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departments of life. We have no respect for the man who is nothing more than a theoriser, and the self-important, obstinate empiricist is not more entitled to esteem. What are all the well-ascertained facts of science, or the deductions naturally and incontrovertibly drawn from them, but doctrines to be firmly believed until at least they are disproved? And what are the useful arts in all their departments, but the practical application of these principles or doctrines? There is no divorce of belief in doctrine, from practical action in any of the other walks of life, professional or commercial. We find no trace of it in the legal profession. Before a man is allowed to practise as a solicitor, or as an advocate, he must undergo a regular course of training in the different departments of law, and bis knowledge of the general principles and the application of these to particular cases is thoroughly tested. The advocate entrusted with the defence of another, does not proceed in a haphazard way, or depend upon the inspiration of the moment, or upon the favourite opinions of the multitude. No, he acquaints himself with the clearly defined, and universally recognised principles of law bearing upon the case, and then by the correct application of these to the different facts elicited in the course of investigation, he endeavours to establish the position of his client. Without a definite and acknowledged standard he could not, and he would regard it presumptuous even to attempt to proceed one step. Further, we find no trace of it in the medical profession. Here likewise a systematic course of training in the principles and practice of surgery and medicine is indispensable to being allowed to practise as a surgeon or physician. And the whole practice is conducted in accordance with the principles of the school of medicine in which the practitioner has been trained. Nay more, a medical adviser is chosen in many instances according to the school with which he identifies himself, it may be Allopathy or Homeopathy. Were a man attempting to palm himself off as a physician without having passed through the regular curriculum, or without having been certified as versed in the principles and practice of medicine, he would be despised. Hence quackery in all its forms is looked upon with contempt, both by the profession and by society. In like manner, in all the departments of mercantile life, in banking, in agriculture, in navigation, system or doctrine, and practice invariably go together, for the very obvious reason, that in no case in ordinary life can they be separated. In the name of common sense then we ask, why is the attempt so generally made to sever them in the highest form of life, in the most dignified of all employments, the service of God? Is it because they are separated in fact, or even separable? Nay, and we make bold to add, without fear of laying ourselves open to the charge of being uncharitable, that it is the wish more than the sincere conviction of those who give expression to such a sentiment. The conclusion is inevitable, that just as knowledge of, and belief in, certain theories in law, or medicine, or mercantile life, is followed up by a corresponding practice, so a real heart acquaintance with, and belief in, the great leading doctrines of revelation, such as, the being and attributes of God, the Trinity, the Fatherhood, the Eternal Sonship of Christ, the Personality and Work of the Holy Spirit, the Atonement, &c., cannot but exercise an influence upon the outward life corresponding with their heavenly and divine nature.
Secondly,-- It is opposed to the whole teaching of Scripture. This might almost be inferred from the foregoing, inasmuch as whatever is manifestly opposed to the dictates of sound reason, and to the universally recognised principles by which the concerns of ordinary life are regulated, is not likely to be supported by revelation. But we are not left to mere inference on the subject. Throughout the whole Book of God the sentiments under review meet with explicit and emphatic condemnation. Here, faith and life, doctrine and duty, are indissolubly joined together. Nowhere throughout the whole compass of revelation do we find even a shadow of countenance given to the idea, that man may live independent of law, and yet be right—that reason and conscience are safe guides that any action is right, if it be but done conscientiously. In opposition to all this, with an emphasis that cannot be resisted, God's Word declares, “The carnal mind is enmity against God, is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.'' And Jesus says, “ Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free;" clearly implying that a knowledge of revealed truth lies at the foundation of all true freedom. And that this union ofa heart knowledge of the truth and a religious life, harmonises with the general terms of Scripture teaching that the one is necessary to the other, that the life is attained only in so far as the doctrine is embraced, will
evident from the following Scripture illustrations. As early as God's transaction with our first parents in Eden we find the two associated. God laid down in definite, systematic form, what was required of them in order to the continued life and happiness of them and their posterity. Like our modern progressionists, however, they were not to be fettered by any such restricted line of duty. Setting aside doctrine, they did what was right in their own eyes, and Fe know the terrible consequence of this first case of severance of life from law. They acted upon the advice of Satan, and he is the prime mover in all similar conduct still. Coming farther down in the early history of the world, we find that Moses, the typical
mediator between God and Israel, and Israel themselves, had no idea of a holy life apart from a divinely prescribed course of action. Thus in Exodus xxiv. 3, it is said, “And Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord, and all the judgment: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, all the words which the Lord hath said will we do.” The liberal men of our day would have answered Moses differently.
In accordance with their avowed views, they would have said, “We are not to be bound by this prescribed line of conduct, or fettered by such restrictions.” “We may maintain a religious walk independent of such forms." This may be Broad-Churchism, but it is not true Churchism, if we believe the Church to be built upon
the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner stone. Moses again said, in addressing Israel: “These words which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart: And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up” (Deut. vi. 6, 7). In confirmation of the same truth, the following admonition was addressed to Moses in view of his making the tabernacle, “See that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.” He was not allowed to depart even a hairbreadth from the prescribed form. What bigotry! our modern men of progress no doubt would have exclaimed. Some latitude might have been allowed to encourage the exercise of man's inventive faculties. What about the prescribed pattern if the erection of the tabernacle be accomplished? Moses, however, had no other course left, if he would enjoy the continued favour of God, than do exactly as he was instructed, or in modern phraseology, act the bigot. His successor Joshua pursued a similar policy. David speaks of the blessedness of the man who walks in the law of the Lord, and that keeps His testimonics. Again, he says--I have chosen the way of truth, thy judgments bave I laid before me (Ps. cxix. 30). God's truth, God's judgments he laid down as the basis of his outward conduct. He felt he was only right in heart and life, in so far as he conformed to these, and wrong in so far as he deviated from them. Similar is the testimony and practice of all Old Testament saints. Turning to the New Testament we find testimony and experience no less explicit in confirmation of the truth we have been endeavouring to establish. The exponents of the false views under consideration, and all their followers, are completely discarded by Christ and His apostles. What could be more decided in condemnation of their sentiments, than the following language of the Divine Redeemer, “If a man love me, he
will keep my words” (John xiv. 23). Addressing His disciples, He says, “If ye love me, keep my commandments" (John xiv. 15). “Ye are my friends if ye do whatsoever I command you” (John xv. 14). In these sayings of our Lord, not only are doctrine and life set forth as inseparable, but as mutually dependent. Where there is love to Christ, it will manifest itself in the keeping of His words, and on the other hand, where there is a strict adherence to, and obedience of the law, it necessarily presupposes love to Him. In illustration of the same, witness the great doctrine of justification by faith propounded and confirmed in Paul's letter to the Church at Rome; the priesthood and sacrifice of Christ, established in the letter to the Hebrews; and in both these, doctrinal teaching is followed by earnest counsels to give heed to the practical duties of a religious life. In both they are introduced and illustrated as standing in the indissoluble relation of antecedent and consequent. Further evidence is furnished, in the pathetic appeals and pointed exhortations contained in the Word, urging adherence to doctrine, as absolutely essential to a consistent Christian life. Take, for instance, the doctrine which is according to godliness (1 Tim. vi. 3), and what is the meaning of this, but that the doctrine has practical godliness as its necessary outcome, and that it is not possible to have a godly life, save in the way of receiving into the heart Scripture doctrine ? See also (Heb. vi. 1), “Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection : not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith towards God, of the doctrine of baptisms and of laying on of hands, and of the resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment." Does not this clearly show the close connection between principles of doctrine and spiritual life? Paul thus exhorts Timothy, “ Take heed unto thyself and unto the doctrine, continue in them, for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear thee.” Here also is clearly established the indissoluble union of sound doctrine and real spirit ual culture. We have thus shown, that the tendency of modern times to dissociate the religious life from Christian doctrine is subversive of the principles of sound reason, and of divine revelation ; in other words, that it is unreasonable and unscriptural; hence it of necessity follows, that belief in sound doctrine is necessary to life, and wherever life exists, doctrine lies at the foundation of its enjoyment.
Thirdly,—It is destructive of man's highest interests. This might almost be regarded as a self-evident truth. If a man pursue a course of life, which as we have shown is directly antagonistic the dictates of sound reason, to those principles the following out of which is indispensable to the right regulation of society, and to the teaching of Scripture, how is it possible for his spiritual and eternal interests to be furthered ? Let his temporal interests be so dealt with, and he will find that neither his bodily health nor his business will thrive, yea, that the ruin of both would inevitably follow. For instance, let him act in direct opposition to the ordinary laws of health; let him carry his principles of proud independence so far as to sneer at, and set aside as unworthy of notice, the principles of natural law, bearing upon self preservation, and in accordance with this resolution of his self-will, disregard all hygienic regulations, and shut himself up in an airless cell, or refuse to partake of sound and wholesome food for the nourishment of the body, or take some poisonous substance in its place, and in either case, the death of the body would be the result. Let a man of business, or a professional man, act independently of the laws of business, or the profession to which he may belong, and the consequence would be, the ruin of his whole worldly prospects. In like manner, if any one set aside the revealed will of God in the matter of his salvation, and put his own will in its place, if he ignore the divine prescription for the healing and saving of the soul, and resort to human expedients, if he regulate his life by the spirit of the age, and not by the mind and will of the Spirit of God, the result will be the eternal ruin of both soul and body. Such is the position of those who sneer at, and ruthlessly set aside the clearly revealed doctrines of grace, imagining they have within themselves, or intuitively all that is necessary to conduct them through life, and fit them for the joys of heaven. God calls in His Word, and they refuse, He stretches out His hand in the overtures of mercy, but they will not regard; but He will yet “laugh at their calamity, and mock when their fear cometh.” We conclude by stating Christ's view of the conduct of those who act upon the principles we have been combating, and also of the treatment such conduct merits, and will assuredly receive. “In vain they do worship Me, teaching for doctrines, the commandments of men (Matt. xv. 9). “But those Mine emenies that would not that I should reign over them, bring them hither and slay them before Me" (Luke xix. 27).
IS REDEMPTION ESSENTIAL TO SALVATION ?
BY JOHN ROBINSON, TEACHER, LANARK. The proposition whose truth we seek in this paper, by God's grace, to demonstrate, is to be found in the Westminster Confession of Faith, Chap. X., Sect. 4, and last clause of that section, “Much less can men, not professing the Christian religion, be saved in