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And in the seventh;

"Nam memini Hefloncs visentem "regna sororis

"Protinus, hinc fuscis tristis dea H Laomedontiadem Priamum SaJa

"tollitur alis "mina petentem,

"Audacis Rutuli ad muros." "Protinus Arcadiae gelidos invisere

» fines."


I shall now consider some passages, "Mos erat Hesperio in Latio, quem which seem most naturally to be understood in the sense which Nonius Marcellus gives to the passage under consideration. In the third Aeneid we find,

"protinus urbes "Albanae coluerc sacrum."

Here Servius interprets it jugiter, itinde; and fays it is now an adverb of time. He gives the fame sense to

"-*■ — —r trajecto missa lacerto "Protinus hasta fugit,"

in the tenth.

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"Haec loca vi quondam, et vasta

"convulsa ruina, "Tantum aevi longinqua valet

"mutare vetustas, *' Disfiluisse ferunt, euro protinus

"utraque tellus Unaforet."

"Protinus Antaeum et Lycam, pri

ma agmina Turni "Persequitur." And,

Here Servius interprets protinus, continua; and lays it is an adverb qf of place. Ruaeus also interprets it fine intermijjione; Virgil is here "Haec ubi dicta dedit, caelo fe speaking of the supposed disruption "protinus alto of Sicily srdm the continent of Italy,

"Mint," in the sense already given, to which it is said to have been formerly joined: cum protinus utraque tellus una fo'ret, that is, when both lands were absolutely one. , In the sixth,

"—-' '.~ ^7- Qmn protinus omnia "Perlegerent oculis,"

can hardly be understood in any other fense. Ruaeus interprets it, *'k At VErO Trojani alterius perA-4 "lustrassent

Lastly in the eleventh "r;V

"Protinus Orsilochum et Buten, "duo maxima Teucrum

K Corpora: fed Buten advei •« pide fixit."

, In the eighth Aeneid1, Servius interprets protinus, at one and the r

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In the following passage in the seventh, , • . • i. , . ,. ■■.

"Tartarcam intendit vocem, qua »••'. "protinus omrte: r\Contremait nemus,"

protinus may be understood to mean either valde, longe, or Jiathn; Ru•aeus interprets it in the latter sense. Dr Trapp trahflate6 it suddenly. I should, rather interpret it, "-the "whole forejl trembled greatly, or •if? throughout;" or emphatically, all the wholessrefitrembled.

In the ninth Aeneid, Turnus boasting of his superiority over the Trojans, fays, ": t:

-ft .r~ ~- Addant k protinus omnes *.' Etrufcifocio&•" . ....',.

Tbat is, emphatically, let every man of the Tuscans add himself to the numfyr. Servius indeed. tells us, that ;srpme interpret profinui, licet in this place. Ruaeus interprets it Jiatim: but the fense, which . I have here given it, seems the most natural. There remains, I tbink, but one passage more to be considered. It is-also in the ninth book; where the Poet is speaking of the numbers slain by Euryalus and ,Nifus, Among these he

ListinAsq, \

omnia and great part of the night in play <; and adds, - -VI!.

"— — Felix, {\ protinus ilium ft Aequaffet necti ludum, in l'ucem"que tulisset.''"

Here Servius fays, protenus is put for porro tenus or continua, which is peculiar to Virgil. Ruaeus also interprets it continua. But surely it would be better to translate, this passage, happy, had he but made his play absolutely or entirely equal to the night, and contititted . it it[l morning.. ,,;.».« ;,\,

, Having thus considered the word in all the places where Virgil has made use of it, l ean by no means assent to Servius and his followers, who interpret it porro tenus or continua, which Servius himself fays is peculiar to Virgil. And as there is not any one passage, where it may not be rendered otherwise, ,we may justly reject this singular interpretation. I rather incline to the opinion of Nonius Marcellus, that it is in this place an emphatical adverb, and means valde or omnino, in which sense it may well be 'under-stood in many passages of our Poet.

13. Duco. ] La Cerda would have us understand duco in this place to mean carrying on the shoulders. To con

firm this interpretation, he .quotes several authors, who mention. the ffiepherd's taking up the (heepon his shoulders. But all, or "most of them-, are Christians, and-allude to the Datable of the Good Shepherd in

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frequency of this custom. However not even one of these uses duco toexpress carrying on the shoulders. It certainly signifies to lead or draw. In the first fense it is used in the second Georgick, ver. 395. and in the .latter sense in many places. Ruaeus renders it trahs. Dryden translates ft,

"And-this you fee I scarcely drag


And E>r Trapp,

"And this," dear Tftyrus, I scarce v""with pain .." tt'£an drag along." V, ■ .'

>£5n.£onnixa.] Servius fays it is used for enixa, only to avoid an hiatus... La Cerda will have it to express a difficult delivery.; for which I do not find sufficient authority* 16';; Laeva.~\ Servius interprets it

Jlulta, cantraria. Sec. (the note on Yer. 7. of the fourth Georgick. .X&isSaepti finiftra, Use,} This

.^yfltsejris csf doubtful authority, not bfiing. to.he found in the most an+ cient manuscripts. Pierins found it added to.some copies in another hand. Jt istomitted in the printed copy of tfle.Madictan, in the Milan edition # 1481,!: in the Paris edition oif

1533, printed by Rob.Stephens, and in some other printed editions. Perhaps it was stuck in here by some transcriber, who took it. from the ninth Eclogue, where we read,

"Ante sinistra cava praedixit ab "ilice cornix."

19. Some read quls.

20. Urbem quam dicunt, l$c.\ Ti» tyrus, instead of answering directly who the deity is, deviates, with a. pastoral simplicity, into a description of Rome, ,•

XI. Huic nostrae.] Mantua, near which Virgil was bonv...

23. Sic canibus, £sV.] "He "means, that Rome differs front "other cities, not only in magni"tude, but also in kind, being, as "it were, another world, or a fort "of heaven in which he saw the "god Caesar. For in comparing a *' whelp to a dog, or a kid to a "goat, we only exprese the diffe"rence of magnitude, not of kind. "But, when we say a lion is bigger "than a dog, we express the dif"ference of kind aq well as of mag"nitude, as the Poet does now in "speaking of Rome. I thought "before, (ays he, that Rome was "to be compared with other cities,


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"just as a kid is to be compared "with it's dam: for though it was

greater, yet I took it to be only "a city: but now I find, that it

differs also in kind: for it is a ^' mansion 0/ deities. That this is "his meaning, is plain from

"Quantum lenta solent inter vi"burna cupressi,

*' For the wayfaring-tree is a low 1* shrub; but the cypress is a tall, 4t and stately tree." Servius.

26. Lenta —— viburna.'} The Viburnum or Wayfaring-tree is a Ihrub with bending, tough branches, which are therefore much used in binding faggots. ' The name is deJ*ived a viendo, which signifies to Hind. The ancient writers seem to Ifave called any shrub, that was fit for this purpose, viburnum: but the more modern authors have restrained that name to express only our Wayfaring-tree.

'-27. Et quae tanta, Tityrus having mentioned Rome, Meliboeus immediately asks him what was the occasion of his going thither: to xvhich he answers, that it was Liberty, which he did. not enjoy till he war grown oBy when Galatea forsook him, and he. gave himself up to Amaryllis. ■ • i'

Et quae.~\ Some read Ecquac.

28. Libertas.} The Commentators generally understand Tityrus to have been a slave; because he makes mention here of his being grown old before he obtained his liberty. But it is very plain that Virgil does not represent him in any such condition; for he is possessed of flocks and herds; and has a farm of his own; tua rura manebunt. The Poet therefore must mean by Liberty, either the restitution's the lands of Tityrus, or his releasement from the bondage of his passion for Galatea. It seems to be the latter; because we are told he had no.hopes of liberty, so long as Galatea retained possession of him. It will be objected perhaps, that Tityrus could have no occasion to go to Rome, to obtain a dismission from his affection to a mistress; and therefore this cannot be the liberty here mentioned. But to this it may be answered, that his having obtained his liberty, by shaking off the yoke of Gala'tea, was the cause of his going to Rome: for during his passion,for her, he neglected his affairs,. and lived expensively, sending great quantities of cattle and cheese to market, and yet not being the richer for it..

• - ...... i ••'

29, Can

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29. Candidior pojlquam, The Commentators, who generally affirm that Virgil describes himself under the name of Tityrus, are much confounded with this mention of his beard being grey, Virgil being but twenty-eight years old, when he wrote this Eclogue. Servius questions, whether it may not be a changing of the person, putting an old peasant in this place instead of Virgil; but he does not seem perfectly satisfied with this solution, and rather thinks, that the pointing should be altered, reading the passage thifl-j''

Liber&s, quae sera tamen respexit inertem

Candidior; postquam tondenti barba cadebat.

Thus candidior does not agree with iarba, but with libertas; and the sense, such as it is, will be Liberty, which, though I was slothful, looked more favourably at last, after my hard fell from the barber. But then 'he mention of the beard at all is superfluous, unless we suppose that they did not use the barber till' they were near thirty years old, which is not probable. Besides, if we should comply with Servius here in altering the pointing, we shall never be able to prove Tityrus to be a young man, since he is twice called expressly fe««, which cannot be strained to signify any thing but an old man. The same objection will be in force against Pomponius also, who will

have the candidior barba to mean the? first down on the chin. Besides, this will make Tityrus too young to represent a person of Virgil's age. La Cerda is of opinion, that as Virgil had represented himself under the character of a slave, he was obliged to suppose himself old too; because it was not usual to enfran-. chise their slaves, till they were old. I have shewn already, that Tityrus is not represented as a slave: therefore I need not give any answer to the latter part of the arguments though it would be easy to produce many instances of slaves being set at liberty before they were old. Ruaeus thinks, that the allegory is not every where observed, and concludes with Probus, that the Poet only takes the fame liberty in representing himself as an old man, that he does in making himself a shepherd, or in assuming* the feigned name of Tityrus. Catrou has found out a new solution of these difficulties! He has discovered that Virgil's father was yet alive, and tells us it was he that obtained the restitution of his lands, and therefore is represented with propriety as an old man; though I must confess, that I can hardly be persuaded to believe, that so decent a writer as Virgil, would have made his father call himself fool, as he does in two or three plates of this Eclogue. To conclude, the Commentators seem to think it necessary, that some one person should be represented under the name of Tityrus, and thereby lay themselves


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