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who died after he was grown Thewn, in the ne
that were in Syria ; and joined his army with that Year of of Brutus, in opposition to the establishment of the Rome Triumvirate. In this doubtful situation of affairs,
712. Virgil seems to have acted with great caution : for though the Daphnis cannot well be imagined to have been written in honour of any other person, than that of the great Caesar (2); yet he prudently fuppresses his name ; and describes him under the character of a Herdman.
Brutus and Cassius, having joined their armies, marched into Macedonia, and encamped at Philippi; where they waited for Caesar and Anthony, who came against them with joint forces ; Lepidus staying at Rome, to keep all quiet there. Thê adver se armies did not long continue in fight of each other, before they came to an engagement. The battle was fought with great fury, and various fortune : but at last the victory fell to the Triúinvirs. Brutus and Cassius, seeing all loft, flew themfelvés : Porcia, 'the daughter of Cato, and wife of Brutus, killed herself by swallowing a burning coal : most of the principal perfons, who had either borne offices, or been concerned in the murder of Caesar, fell upon their own swords : but the foldiers, upon promise of indemnity, came over to the Triumvirs.
This decisive battle was fought at the latter end of the year of Rome 712: and as Lepidus had no hand in it, the whole glory of it redounded to Caefar and Anthony. These two therefore began immediately to take upon them the disposition of pub
(z) Donatus says, that Vir- death of the latter, under the gil had two brothers; Silo, name of Daphnis. But the who died young, and Flaccus, improbability of this story is
notes on that up: and that he lamented the Eclogue.
Year of lick affairs : and to avoid all altercation, they drew Rome
up a writing between them, in which it was agreed, 712
that Caesar should have Spain and Numidia, and Anthony Gaul and Africa; but on condition, that if Lepidus was discontented he should have Africa (a). They forbare to divide the other provinces ; because Sextus, the son of Pompey, was in poffeffion of Sardinia and Sicily; and the rest were not yet quieted. It was agreed also, that Anthony should quash all rebellions, and provide the money, that was promised to the soldiers : and that Caefar should take care of Lepidus, if he should offer to ftir; and that he should also manage the war against Sextus Pompey; and lastly, that he should take care to divide the lands, which had been promised to the veteran soldiers. Caefar also was to deliver two of his legions to Anthony; and instead of them, to receive two of Anthony's, which were in Italy. These articles being figned and sealed; Anthony marched into Asia, and Caesar' returned to Italy. Caesar made what haste he could, and came the nearest way to Italy, going on board at Dyrrachium, and landing at Brundufium (). But he was taken so ill, during his voyage, that it was currently reported at Rome, that he was dead. This rumour occasioned great disturbances, which however were foon appeased by his fafe return.
. Publius Servilius, and Lucius Anthony had the name of Confuls for the following year : but in reality the whole government was administred by the latter ; and by him chiefly under the direction of Fulvia. This Fulvia was the wife of Mark Anthony; and the mother of Caesar's wife : she was
(a) Dio, lib. 48. eighth Eclogue,
(b) See the note on ver. 6. of the
2 woman of a most turbulent spirit ; and flighting Year of Lepidus, on account of his indolence, took the Rome reins into her own hands, and would not fuffer ei
713. ther Senate or People to make any decree without her permission. At this time Caesar returned victorious from Philippi'; and having performed those duties, which ancient custom required from successful warriors, he began to enter upon publick business
, a considerable part of which was the division of the promised lands amongst the veterans. Lucius Anthony and Fulvia, being allied to him, bet haved peaceably at first: but that lady's fiery temper foon brake out, and kindled the flame of a new civil war. Fulvia and her brother complained, that Caefar did not permit them to divide the lands, which belonged to Mark Anthony; and Caesar, that the legions, were not delivered to him, according to the agreement made at Philippi. Their quarrel grew to such a heighth, that Caesar, being no longer able to bear the insolence of Fulvia, divorced her daughter ; taking an oath, that the still remained a virgin." There was now no longer any shadow of agreement between them : Lucius, being wholly guided by Fulvia, pretended to do every thing for the sake of his brother'; having affumed, on that account, the surname of Pius. But Caefar laid the whole blame on Fulvia and Lucius, not accusing Mark Anthony in the least degree: charging them with acting contrary to his inclination, and attempting to affume a particular power
governing to themselves. Each
upon the division of the lands, as a great step to power ; and therefore this was the principal subject of their contention. Caesar was desirous, according to the agreement made after the battle of Philippi, to di
Year of vide the lands amongst the soldiers of Anthony, as Rome well as his own : that he might have it in his power, 713
to lay an obligation upon them all. : Fulvia and Lucius were no less sollicitous to have the settling of those of Anthony, that they might avail themfelves of their strength: and both of them were of opinion, that the readiest way was to divide the goods of the unarmed proprietors among the foldiers. But when they found, that great tumults were raised by this division of the lands, and that Caesar began to incur the hatred of the people ; they changed their plan; and endeavoured to gain all the injured to their party. At this time Rome was filled with the complaints of great multitudes of people, who being difpoffeffed of their estates, flocked thither, in hopes either of restitution, or of being able to give some more favourable turn to their affairs by raising tumults. It is the general opinion, that Virgil went to Rome amongst the rest of his countrymen, and that being introduced to Caesar, he obtained an order to have his lands testored. It has been already observed, that Virgil was probably known to Pollio, a year before this distress happened : we may therefore venture to suppose, that the Poet was recommended by him to some of the favourites (c) of Caefar, as a person of extraordinary genius for poetry. This division of the lands, and the melancholy condition of those,
(c) The person, to whom Vare tuum nomen, fuperat Virgil was recommended by modo Mantua nobis, Pollio, feems to have been Va- Mantua vae miserae nimium rus : for, in the ninth Eclogue,
vicina Cremonae ; we find our Poet addresting Cantantes sublime ferent ad lihimself to Varus, and intreat dera cycni. ing him to interpose in the prefervation of Mantua;
who were forced to give up their eflates to the fol- ' Year of
Rome' diers, is the subject of the Tityrus. This Eclogue,"
713. which is usually placed first, though plainly not the first' in order of time, contains a dialogue between! Tityrus and Meliboeus, two shepherds ; the latter of whom represents, in a very pathetical manner, the miseries of those,' who were obliged to quio their country, and make room for the intruding soldiers. The former expresses the great happiness he enjoyed in being restored to his estate, by the favour of a young man (d), whom he declares, that he will always esteem as a deity (e). This young man can be no other, than Caesar, who at that time took upon him the distribution of the lands. His adopted father was already received into the number of the Gods, whence young Caesar assumed the title of Divi Julii filius. Tityrus therefore flatters his great benefactor, as if he was already a deity. This extraordinary favourabove the rest of his neighbours, was without doubt owing to his skil in Poetry : for we are told expressly, in the Moeris, that he was said to have preserved his lands by his verses (f). It seems most probable, that it was the Daphnis, which he had written the year before, on the deification of Julius Caesar, that recommended him to the favour of his adopted fon. But we are told, that our Póet's joy was but short: for when he returned to take poffeffion of his farm, he was violently assaulted by the intruder, and would (d) Hic illum vidi juvenem, Meliboee, quotannis
Bis fenos cui noftra dies altaria fumant.
Pafcite ut ante boves, pueri, submittite tauros.
Saepe tener noftris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus. (f) Omnia carminibus veftruin fervaile Menalcan. d2