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sion. On 5th July I accompanied Imdad Masih to Chaopri, where we had a meeting as usual, and conversed with A. D. and N. D. The latter repeated his former declaration of faith, and we brought him with us. He stayed with us till noon, and went away, promising to return next day. He was delayed in connection with some money which he had been induced to lend to some one under false pretences. On Sabbath evening, 8th July, both N. D. and A. D. appeared at the bungalow, where there was a lengthened discussion, in which A. D. was completely silenced. N. D., who seemed in a very hopeful state of mind, put some puzzling questioos to him. N. D. stayed at Imdad Masih's house all night and partook of his food.

Next morning N. D. met another bairagi, whom he brought with him to Imdad Masih's house. A. D. and some others were also present, the latter, though professing to be favourable to religious inquiry, doing all in their power to hinder N. D. from taking any decided step, and doing their best to show that, before doing anything serious in the matter, he should carefully examine the whole subject. Mr Bose, who took the lead in the discussion, thought it advisable to take N. D. and the other bairagi to his own house, so that there might be better opportunity of speaking to them at leisure. The second bairagi at length confessed, with tears in his eyes, that he had spent his life in vain, and that salvation could only be found in Christ. He said that he had never heard the Gospel before, for, whenever he had seen a Christian preach. ing, he always fled from the place.

We asked N. D. to stay in the compound, that he might have full opportunity of learning the truth, to which he consented, sayiog at the same time that he was not afraid of what others might say to him, his faith was so strong. We warned him to beware of trusting in his own strength. He went away, professing that he was going to Imdad Masih's house to get food, &c.; but he neither went there nor returned to the compound, which caused us no little anxiety. The second bairagi returned, and some interesting and encouraging conversation took place.

On Tuesday morning I went along with Imdad Masih to Chaonri, where we found N. D. He had seen several persons in Seoni, who had told him many falsehoods in regard to the way in which missionaries treat converts after baptism. I am sorry to believe, however, that they are not altogether without foundation in some places. 4. D. had persuaded N. D. to delay for a time, promising to receive baptism along with him.

The second bairagi called at Imdad Masih's house that evening, and next day he again called. It came out in conversation that the enemies of the Gospel had been telling him that, after spoiling his religion, we would cast him

off, that we would employ him in work which Hindus consider dishonourable, and that he would not get a wife if he became a Christian. We tried to show him that in the matter of salvation he should consider that he had to deal with God and not with man, and that it would not profit him though he should gain the whole world if he lost his soul. We also tried to disabuse his mind of the wicked insinuations that had been impressed upon him, and assured him that they were the malicious falsehoods of wicked men.

In the afternoon A. D. and N. D. called at the bungalow. A. D. said that much of the error which formerly filled his mind had now been cleared away. Next morning they both called; but they were chiefly concerned about a charge brought against A. D., to the effect that he was a bad character, in which N. D. was indirectly concerned, in connection with the money that he had lost. Probably enough it is a false charge ; for cases of this kind are by no means rare here. N. D. said that he would get out of the way for about a fortnight, till it would he settled, as he did not wish to be mixed up with it. Neither they nor the other bairagi have appeared since, which leads us to fear lest they go back altogether.

The following graphic account of three days' itinerancy will, we doubt not, be read with interest. It shows the difficulties in the way of reaching many of the villages, and the need of strong faith and ardent love to the souls of men on the part of those actively

engaged in missionary work. Under date 28th August, Mr. Anderson thus writes :

A considerable time ago Mr. Bose visited a number of villages in the jungle towards the south-eastern boundary of the Seoni district. Some account of his trip was given in the Magazine shortly afterwards. Since that timo we have been unable to visit them again, though we have often desired to do so. As there had been no rain for about a fortnight previously, we took advantage of three holidays, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of last week, to go in that direction. We proposed to go on straight to Pindrai, a village between 30 and 40 miles from Seoni, which was owned by a Gond, said by his neighbours to be about 125 years of age. We accordingly

left home about 4 o'clock A.m. on Thursday, travelling by the main road to Khawasa, 29 miles distant, from which we turned towards the east. The road was very rough and in several places very narrow, so much so that our small gàri could with difficulty get along. We had about 10 miles of this kind of road through the jungle before we reached our destination. Oo our way we called at a village named Khandasa, hoping to get some milk; but the only thing that we could get was a drink of water,

not at all refreshing, and a few limes, the juice of wbich rendered it drinkable. We had bad some refreshment at Korai, which is about 12 miles from Khandasa ; but the heat of the sun was very intense, and I was suffering much from thirst. The patel sent four men with us to help us over the rough parts of the road. Their help was very necessary, as the road was in some parts very bad, and we had to cross several nullahs (streams), one of them pretty wide. Their channels were for the most part nearly dry ; so that we had no thought of the difficulty of returning. In the evening we reached Piodrai, where we were hospitably entertained, though in a jungly fashion. We found that the old patel had died shortly after Mr Bose's last visit. His eldest son had lost his eyesight several years ago, evidently from age ; and he complained that he was beginning to lose his teeth. The second son is the chief man, and seems to enjoy excellent health. They seem to be about 70 or 80 years of age—I should say pearer 80 than 70. There are seven brothers, wbo along with their families and grandchildren live together in the patriarchal style. In all, excluding servants, they number about 70 persons.

Some of them have two and even three wives. We heard of a Gond who has six wives. Generally speaking, Gonds only marry one wife. After the villagers had partaken of their evening meal, they were called together to hear the Gospel. There was a fair audience ; but we would have had many more, had the rain not begun to fall heavily. The meeting on the whole was a pleasant one. It came out in the course of conversation that the present patel (the second son) had many years ago got an image of Hanuman, the Hindu monkey god, put up in the village, by the advice of some Hiodus. He offers pān to it every Saturday. Pan is a leaf, in which a little lime, betel-nut, and some spice are enclosed. After the meeting we retired to rest, not a little wearied with our journey. We slept on the common charpoys, bedsteads about 4 feet long, in a shed enclosed on three sides, and open towards the interior courtyard. The rain poured heavily all night; and in the morning it seemed impossible for us to go anywhere. I therefore wrote a letter to Mrs Anderson, lest she might become anxious about us should we not be able to return by the appointed time. No one could be found daring enough to cross the streams, aud especially the large one, which was now very deep and strong.

The rain continued more or less all Friday, so that we could not go to Piparwani, a very large village about a mile distant, as we originally intended to do. Being kept prisoners there, we spoke again to the patel and others who were within reach about the folly and sin of idolatry and the only way of salvation. The patel showed us one round and five oblong copper plates, all fastened together by a thick copper ring. On the plates there is an inscription engraved in a peculiar character, which as yet we have not been able to decipher. Neither the patel nor his father knew where they came from, nor how long they had been in the family, por what is the purport of the inscription. Probably they are the title-deeds of the land, and they may possibly be in


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Marathi; but the character is almost as unlike the ordinary Marathi as the Hebrew alphabet is unlike the Roman. I copied the greater part of the plate with the view of investigating the matter.

Friday night there was little rain, and Saturday morning was tolerably clear. After making inquiries of a number of persons, we resolved to attempt our journey homewards by another route. After crossing several streams, which had diminished very much during the night, and passing a village named Pulpuld, we reached Babai. The road was, considering the circumstances, pretty good, but we needed the help of the villagers as we went along. The patel said that he could not give us milk from his own house, as he was engaged in the worship of Krishna ; but he got some for us from another person. From Babai we took the kotwal and another man, who brought us along a miry road to the banks of the Bawanthari river, the largest of those that we had crossed two days previously. There it appeared that the water in some parts was so deep we could not cross, as it reached the armpits of some men who had crossed it, and was coming down with considerable force. We went to Khairghat, an adjacent village, where we were hospitably entertained by the patel. We stayed two hours, to partake of some refreshment, to give the bullocks a rest, to dry our socks and boots, and to address the villagers. We had travelled on foot almost all the way to save the bullocks. The patel accompavied us to the river, bringing eight or ten Gonds with him. The Gonds first carrried our baggage across on their heads, they then dragged the gàri to the other side, and ihe driver took the bullocks. Mr Bose was then seated on a charpoy and carried on the men's shoulders, after which they returned and carried me over. We were very thankful when we reached the homeward side of the river, as there could now be no serious obstacle to binder us from reaching home.

The patel of Khairghat is evidently a very amiable and intelligent man, considering that he has received no education. He put a number of questions which showed that he was thoughtful. For example, he wished to know about fore-ordination and the use of means. He wished to know why it was that Europeans are white, and those who come from the south dark. In his opinion this is caused by the fact that the heat is much greater towards the south than it is towards the north.

After crossing the Bawanthari we had no particular difficulty in reaching home, except that the jungly road was sometimes rather rough. At length we reached the main road, about twenty-three miles from Seoni, which was a great relief to us. When we reached Mohgaon, twelve miles from Seoni, we tried to get a fresh pair of bullocks, as ours were much fatigued. There were done to be had except those that had been ploughing all day, which would have been worse than our own. We were, therefore, compelled to come in with our wearied bullocks, so that we were much longer on the road than would have been necessary in other circumstances. We reached home about eleven o'clock on Saturday evening, thoroughly wearied with our journey. What we chiefly regretted was that we had been able to do so little when we were out. We had hoped that the Gospel would be preached in two important bazaars and in a number of villages, but were disappointed. I am thankful to say that neither Mr Bose nor I suffered any injury from exposure to sun and rain.


The Gospel of St. John, its Authorship and Authenticity. By William Cæsar,

D.D.-William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London. 1877.
We have here an ably written and eminently satisfactory volume on
a question which has of late been much discussed within the region
of Biblical criticism–Did the Apostle John write the Gospel that
bears his name? The question is a seriously important one, forming

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“the battle field of the New Testament." As Dr. Cæsar well remarks in his introductory chapter, “ It has to do with the very foundations of our faith, and has a bearing upon interests which are lasting as eternity. If it could be shewn that the fourth gospel is a forgery —that it is not the work of the Apostle John-that it had its origin in subsequent and in sub-apostolic times—the discovery would land us in perplexity and fill us with dismay. The other gospels might still remain to us—the narrative they unfold might still be revered by us, but the removal of our gospel from the sacred Canon would be attended with the most unhappy results. To deny to our gospel an apostolic authorship, and thus virtually to consign it to the region of romance, would be to withdraw from the armoury of truth one of its weightiest weapons, and would give a blow to the heart of Christendom, from which it would not be possible to recover. In such a case our wail might well be that of Mary at the empty sepulchre : “ They have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid Him.”

Much has been written on the subject on both sides of the question. By critics of the negative or rationalistic school, particularly on the Continent, the apostolic origin of the fourth gospel has been long keenly controverted; and very recently this has been done afresh in our own country by the author of “Supernatural Religion,” to the great delight of the ranks of infidelity. These assaults, however, bave been met and repelled by thoroughly equipped critics of “the school of faith," who have triumphantly established, again and again, the gospel's Johannine authorship. In the book before us, Dr. Cæsar presents us with a clear, succinct view of the controversy, and makes a valuable contribution of his own on the orthodox side. While the book may be read with profit by scholars already well acquainted with the questions at issue, it appears to be specially suited for ordinary intelligent readers who take an interest in such subjects. And we can assure such that they will find it most read. able and deeply interesting, and admirably fitted at once to increase their loving admiration of this "pearl of great price” in the field of revelation, and to confirm their faith in its apostolic authorship and authenticity.

We may briefly indicate the contents of the volume which will show the line our accomplished author takes in his discussion of the subject. After an introduction, in which he states the question, refers to the controversy, and gives a short account of some of the leading Continental assailants of this gospel, he treats in chapter i.of the “Life of John,” and in chapter ii. of the “Genuineness of the Gospel,” proving it from the fourfold testimony, (1) of the gospel itself, (2) of tradition, (3) of the writers of the early Church, and (4) of herétics and others. In chapter iii., he very effectively disposes of the argument against the Johannine authorship, drawn from the “Silence of the historian Eusebius” on the point: and in chapter iv., he takes up in detail the various “ objections ” that have been brought by hostile critics against the gospel's genuineness. Chapter v. is devoted to a discussion of the hypothesis of “mediate authorship," which would ascribe the matter to John, but the composition to


another and later hand. And, in the three concluding chapters, he considers the “time and place of composition," the “desigu of the gospel," and several other topics bearing upon the question. From the opening paragraph of the last chapter we take the following, on the preciousness of this part of Holy Writ; and conclude with again expressing our high estimate of the volume, and the hope that it may find

many readers and be greatly blessed as a “defence of the gospel":

“St. John's Gospel, whose apostolic authorship we have endeavoured in the preceding pages to examine and establish, is one whose preciousness cannot be over-estimated. It has been with thousands in all ages the favourite Gospel, and to it men of all religious tendencies, however diverse and dissimilar, have turned with fondness and appreciation. The more closely we consider its contents, the more will we be convinced that no estimate we may form of it can be regarded as excessive. The heavenliness of its doctrines, the spirituality of its utterances, the sublimity of its style and tone, entitle it to the first rank in evangelical narra tive. Though we have no intention of elevating the fourth Gospel at the expense of the Synoptists, yet we think we may safely affirm that it reveals to us deeper and more divine things, encircles us with higher and more heavenly influences, and inspires us with richer and more animating hopes, and that the light that comes from its pages shines with a clearer and a brighter radiance. The other Gospels show us the way to the holy city, but John's gives us a glimpse of the glory that is within. They carry us from strength to strength till we appea- before God in Zion, but John's introduces us at once into the Holy of Holies.

AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. The Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell, D.D., LL.D. By B.

M. Palmer, D.D., LL.D., 8vo. pp. 614. Richmond, S.C. 1875. The late Dr. Thornwell, of Columbia, South Carolina, was one of the brightest lights of the Southern Presbyterian Church in America in his day. He deservedly occupied a station of the first importance, and exercised an influence most powerful and salutary on the ministry, and throughout the Church generally. As a persevering and successful student on many subjects—especially in Classics, Metaphysics, History, and Jurisprudence, he took a distinguished place at college ; and afterwards throughout life-notwithstanding a weak physical system, and frequent bodily afflictions, which terminated in his death by consumption in the fiftieth year of his age, he prosecuted his studies with unabated vigour, and was acknowledged by those who knew him, as in many respects the first in his country and time, in those departments which he made peculiarly his own.

To original genius of a high order, he joined the most searching investigation, and his mental habits ever displayed accurate judgment and discriminating taste. His acquaintance with English literature was extensive ; and his command of the purest style of English composition, and his fervid eloquence, fitted him as an editor and contributor to periodical literature-a professor, a preacher, and a member of ecclesiastical courts, to produce the most powerful and beneficial effects. Dr. Thornwell's habit was, from the earliest period of his student life, to have recourse to original sources, and to investigate every subject thoroughly; and, gifted as he was to a remarkable degree with powers of the keenest intuition and a refined taste,

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