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Marathi ; but the character is almost as unlike the ordinary Maratbi as the Hebrew alphabet is unlike the Roman. I copied the greater part of the plate with the view of investigating the matter.

Friday night there was little rain, and Saturday morning was tolerably clear. After making inquiries of a number of persons, we resolved to attempt our journey homewards by another route. After crossing several streams, which had diminished very much during the night, and passing a village named Pulpulà, we reached Babai. The road was, considering the circumstances, pretty good, but we needed the help of the villagers as we went along. The patel said that he could not give us milk from his own house, as be was engaged in the worship of Krishna ; but he got some for us from another person. From Babai we took the kotwal and another man, who brought us along a miry road to the banks of the Bawanthari river, the largest of those that we had crossed two days previously. There it appeared that the water in some parts was so deep we could not cross, as it reached the armpits of some men who had crossed it, and was coming down with considerable force. We went to Khairghat, an adjacent village, where we were hospitably entertained by the patel. We stayed two hours, to partake of some refreshment, to give the bullocks a rest, to dry our socks and boots, and to address the villagers. We had travelled on foot almost all the way to save the bullocks. The patel accompanied us to the river, bringing eight or ten Gonds with bim. The Gonds first carrried our baggage across on their heads, they then dragged the gàri to the other side, and the driver took the bullocks. Mr Bose was then seated on a charpoy and carried on the men's shoulders, after which they returned and carried me over. We were very thankful when we reached the homeward side of the river, as there could now be no serious obstacle to binder us from reaching home.

The patel of Khairghat is evidently a very amiable and intelligent man, considering that he has received no education. He put a number of questions which showed that he was thoughtful. For example, he wished to know about fore-ordination and the use of means. He wished to know why it was that Europeans are wbite, and those who come from the south dark.' In his opinion this is caused by the fact that the heat is much greater towards the south than it is towards the north.

After crossing the Bawanthari we had no particular difficulty in reaching home, except that the jungly road was sometimes rather rough. At length we reached the main road, about twenty-three miles from Seoni, which was a great relief to us. When we reached Mohgaon, twelve miles from Seoni, we tried to get a fresh pair of bullocks, as ours were much fatigued. There were done to be had except those that had been ploughing all day, which would have been worse than our own. We were, therefore, compelled to come in with our wearied bullocks, so that we were much longer on the road than would have been necessary in other circumstances. We reached home about eleven o'clock on Saturday evening, thoroughly wearied with our journey. What we chiefly regretted was that we had been able to do so little when we were out. We had hoped that the Gospel would be preached in two important bazaars and in a number

of villages, but were disappointed. I am thankful to say that neither Mr Bose nor I suffered any injury from exposure to sun and rain.

Literature.

The Gospel of St. John, its Authorship and Authenticity. By William Cæsar,

D.D.-William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh & London. 1877. We have here an ably written and eminently satisfactory volume on a question which has of late been much discussed within the region of Biblical criticism-Did the Apostle John write the Gospel that bears his name? The question is a seriously important one, forming

“the battle field of the New Testament." As Dr. Cæsar well remarks in his introductory chapter, “ It has to do with the very foundations of our faith, and has a bearing upon interests which are lasting as eternity. If it could be shewn that the fourth gospel is a forgery --that it is not the work of the Apostle John—that it had its origin in subsequent and in sub-apostolic times—the discovery would land us in perplexity and fill us with dismay. The other gospels might still remain to us—the narrative they unfold might still be revered by us, but the removal of our gospel from the sacred Canon would be attended with the most unhappy results. To deny to our gospel an apostolic authorship, and thus virtually to consign it to the region of romance, would be to withdraw from the armoury of truth one of its weightiest weapons, and would give a blow to the heart of Christendom, from which it would not be possible to recover. In such a case our wail might well be that of Mary at the empty sepulchre : “They have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid Him."

Much has been written on the subject on both sides of the question. By critics of the negative or rationalistic school, particularly on the Continent, the apostolic origin of the fourth gospel has been long keenly controverted; and very recently this has been done afresh in our own country by the author of "Supernatural Religion,” to the great delight of the ranks of infidelity. These assaults, however, have been met and repelled by thoroughly equipped critics of “the school of faith," who have triumphantly established, again and again, the gospel's Johannine authorship. In the book before us, Dr. Cæsar presents us with a clear, succinct view of the controversy, and makes a valuable contribution of bis own on the orthodox side. While the book may be read with profit by scholars already well acquainted with the questions at issue, it appears to be specially suited for ordinary intelligent readers who take an interest in such subjects. And we can assure such 'that they will find it most read. able and deeply interesting, and admirably fitted at once to increase their loving admiration of this "pearl of great price” in the field of revelation, and to confirm their faith in its apostolic authorship and authenticity.

We may briefly indicate the contents of the volume which will show the line our accomplished author takes in his discussion of the subject. After an introduction, in which he states the question, refers to the controversy, and gives a short account of some of the leading Continental assailants of this gospel, he treats in chapter i. of the “Life of John,” and in chapter ii. of the “ Genuineness of the Gospel,” proving it from the fourfold testimony, (1) of the gospel itself, (2) of tradition, (3) of the writers of the early Church, and (4) of herétics and others. In chapter iii., he very effectively disposes of the argument against the Johannine authorship, drawn from the “Silence of the historian Eusebius" on the point: and in chapter iv., he takes up in detail the various “objections” that have been brought by hostile critics against the gospel's genuineness. Chapter v. is devoted to a discussion of the hypothesis of “mediate authorship,” which would ascribe the matter to John, but the composition to another and later hand. And, in the three concluding chapters, he considers the “time and place of composition," the “ design of the gospel,” and several other topics bearing upon the question. From the opening paragraph of the last chapter we take the following, on the preciousness of this part of Holy Writ; and conclude with again expressing our high estimate of the volume, and the hope that it may find

many readers and be greatly blessed as a “defence of the gospel":

“ St. John's Gospel, whose apostolic authorship we have endeavoured in the preceding pages to examine and establish, is one whose preciousness cannot be over-estimated. It has been with thousands in all ages the favourite Gospel, and to it men of all religious tendencies, however diverse and dissimilar, have turned with fondness and appreciation. The more closely we consider its contents, the more will we be convinced that no estimate we may form of it can be regarded as excessive. The heavenliness of its doctrines, the spirituality of its utterances, the sublimity of its style and tone, entitle it to the first rank in evangelical narra tive. Though we have no intention of elevating the fourth Gospel at the expense of the Synoptists, yet we think we may safely affirm that it reveals to us deeper and more divine things, encircles us with higher and more heavenly influences, and inspires us with richer and more animating hopes, and that the light that comes from its pages shines with a clearer and a brighter radiance. The other Gospels show us the way to the holy city, but John's gives us a glimpse of the glory that is within. They carry us from strength to strength till we appea - before God in Zion, but John's introduces us at once into the Holy of Holies.

AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS. The Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell, D.D., LL.D. By B.

M. Palmer, D.D., LL.D., 8vo. pp. 614. Richmond, S.C. 1875. The late Dr. Thornwell, of Columbia, South Carolina, was one of the brightest lights of the Southern Presbyterian Church in America in his day. He deservedly occupied a station of the first importance, and exercised an influence most powerful and salutary on the ministry, and throughout the Church generally. As a persevering and successful student on many subjects—especially in Classics, Metaphysics, History, and Jurisprudence, he took a distinguished place at college; and afterwards throughout life-notwithstanding a weak physical system, and frequent bodily afflictions, which terminated in his death by consumption in the fiftieth year of his age, he prosecuted his studies with unabated vigour, and was acknowledged by those who knew him, as in many respects the first in his country and time, in those departments which he made peculiarly his own.

To original genius of a high order, he joined the most searchin investigation, and his mental habits ever displayed accurate judgment and discriminating taste. His acquaintance with English literature was extensive ; and his command of the purest style of English composition, and his fervid eloquence, fitted him as an editor and contributor to periodical literature-a professor, a preacher, and a member of ecclesiastical courts, to produce the most powerful and beneficial effects. Dr. Thornwell's habit was, from the earliest period of his student life, to have recourse to original sources, and to investigate every subject thoroughly; and, gifted as he was to a remarkable degree with powers of the keenest intuition and a refined taste,

he was enabled to present the subjects which he handled in the most vivid and attractive manner, so as to carry conviction and to excite admiration. For a time he was Professor, and afterwards President, of the College of Columbia, South Carolina. He was afterwards pastor for short periods in several important charges, and, during the last seven years of his life, Professor in the Theological Seminary. At different times he edited several periodicals, and had a chief part in originating and conducting the Southern Presbyterian Review, which yet maintains a deservedly high position among the ablest theological quarterlies of our day. Dr. Thornwell's articles, in many of the leading periodicals of his time, display singular fulness of research, and force of expression, and cogent reasoning, and had no small influence in forming and directing public opinion. His admirable * Collected Writings " issued from the Southern press since bis decease, in four massy volumes, contain expositions and defences of the Calvinistic system, Lectures, and Sermons, characterized by profound thought and moving eloquence, and controversial pieces which exhibit much critical acumen, rare candour, and fervent love of the truth. These memorials of a truly distinguished man cannot fail to impress every one who peruses them, whether he agrees with all the author's views or not, that Dr. Thornwell was no ordinary man, and to inspire the feeling of regret that he was removed by death so early, while his mental powers were in full vigour, and the work which he contemplated was yet unfinished. But thus it frequently happens in the dispensations of an all-wise Providence, that we may be impressively taught not to glory in man, and that God may be seen as in no wise indebted to human instrumentality for carrying on His own work in the earth.

In the venerable Dr. Palmer of New Orleans—his friend, fellowstudent, and at one time colleague, as a professor in the Theological Seminary, Dr. Thornwell has found an eminently suitable biographer. In all respects this full sketch of the life, character, and literary labours of this distinguished man is admirably written. Though we are not prepared to endorse every sentiment, either of the author or of the subject of the memoir, yet we are constrained to accord to the work the meed of high regard, and unaffected praise. The sketch of Dr. Thornwell's life, work, and character, is highly appreciative and laudatory, but certainly not more so than the subject requires. The Letters, of which a large number are contained in this volume—whether relating to important doctrines, or public questions, or the tokens of friendship and sympathy-form an admirable portrait of the mental and moral features of the writer. They are truly Cardiphonia” letters—utterances of the heart, giving throughout clear evidence of vigorous thinking, sound judgment, and of a tender, genial, devoted Christian spirit. The general review contained in the concluding chapter, of the life and character of Dr. Thornwell, in which he is regarded as an Editor, a Professor of Theology, a Philosopher, a Theologian, a Preacher, a Presbyter, a Christian, and a man, is in all respects admirable. It is not only a high tribute to the memory of rare departed worth, but it presents much that

is calculated to be of lasting benefit to ministers and others who are engaged in the public work of the Church. The closing paragraph of this review may be quoted as a specimen of the fine style of the meinoir :

“Dr. Thornwell's affections were warm and endearing. Lifted by his own greatness above temptation to jealousy, he rejoiced in the promotion of others. Generous in all his instincts, there was no sacrifice he would not make for his friends. Indulgent to his own household, he sought to make life's path less rugged to their feet, by smoothing over every disappointment, not permitting them to be annoyed by the anxieties of earth. Cherishing in his own soul the utmost loyalty to truth, and certain of her ultimate triumph, he was not soured when thwarted in his plans. In this way, the dew of his youth was never exhaled. He remained elastic and fresh to the last—no generous sentiment or instinct of his nature being withered by age. With such attributes, he had the power of all truly great men, of magnetizing those brought under his influence; and it must have been a very strong, or a very feeble nature, that did not yield to his attraction. He bound his friends to him by cords of love, which death itself has been unequal to break.

“He was one
The truest mannered : such a holy witch
That he enchants societies unto him ;

Half all men's hearts were his.” Such was the man whom the Church of God has not yet ceased to mourn ; such a man as Mr. Carlyle describes—"a great thinker who taught other men his way of thought, and spread the shadow of his own likeness over sections of the world's history. One so brave, so generous, so true, that admiration for his genius was lost in affection for the man. Alas! that death should have power to crush out such a life.”

SPLENDID BOOK ON BAPTISM, in Four Vols. By James W. Dale, D.D., Delaware, Pennsylvania.

1. Classic Baptism; II. Judaic Baptism; III. Johannic Baptism ; IV. Cbristic and Patristic

Baptism. It would be difficult, even in a lengthened review, to convey to the readers of this Magazine any adequate idea of the immense labour and research which these volumes display, and of the singular ability with which the author successfully grapples with and overturns the principal arguments of Baptist writers in reference to their grand position that Baptism relates only to the mode and is alone performed by immersion. In perusing any of these volumes, one is altogether amazed at the thorough acquaintance which the author discovers with the exact meaning and application of the original termswhether verbs, nouns, particles, or phrases--at the full knowledge which he manifests of the writings of antiquity, whether Classic, Jewish, or Patristic-of scriptural expressions and usages, and of whatever Baptist theologians have brought forward in support of their favourite dogma. There is, indeed, no philological treatise on the subject in our language to be compared with it; it displays a complete mastery of the subject, and is most convincing and exhaustive. With scholarly fidelity, and great diligence, the author has investigated the radical import of the term Baptizo, with its derivations, and has shown its diversified applications. All candid persons who are capable of forming a judgment on the subject must admit that he has demonstrably shown that the word cannot mean, in the Baptist sense, to immerse,

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