dr. Carson.

“3. To immerse, immerge, submerge, to dip, plunge, to whelm.'Dr. Grant.

I am to place this answer— Whatever is capable of thoroughly changing the character, state, or condition of any object is capable of baptizing that object; and by such change of character, state or condition, does in fact baptize it."

II. JUDAIC BAPTISM. After noticing criticisms Classic Baptism by Baptist writers, the Author considers at length the cases of Baptism recorded in the writings of Josephus, Philo, and the son Sirach. These are presented in a luminous manner, and shown to be completely at variance with the dogmatical views of such Baptist writers as Dr. Carson, in relation to what they teach as the sole mode of baptism. In the second part, we have the Patristic interpretation of passages in the Old Testament, expounded as Judaic baptisms and figures of Christian baptisms, showing plainly their conception of Baptizo. In this portion of the work, he quotes many passages from the historical books, Psalms, and Prophecies of the Old Testamentfrom some portions of the New Testament, and from the Apostles ; and the expositions of these are given by a large number of the Greek and Latin fathers. The evidence here is remarkably full and clear, that the Baptist method of confining the meaning of the term Baptize to the act and mode of immersion, or dipping, has no support whatever from the manifold testimonies of Judaic Baptism, and Patristic interpretations.

In the language of one of the Reviews (Presbyterian–New York) : "He, Dr. D., cites passages from Jewish writers and from the Christian Fathers,


and with the same rare sagacity, and keen discrimination, of which he has shewn himself to be so thorough a master, he demonstrates that baptizo cannot have the exclusive meaning 'dip.' He establishes his position, that all through the Patristic interpretations of Jewish baptisms, it is written in characters so plain, that a wayfaring man, though a fool, need not err therein-that a dipping and covering with water never enters into their thoughts as a requisite for baptism. Indeed, the incongruity, that results from a logical application of the theory he opposes becomes absolutely ridiculous. As an intellectual discipline the work will invite and reward study."

III. JOHANNIS BAPTISM.-With like patient research, keen analysis, exbaustive argument, and genial manner, the author, in this volume treats the subject of Johu's Baptism. It is distinguished for clearness and depth of criticism, candour, and earnestness of spirit—and an implicit submission to the conclusions, which careful exegesis, and sound logic establish as the legitimate meaning of inspired truth. We have been particularly pleased with the author's sound and scholarly views, so clearly put and ably sustained, of the meaning and application of Greek prepositions in connection with Baptism, and of the import of such phrases as “baptism of repentance," and “baptism unto the remission of sins.” He shows with convincing power that the Greek preposition en, in the connection in which it occurs in John's baptism, can only mean the instrument and not the element, and that the phrase “unto repentance " is to be taken as characterizing the distinction between John's baptism and that of others. The assumption that B:iptizo always requires the enveloping element of water is completely disproved, and shown to be a pure

The work has been justly said to be “a monument of learning and ability." A person who carefully studies it, and who is capable of entering into the author's criticisms and reasoning, will find in it a well-furnished armoury of polished weapons with which he will be prepared to repel the assaults of the ablest Baptist writers upon the Scriptural mode of baptism.

IV. CHRISTIC AND PATRISTIC BAPTISM.—This concluding volume of these “ Inquiries” is even more full and exhaustive than its pr:decessors, but marked throughout by the same spirit of keen criticisin, exact interpretation, and candour in dealing with the views which are controverted. It discusses at length the question—“What is Christic Baptism ?” treats of Christ—the Baptism by the Holy Ghost-of Christian Baptism preached-of Baptism preached incorporated as a rite—of the ritual baptism of households—Doctrinal truth grounded on real baptism, of supposed allusions to Ritual Baptism, and of real Baptism into the name of the Trinity, and through discipleship into Christ. Then under the head of Patristic Baptism are discussed at length, the import of Baptizo in general usage-Baptisma-Baptism with water and the Spirit-burial in Baptism-and Baptizo in special usage. The Final Results are thus summarily stated in the close :

"1. The BAPTISM OF INSPIRATION is a thoroughly changed spiritual condition of the soul, effected by the power of the Holy Ghost, through the cleansing blood of the Lord Jesus Christ, and so making it meet for reconciliation, subjection and assimilation to the one fully revealed living and true God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.


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