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that were in Syria; and joined bis army with' that Year of of Brutus, in opposition to the establishment of the Rom6 Triumvirate. In this doubtful situation of affairs, ?12" Virgil seems to have acted with great caution: for though the Daphnis cannot well be imagined to have been written in honour of any other person, than that of the great Caesar (z); yet he prudently suppresses his name; and describes him under the character of aHerdman.
Brutus and Cassius, having joined their armies, marched into Macedonia, and encamped at Philippi; where they waited for Caesar and Anthony, who came against them with joint forces; Lepidu's staying at Rome, to keep all quiet there. The adverse armies did not long continue in sight of each other, before they came to an engagement. The battle was fought with great fury, and various fortune: but at last the victory fell to the Triumvirs. Brutus and Camus, seeing all lost, flew themselves: Porcia, the daughter of Cato, and wife of Brutus, killed herself by swallowing a burning coal: most of the principal persons, who had either borne offices, or been concerned in the murder of Caesar, fell upon their own swords: but the soldiers, upon promise of indemnity, came over to the Triumvirs.
This decisive battle was fought at the latter end of the year of Rome 712: and as Lepidus had no hand in it, the whole glory Of it redounded to Caesar and Anthony. These two therefore began immediately to take upon them the disposition of pub
(2) Donatus fays, that Vir- death of the latter, under the $ had two brothers; Sila, name of Daphnis. But the who died young, and Flaccus, improbability of this story is who died after he was grown shewn, in the notes oh that UP: and that he lamented the Eclogue.
Year of lick affairs: and to avoid all altercation, they drew Rome Up a writing between them, in which it was agreed, '*2' that Caesar should have Spain and Numidia, and .Anthony Gaul and Africa; but on condition, that if Lepidus was discontented he should have Africa (a). They forbare to divide the other provinces; because Sextus, the son of Pompey, was in posies.fion .of Sardinia and Sicily; and the rest were not yet quieted. It was agreed also, that Anthony should quash all rebellions, and provide the money, that was promised to the soldiers: and that Caesar should take care of Lepidus, if he should offer to stir; and that he should also manage the war against Sex-tus Pompey; and lastly, that he should take care to divide the lands, which had been promised to the veteran soldiers. Caesar also was to deliver two of his legions to Anthony; and instead.of them, to receive two of Anthony's, which were in Italy. These articles being signed and sealed * Anthony marched into Asia, and Caesar returned to Italy. Caesar made what haste he could, and came the nearest way to Italy, going on board at Dyrrachium, and landing at Brundusium (b). But he was taken so ill, during his, voyage, that it was currently: reported at Rome, that he was dead. This rumour occasioned great disturbances, which however were soon appeased by his safe return. .
Publius Servilius, and Lucius Anthony had the name of Consuls for the following ycdt: but in reality the whole government was administred by the latter; and by him chiefly under the direction of Fulvia. This Fulvia was the wife of Mark An, . thony; and the mother of Caesar's wife: she was
(a) Dio, lib. 48. (b) See the note on ver. 6. of the
a won woman of a most turbulent spirit; and slighting Year o Lepidus, on account of his indolence, took the Rome reins into her own hands, and would not suffer ei-' ther Senate or People to make any decree without her permission. At this time Caesar returned victorious from Philippi j and having performed those duties, which ancient custom required from success- 1 ful warriors, he began to enter upon publick business, a considerable part of which was the division of the promised lands amongst the veterans. Lucius Anthony and Fulvia, being allied to him, behaved peaceably at first: but that lady's fiery temper soon brake out, and kindled the flame of a new civil war.. Fulvia and her brother complained, that Caesar did not permit them to divide the lands, which belonged to Mark Anthony; and Caesar, that the legions, were not delivered to him, according td the agreement made at Philippi. Their quarrel grew to such a heighth, that Caesar, being no longer able to bear the insolence of Fulvia, dn vorced her daughter; taking an oath, that (he still remained a virgin. There was now no longer any shadow of agreement between them: Lucius, being wholly guided by Fulvia, pretended to do every thing for the fake of his brother; having assumed, on that account, the surname of Pius. But Caesar laid the whole blame on Fulvia and Lucius, not accusing Mark Anthony in the least degree: charging them with acting contrary to his inclination, and attempting to assume a particular power of governing to themselves. Each party looked upon 'ste division of the lands, as a great step ro power; and therefore this was the principal subject of their contention. Caesar was desirous, according to the agreement made after the battle of Philippi, to dirt 'vide
Year of vide the lands amongst the soldiers of Anthony, a8 Rome wej| as own . tjlat ke mignt have it in his power,
7 * to lay an obligation upon them all. Fulvia and Lucius were no less sollicitous to have the fettling of those of Anthony, that they might avail themselves of their strength: and both of them were of opinion, that the readiest way was to divide the goods of the unarmed proprietors among the soldiers. But when they found, that great tumults were raised by this division of the lands, and that Caesar began to incur the hatred of the people; they changed their plan; and endeavoured to gain all the injured to their party. At this time Rome was rilled with the complaints of great multitudes of people, who being dispossessed of their estates, flocked thither, in hopes either of restitution,.^ of being able to give some more favourable turn to their affairs by raising tumults. It is the general opinion, that Virgil went to Rome amongst the rest of his countrymen, and that being introduced to Caesar, he obtained an order to have his lands restored. It has been already observed, that Virgil was probably known to Pollio, a year before this distress happened: we may therefore venture to suppose, that the Poet was recommended by him to some of the favourites (c) of Caesar, as a person of extraordinary genius for poetry. This division of the lands, and the melancholy condition of those,
(c) The person, to whom Vare tuum nomen, superat Vi rgil was recommended by modo Mantua nobis,
Pollio, seems to have been Va- Mantua vae miserae nimium
we find our Poet addressing Cantantes sublime ferent ad fi-
who were forced to gitfe up their estates to the sol- ' Year of' dtov is the subject of the Tityrus. This Eclogue,'- KojTM1' which is usually placed first, though plainly not the • first in order of time, cbntairis a dialogue between' Tityrus and Meliboeus, two shepherds; the latter of whom represents, in a very pathetical manner, the miseries of those, who were obliged to quit their country, and make room for the intruding soldiers. The former expresses the great happiness he enjoyed in being restored to his estate, by the favour of a young man (d), whom he declares, that be will always esteem as a deity (e). This yomng man can be no other, than Caesar, who at that time took upon him the distribution of the lands. His adopted father was already received Into the number of the Gods, whence young Caesar assumed the title of Dtiu Julii' fi&us. Tityrus therefore flatters his great benefactor, as if he was already a deity. This extraordinary favour, above the rest of his neighbours, was without doubt owing to hw Ml in Poetry: for "we ate told expreslly, in the Moeris, that he was said to have preserved his lands by his verses (f). It seems most probable, that it was she Daphnis, which he had written the year before, on the deification of Julius Caesar, that recommended him to the favour of his adopted son. But we are told, that our Poet's joy was but short: for when he returned to take possession of his farm, he was violently as&ulted by the intruder, and would
(d) Hie ilium vidi jirraiem, Meliboee, quotannis , ,
Bis sends Cui nostra iJies'altaria fumant,
Saepe tenor nostris. abovilibus imbuet agnus.
d 2 have